Along with Brumfit, Brown ( 2000: 266 ) stated that: “ CLT is best understood as an attack non a method ” . Similarly, Richard and Rodgers ( 1986: 83 ) suggest that “ Communicative Language Teaching is best considered as an attack but non a method. CLT is non unified good among research workers ; that is, pedagogues do non mention to CLT as a alone instruction method, but it is used harmonizing to the contexts. The Functional- fanciful attack, the earlier version of CLT, led to the functional fanciful course of study which integrates the nucleus aims of the attack. In the Functional-notional attack, the map of a linguistic communication is important for forming elements of the foreign linguistic communication course of study. Grammar is merely taught to explicate assorted signifiers for certain maps ( Wilkins 1972 ; 1976, Canale & A ; Swain 1980 ) . In the functional- fanciful course of study, the “ communicative ” attack was used with “ functional ” attack and “ fanciful ” attack interchangeably. That is to state, linguistic communication maps are basic for planing the units of course of study like petition, denial, etc, and impressions like clip, location, etc ( Yoon, 2004 ) . While the Functional- fanciful attack has its peculiar course of study which is good defined among research workers, CLT has no incorporate course of study ; each course of study is different from pedagogue to educator ( Li, 1998 ) .
To clear up CLT more clearly, we may compare Brown ‘s definition of CLT and the traditional method, the grammar-translation ( Brown provides the definitions of the CLT, but he used the definition of the grammar-translation from Prator and Celce- Murcia ( 1973 ) ‘s one ) . The definitions of these two are summarized in Table 2.1:
Holliday ( 1994 ) provides two versions of CLT, weak version and strong version: The strong version focal points on larning the manner the linguistic communication works in discourse non on linguistic communication patterns. In the strong version, scholars work together and assist each other in communicative undertakings to work out linguistic communication jobs, non merely for communicating with braces without any acquisition attempt for the linguistic communication. Furthermore, since the intent of the strong version of CLT is non to pattern linguistic communication signifiers, the instructor plays no of import function to supervise the scholars ‘ group/ brace work. When pupils are able to pass on and bring forth utile premises about the linguistic communication, they become communicative ( Halliday, p 171- 172 ) .
To sum up, CLT attack has legion signifiers based on the specific focal point ; though research workers agreed with some common features: “ linguistic communication can non be learned through man-made units such as grammar, maps, or impressions in a discrete and additive manner, and nor can it be learned separated from linguistic communication usage ” ( Yoon, 2004 ; p. 6 ) ; besides Larsen-Freeman ( 1986: 132 ) describes the most obvious feature of CLT as that “ about everything that is done is done with a communicative competency ” . Li described CLT attack with word pictures in his article harmonizing to other research workers:
1 ) A focal point on communicative maps ;
2 ) A focal point on meaningful undertakings instead than on linguistic communication per Se, such as grammar or vocabulary ;
3 ) Attempts to associate undertakings to a mark group of scholars via genuine, realistic state of affairss ;
4 ) The usage of group activities ; and
5 ) The effort to make a secure, nonthreatening atmosphere. ( Li: 679 )
Therefore, most research workers agree that there is no individual method/syllabus for the CLT attack, it is necessary to specify what should be considered in using CLT, depending on bing fluctuations.
2.3 Independent Learning:
Introducing the construct of ‘independent larning ‘ is one of the major parts of Rogers ‘ ( 1969, 1983 ) thoughts on humanistic instruction.
Rogers ( 1969, 1983 ) contributes ‘independent larning ‘ as a chief thought on humanistic instruction. It implies that scholars can larn independently if appropriate conditions of lovingness, trust, support and counsel are given. Promoting pupils ‘ independent larning offers the scholars to keep the duty, capableness, and go autonomous, self motivated and life- long scholars. Rogers ( 1969 ) refers to independent acquisition as a attack that “ produces self- reliant scholars ” who are capable to command their ain determinations ( P: 9 ) . He used assorted constructs in respect to this: “ self- reliant ” , “ self- determined ” , “ self- initiated ” acquisition, “ ego directed ” , “ non- directional ” , “ experiential acquisition ” , “ self- chosen ” assignments, “ confidence ” , “ self- assurance ” “ self- rating ” , “ self- unfavorable judgment ” , “ ego betterment ” and “ self- disciplined ” ( see Rogers, , 1969 ) .
Offering scholars the chance to larn independently can be a good measure for steering them to go independent scholars.
2.4 Learner Autonomy:
Educationists emerged on the focal point on the developing scholars ‘ liberty as Cotterall ( 1995: 195 ) identified the scholar liberty: “ the extent to which scholars demonstrate the ability to utilize a set of tactics for taking control of their acquisition ” . Maslow ( 1970 ) described its features as “ self- determination, self authorities, being an active, responsible, self-restraining, make up one’s minding agent instead than a pawn, or impotently determined by others, being strong instead than weak ” ( P: 161 ) . Freire ( 1998: 98 ) emphasized it as a “ procedure of going oneself ” . Benson ( 1997: 29 ) shows that the learner autonomy “ implies the acknowledgment of the rights of scholars within educational systems ” . This precedence over the learner liberty makes Friere ( 1998 ) see it as an ethical jussive mood and a necessity which must be supported by both instructors and course of study.
This makes an chance for scholars to put suited aims, choose larning programmes, ways of direction and the standards for appraisal. In this respect, Macaro, ( 1997: 178 ) pointed out that instructors should be cognizant that promoting scholars to go independent scholars requires a alteration in the construction of schoolroom relationships sing the distribution of power and control. Cotterall ( 2000: 109 ) remarked that many linguistic communication instructors have shown involvement in integrating the rules of scholar liberty into their schoolroom pattern.
Lee ( 1998: 282 ) shows that scholars ‘ apprehension of independent larning outside schoolrooms can stop them in larning continuously after their school categories. Jones, ( 2007: 2 ) refers that instructors can develop scholars ‘ liberty by promoting them to delegate schoolroom acquisition activities and undertakings independently.
Choosing larning stuff is a important factor for the acknowledgment of scholars ‘ liberty. Offer schemes and larning undertakings for pupils can be benefit, whereas, the course of study which puts the whole duty on the instructor will ne’er ensue in developing pupils ‘ liberty. So, the course of study should depend on experiences which stimulate pupils ‘ decision- devising and personal duty ( Nunan, 1988 ) . This course of study needs incorporation of both instructors and scholars to account for the specifications of scholars ‘ societal context, civilization, anterior cognition and experience. For case, Benson ( 1997: 29 ) refers that needs “ the rights of the ‘non-native talker ‘ in relation to the ‘native talker ‘ within the planetary order of English ” . In Libya, pupils are non free to take their specialized Fieldss of survey. It is the determination of the Ministry of Education depending on run intoing certain standards to fall in a farther phase of survey.
2.5 The constituents of Foreign Language ( FL ) bringing:
The FL constituents contain Curriculum, textbooks, Materials, appraisal, preparation. The first constituent, Curriculum is defined by bookmans such as, ( Yalden, 1983 ; Richards 2001 ; White 2003 and Mapper 2006 ) as normally stipulating the purposes and aims of a class or a programme. It besides specifies content that is chosen to carry through those purposes, how the content is organized, and what sort of rating is set to mensurate whether the purposes and aims have been achieved. Based on the course of study ends and aims, suited textbook/materials are chosen.
These important constituents in linguistic communication programmes can be text editions and prepared stuffs: Materials serve as the footing for much of the linguistic communication input scholars receive and the linguistic communication pattern that occurs in the schoolroom. In the instance of inexperient instructors, stuffs may besides function as a signifier of instructor preparation, they explain lessons ‘ program and the manner they teach, Richards ( 2001: 25 1 ) Ellis ( 1992: 224 ) points that “ one manner of sing linguistic communication instruction stuffs is as devices for implementing a course of study ” . Richards ( 2001 ) adds that good stuffs are a pre-requisite for course of study success.
As the 3rd constituent of EFL bringing, appraisal complements curriculum ends and schoolroom bringing. It is the “ measuring of the ability of a individual or the quality or success of a instruction class ” ( Richards, Platt & A ; Platt 1992: 23 ) . It needs to be meshed with the course of study and textbook/materials for programme success. State ( 1996: 8 5 ) adds that appraisal is a manner of assisting the scholar make usage of the class and he notes that this entails careful observation of the scholar. He besides comments that appraisal can do alterations to the class for better consequences.
Assessment besides needs to stipulate who the scholars are, i. e. kids or grownups, and their present cognition every bit good as their demands and involvements ( State, 1996 ) . Harmonizing to Gipps ( 1994 ) in educational appraisal, criterions are set to measure students ‘ public presentation and promote them to believe instead than merely take from options or remember information. For illustration, appraisal can mensurate a student ‘s public presentation on concrete undertakings that are within the ability of the student. For Gipps appraisal helps us happen out more about the scholar ‘s advancement than a mere trial: What we need to cognize is that pupils have been taught, non the existent points in the trial, but the accomplishments and cognition measured by the trial, that is, , that the pupils have been taught the concept, non merely how to reply the points. ( 1994: 46 ) Compared to proving, appraisal is more comprehensive as it may include a trial, an interview, an observation, or a questionnaire to measure a pupil ‘s ability. A trial is given to mensurate the pupil ‘s ability at a certain clip but appraisal is on- traveling throughout the twelvemonth. For both, the purpose is to measure a pupil ‘s making, or whether a certain method or technique is working, or how to develop a class to assist the pupil do better. Savignon ( 1997 ) defines a trial by stating that:
A trial is a sample of behavior. On the footing of the ascertained public presentation elicited on a trial, illations are made about the more general implicit in competency of an single to execute similar or related undertakings. ( 1997: 210 ) .
Brown ( 1987 ) points out that an achievement trial is limited to peculiar stuff covered in the course of study within a specific clip. Gipps farther adds that accomplishment trials step pupils ‘ abilities to retrieve and use information that is learnt routinely. She believes that trials should mensurate understanding by inquiring pupils to utilize the cognition they have alternatively of merely remember it. For illustration, trials should inquire pupils about their cognition to work out a job or to use their cognition in a new context ( Gipps, 1994: 46 ) . State ( 1996 ) argues about how much the signifier of the inquiries on an achievement trial should fit the type of activities done in the schoolroom. This statement consequently is for a somewhat different manner of inquiring the inquiries based on the demand to assist scholars to reassign what they have learned to new state of affairss. Appraisal can find what to learn and how to learn, where instructors end up learning to the trial. Therefore, “ schoolroom activity is restricted to prove readying ” and “ educational alteration is limited by the power of the assessment machinery ” ( 2001: 216 ) . Cameron ( 2001 ) says that appraisal is necessary to supply feedback to instructors and scholars that would be difficult to acquire without it.
Appraisal can be divided into:
2.5.1 Summational Appraisal
Many authors criticized summational appraisal as no longer effectual for measuring pupils ‘ acquisition ( Bruner, 1960 ; Bernstein, 1971 ; Rogers, 1983 ; Boud, 1995 ; Freire, 1998 ) . For illustration, Bruner ( 1960: 30 ) comments it as a “ staccato manner and acquisition by rote ” . Bernstein ( 1971: 224 ) refers to it as being mainly replies.
Learners ‘ concern about appraisal and trials plays a important beginning for summational appraisal unfavorable judgment. Foster ( 1996: 76 ) identified summational appraisal: “ pre-specified response appraisal ” performed in assorted signifiers like: “ true/ false points, fill in spaces, multiple pick trials and short reply inquiries ” . It is a fact that such scrutinies are implemented in the signifier of appraisals in Libyan secondary schools. Fleming and Stevens ( 2004: 120 ) refer to this sort of appraisal as it gives small attending to instructors ‘ valuable opinions and uninterrupted appraisal of pupils ‘ acquisition and advancement.
In his empirical survey, Choi ( 2008 ) investigated the positions of 100 Korean pupils and 40 teachers on the impact of EFL standardised proving on EFL instruction in Korea. The consequences shows that the bulk of instructors and pupils were non satisfied with these trials as for the negative wash back affects their acquisition and learning. They pointed out that these trials are invalid to measure English proficiency and fix them to “ productive English accomplishments ” ( P: 39 ) .
Despite this consensus on the negative impact of summational appraisal on pupils ‘ acquisition, the oppositions of this signifier have failed to contrive more effectual and practical agencies for measuring pupils ‘ acquisition. Therefore, summational appraisal in signifiers of classs and scrutinies are still prevailing in the different states ( Li, 1998 ; Weimer, 2002 ; Remesal, 2007 ; Peterson & A ; Irving, 2007, Al-Nouh, 2008 ; Orafi & A ; Borg, 2009 ) . Libyan schools are one of these contexts ( Alhmali, 2007 ; Orafi & A ; Borg, 2009 ) .
2.5.2 Formative Appraisal
Formative appraisal was presented due to the deficiency of summational appraisal and as an alternate attack for measuring pupils ‘ acquisition. Formative appraisal informs scholars about their public presentation and creates chances for their contemplation on their ain actions. Assorted beginnings, such as, instructors, parents, equals or pupils themselves can supply pupils with formative feedback ( Foster 1996 ) . Boud ( 1995: 11 ) claimed that pupils “ are ever self measuring ” . Nicol and Macfarlane- Dick ( 2006: 200 ) claimed that implementing formative appraisal techniques could be effectual schemes for developing pupils ‘ self- ordinance acquisition. Using the two signifiers of formative appraisal ( self and peer appraisal ) becomes a common issue in the Hagiographas about the LCA ( Rogers, 1983 ; Brandes & A ; Ginnis, 1986 ; Baron, 1998 ; Blanche, 1988 ; Tudor, 1996 ; Lambert & A ; McCombs, 1998 ; Weimer, 2002 ; Geeslin, 2003 ) . For illustration, Rogers ( 1983: 88 ) shows his involvement about promoting pupils to measure themselves and their equals.
The feature of all signifiers of formative appraisal is involved in the active function of pupils during their public presentation of learner- centred appraisal undertakings. Baron ( 1998 ) stated some of these activities which pupils can execute during working on these undertakings: 1 ) formulate the jobs ; 2 ) brand and stipulate their premises ; 3 ) see different points of position ; 4 ) brand picks and determinations ; 5 ) activate anterior cognition of content and procedure ; 6 ) design and carry out an probe ; 7 ) collect, analyze and interpret informations ; 8 ) communicate consequences in authorship and orally ; 9 ) collaborate ; 10 ) state a whole narrative ; 11 ) self-assess the quality of their work utilizing a set of pre-specified standards ; 12 ) reflect on their ain work and the other groups ( Baron,1998: 221 ) .
Sing the relation between the two signifiers of formative appraisal, Boud ( 1995: 15 ) refers to the relationship between equal appraisal and peer feedback with self appraisal and suggested that the suited execution of them would well promote self appraisal. This was emphasized by Weimer ( 2002: 138- 143 ) who besides emphasised that the important function of implementing equal appraisal for pupils ‘ development of ego appraisal accomplishments.
Students ‘ ego rating is considered as a chief subject in Rogers ‘ “ person-centred ” attack ( see Rogers, 1983 ) . ( Foster, 1996 ) refers to “ person-centred ” attack as “ pupil self assessment ” . Self appraisal used by scholars to measure their ain proficiency. Foster ( 1996: 76 ) refers to some signifiers of pupil self assessment such as “ single alteration with specific standards, equal alteration with specific standards and portfolios with appraising remarks based on acquaintance with specific standards ” . Rogers ( 1969: 143 ) claimed that offering the scholars the duty for delegating their acquisition ends and rating would steer them to their ain waies. Oscarson ( 2009: 234 ) claimed: “ self-assessment can be one manner to make the ego ordinance acquisition ” .
Self appraisal schemes play an of import function for student- centred acquisition. Rogers ( 1983: 158 ) highlighted that promoting pupils to measure their ain acquisition is “ one of the major agencies by which self-initiated acquisition becomes besides responsible larning ” . Geeslin ( 2003: 865 ) refers to self appraisal as analogue to other instructional communicative ends of implementing student-centred acquisition in FL schoolrooms.
In their survey to research pupils ‘ perceptual experiences of ego appraisal, McDonald & A ; Boud ( 2003 ) found that the utility of this signifier was perceived by pupils for fixing them for their external tests and for developing their perceptual experiences of their callings. Empirical grounds conducted by Oscarson ( 2009 ) who emphasized the utility of using self appraisal in EFL schoolrooms.
Some advantages found in using self appraisal for the some aims: 1 ) it is a necessary accomplishment for womb-to-tomb acquisition ( Boud, 1995 ) ; 2 ) it enhances pupils ‘ motive and self-directive acquisition ( Lambert & A ; McCombs, 1998 ) ; 3 ) it contributes to self-empowerment and constitutes a signifier of learner-involvement ( Tudor, 1996 ; Rico, 2008 ) ; 4 ) it empowers pupils to put meaningful ends ( Tudor, 1996 ; Baron, 1998 ) ; 5 ) it provides one of the most effectual agencies for developing critical self-awareness ( Nunan, 1988 ; Brandes & A ; Ginnis, 1986 ) ; 6 ) it develops pupils ‘ ability to place their failings and troubles ( Nunan, 1999 ; Hunt,2001 ) ; 7 ) it fosters pupils ‘ creativeness in assorted facets of their acquisition including their engagement in schoolroom activities ( Tudor, 1996 ) ; 8 ) it helps scholars place preferable stuffs and ways of acquisition ( Nunan, 198 ) ; 9 ) it lightens the instructor ‘s burden in both practical and psychological footings ( Tudor, 1996 ) ; 10 ) it induces scholars every bit good as instructors to see appraisal as a common duty which is contributing to the democratic development of linguistic communication instruction ( Oscarson,1989 ) .
Ability for self-assess is an indispensable quality for independent scholars. Blanche ( 1988: 75 ) believed that “ self-assessment truth is a status for scholar liberty ” . This implies that implementing learner-centred instruction requires pupils ‘ good apprehension of self-assessment.
2.5.4 Peer Assessment
This is the other signifier of formative appraisal by which enables instructors to measure pupils ‘ acquisition in schoolrooms. Peer appraisal means spliting scholars in groups to transport out assessment undertakings by doing opinions on each other ‘s work. This signifier can be besides implemented in schoolrooms by leting pupils discuss their acquisition advancement with one another ( Brandes & A ; Ginnis, 1986 ; Boud, 1995 ; Tudor, 1996 ; Weimer, 2002 ; Nicol & A ; Macfarlane-Dick, 2006 ; Rico, 2008 ) .
This marks positive impact on pupils ‘ acquisition as it allows pupils exchange positions on the content of acquisition ( Brandes & A ; Ginnis, 1986 ) , it gives pupils chances for existent communicating and increase their assurance ( Hunt, 2001 ) , it sensitizes pupils to rating standards which enhances self-reflection ( Saito & A ; Fujita,2004 ) , and helps to travel from the traditional one manner teacher- to- pupil of rating to multi-route peer- to- equal rating ( Saito & A ; Fujita,2004 ) .
The 4th constituent is teacher developing programmes. In order to utilize the textbook/materials and to carry on appraisal in a best manner, teacher developing programmes are truly required ( Kreeft, 1997 ; Glatthom, Jones & A ; Bullock, ( 2006 ) . In add-on to pedagogical cognition, instructors need to be fluid talkers of English. The function of the university in instructor instruction has been discussed by some bookmans, for illustration, Gold ( 1999 ) who emphasized the importance of a theoretical background in teacher instruction: The educational impact of a university module on pupils appears to be most influential in the country of rational expertness where the focal point on thoughts and constructs about their instruction in bend additions their rational orientation ( 1999: 169 ) .
2.6 Teacher ‘s Roles in the CLT Classroom in an EFL context
Successful execution of CLT activities depends on the instructor as a major portion for commanding this method. It is emphasized that instructors with high eloquence and unwritten ability can promote and develop scholars ‘ involvements to take part in communicative activities. Successful execution of CLT activities required a high fluent instructor with unwritten ability. In EFL states, like Libya, where there is no English input outside the schoolroom. The chief attending is directed towards the instructor ‘s function as a cognition supplier.
Richards & A ; Rodgers ( 2001 ) besides specify the instructor ‘s functions in the CLT schoolroom: 1 ) demand analyst – instructors in the CLT schoolroom demand to analyse scholars ‘ acquisition manners, assets, ends, etc, and to supply CLT instructions such as group/ single work depending on the analysis consequences ; 2 ) counsellor: instructors should be effectual counsellors and communicators in CLT activities such as paraphrasis, verification, and feedback during CLT activities to promote the scholars to larn the linguistic communication efficaciously ; 3 ) group procedure director: instructors are responsible for steering, commanding and making the appropriate conditions for better communicating activities, Richards & A ; Rodgers ( 200: 167- 168 ) .
To sum up, following the research workers ‘ suggestion, the successful execution of CLT in existent instruction contexts depends to a great extent on teacher-related factors, particularly in EFL states ( Birdliming, 2001 ; Yian, 2001 ; Choi, 2000 ) .
2.7 Teaching Methods