The voices from a sample reading category in Persian high school that the research worker of this survey have taught there for near two decennaries, can demo the concealed jobs that induced this study.
Students sat attentively and waited for the instructor to state them how to continue in reading from the text edition. The instructor sat at his desk with pencil and rate book and called on each pupil in the category to orally read a paragraph of the transition. He put a class in his book each clip a pupil read. When the first pupil finished reading his paragraph, he put his caput down and went to sleep-he cognize his clip to execute in the category had come and gone. The following few pupils were numbering the paragraphs to see which was theirs ; when they found their paragraphs, they began to whisper audibly as they practiced reading their ain paragraphs. The instructor went around the room in this mode and called on pupils to read ; but he skipped over some pupils. They were the 1s that everyone knew could n’t read.
The Reading subject was “ The Other Side Of The Moon ” .Students had no apprehension of what was go oning in the category. They had no anterior cognition about the subject, and orally decrypting the print was n’t assisting them much that twenty-four hours. In add-on, there was no treatment of the subject, and pupils did n’t look to be truly listening to other pupils as they read. What could the teacher have done to better the state of affairs?
Teachers ‘ actions make a difference in how good a immature reader can measure what he or she reads.Jo et Al ( 1979: 49 ) “ The instructor who includes Critical Reading accomplishments as portion of the reading course of study ; who asks pupils inquiries that promote believing about the effectivity and truth of what they are reading ; who theoretical accounts behavior bespeaking to kids that everything they see in print is non needfully so ; and who remembers that the intent of learning any reading accomplishment is to promote reading will be more successful in annealing his or her pupils ‘ blind credence of the written word. ”
Varaprasad ( 1997 ) Critical Reading implies that pupils do non blindly accept the “ obvious ” statements in a text. They need to travel beyond disputing open statements to taking an self-asserting base against the text ‘s assumptions.p24
Reading and interlingual rendition have cardinal place in Persian current EFL text books Eslami-Rasekh & A ; Fatahi ( 2008 ) . Therefore the highlighted methods in most schools are combination of grammar-translation and audio-lingual methods Eslami-Rasekh ( 2004 ) . Goals of school course of study in Iran frequently include a statement of the desirableness of critical reading accomplishments ; nevertheless there is rarely a consecutive program for the development of these accomplishments below Pre- university degree. As for English linguistic communication learning in Iran, although many Persian EFL scholars have a good cognition of English grammar and vocabulary ; they still seem to hold serious jobs with geting the ability to read critically. Harmonizing to Koosha and Jafarpour ( .2006 ) ” This inefficiency seems to be, to some extent, due to the deficiency of definite reading schemes among Persian EFL pupils, and to a big extent, the unequal accent given to grammatical forms and text interlingual rendition in their text editions, and the type of instructions they receive ”
In Iran, English is taught as a foreign linguistic communication and is practiced within a context-restricted environment, in which the text edition and schoolroom instructor play the chief function. ( Wallace 2005 cited in Jun Zhang2009 ) has observed that in EFL reading categories pupils normally do non hold the chance to execute higher order believing undertakings ( e.g. , using, speculating, analysing, synthesising, comparing, and measuring what they read ) . Consequently, they do non larn to read critically, nor do they make appraising apprehension of the text and develop their thought ability. Oftentimes, pupils get frustrated and lose motive for independent reading because they are used to listening to instructors ‘ accounts. Again, as Wallace has stated, pupils have developed merely one strong “ reading scheme ” over the old ages: that of listening to the instructor explicating the text word by word, sentence by sentence. Because reading schoolrooms lack category interaction, pupils are non actively engaged in the meaning-making procedure or, at best, the procedure involves readers ‘ decryption of text. Therefore, the bing cognition of pupils is non efficaciously drawn out for the benefit of the whole category. There is a deficiency of profusion and diverseness in schoolroom activity.
Research among Persian High school and Pre-university EFL textbooks showed the research worker that the most frequent types of reading comprehension exercisings involve multiple pick points, true-false statements, and vocabulary work of the type that requires pupils to provide a equivalent word or opposite word for the words given. These undertakings have their virtues: they make it easy for instructors to look into whether their pupils understand the text at some superficial degree, and because they have merely one correct reply, they are besides easy to tag. However, there are grounds why they should non be used as the lone sort of reading activity in the schoolroom.
First, as Davies ( 1995 ) points out, they encourage inactive reading behaviour: to happen the reply to a inquiry, pupils have to turn up the information in the text.
Second, as Tomitch ( 2000 ) argues, such undertakings do non promote pupils to read between the lines or inquiry the veracity and beginning of the information contained in the text.
Third, these undertakings by and large refer merely to parts of the text, non to the text as a whole.
Finally, such undertakings are neither disputing nor fun, particularly for immature scholars.
What motivated this research were the ascertained jobs in EFL reading categories in Persian High school and pre-university centres. Furthermore, Critical Reading has non normally been a major focal point of learning and research in Iran and empirical research in critical reading has been limited chiefly to university degree. The research worker has considered the value of critical reading schemes and seek to show, through sample reading lesson, alternate possibilities for reading activities which, besides being more interesting for pupils, can assist them go more active, and more critical readers. The major benefit of the lesson on critical reading is the high degree of enthusiastic pupil engagement. This is attributable to some extent to the freshness of the undertaking they will execute: coming up with inquiries they thought would be answered in the text, instead than seeking to reply superficial comprehension inquiries or true-false statements prepared by the text edition author.