This paper will analyse the theory of Clause as Representation including treatment of types of procedure, participant and circumstance and their realisations, and suggest ways in which this facet of grammar might act upon English Language Teaching ( ELT ) class design.
The Nature of the Clause
In grammar, a clause is a brace or group of words that consists of a topic and a predicate ( Halliday & A ; Mattiessen, 1999 ) . A clause is different from a phrase. Clause could be dependent or independent. Dependent or comparative clause is derived from a “ basic construction ” ( Celce-Murcia & A ; Larsen-Freeman, 1999, p.571 ) . Normally, comparative clause can non stand entirely as a sentence. In contrast to dependent clause, independent or chief clause is a clause that can stand entirely. Main clause is synonymous to a simple sentence. In kernel, clause is the basic unit of significance in the English linguistic communication ( Stuart-Smith, 2003 ) . Either dependent or independent, a clause conveys a message. This paper, on the other manus, examines the comparative clause as a basic unit of a linguistic communication in relation to functional grammar, particularly in the conceptional metafunction degree. Here, the usage of the word clause will mention to dependent clause.
Examples of a Clause
The use of a clause in the different universe languages differs greatly. There are three identified dimensions of these differences: ( 1 ) place of the clause with regard to the caput noun or the noun being modified ; ( 2 ) how a clause is marked ; ( 3 ) the absence or presence of a pronominal physiological reaction ( Celce-Murcia & A ; Larsen-Freeman, 1999, p.573 ) . In the English linguistic communication, a clause follows the caput noun. For case, in the sentence, “ San Antonio is a metropolis that has experienced really rapid growing, ” the head-noun San Antonio precedes the italicized clause. To put the clause before the caput noun in a sentence sounds, if non ill-formed, awkward. Farsi and Arabic linguistic communications portion similar syntactic form in the clause use compared to most European linguistic communications. However, Nipponese and Korean linguistic communications do non adhere to the first dimension of the above-named clause use ( Celce-Murcia & A ; Larsen-Freeman, 1999, p.573 ) .
In the 2nd dimension, the English linguistic communication employs a comparative pronoun ( e.g. , who ) or demonstrative pronoun ( e.g. , that ) to tag that what follows is a clause ( Celce-Murcia & A ; Larsen-Freeman, 1999, p.573 ) . For illustration, “ I read the diary that you recommended. ” Or, “ I love the miss who appreciates poesy. ” The lines before the demonstrative and comparative pronouns are independent clauses that can stand as a sentence. The application of the pronouns that and who simply modify the caput nouns. Besides English, Persian and Chinese linguistic communications use other signifiers of markers placed between the caput noun and the clause. The presence or absence of the pronominal physiological reaction is the 3rd dimension along which languages differ in the clause use ( Celce-Murcia & A ; Larsen-Freeman, 1999, p.573 ) . In the sentence, “ Art called out to the miss that he knew, ” the “ that ” replaces “ the miss ” in the embedded sentence, “ he knew the miss. ”
Conceptional metafunction is one of the three cardinal functional constituents of a linguistic communication. Conceptional metafunction is chiefly concerned with the map that “ linguistic communication has of being about something ” ( Halliday & A ; Hasan, 1976 ) . In the yesteryear,
a theory of the cardinal maps of linguistic communication have been developed, in which lexicogrammar can be subdivided into 3 wide metafunctions, viz. : interpersonal, conceptional and textual. Each of these 3 trades with a different facet of the universe, and they are concerned with assorted manners of clause significances. “ The conceptional metafunction is about the natural universe in the broadest sense, including our ain consciousness, and is concerned with clauses as representations. The interpersonal metafunction is about the societal universe, particularly the relationship between talker and listener, and is concerned with clauses as exchanges. The textual metafunction is about the verbal universe, particularly the flow of information in a text, and is concerned with clauses as messages. ” ( Thompson, G. 2004 )
Conceptional metafunction is twofold: experiential and logical metafunctions. The experiential metafunction meaningfully arranges one ‘s experience and apprehension of the universe. It refers to the “ representation of experience ” ( Halliday & A ; Hasan, 1976 ) . Besides, experiential metafunction is the potency of the linguistic communication to interpret and distinguish figures or images with elements into procedures, participants, and fortunes. Procedures are looks of go oning, being, thought, and the similar. Participants are people, locations, or objects that are involved in the procedure stratum. And fortunes point to, evidently, the fortunes in which the procedures occur ( Stuart-Smith, 2003 ) . The logical metafunction, on the other manus, organizes one ‘s concluding derived from one ‘s experience. From the word itself, it is an abstract logical relation. Basically, conceptional metafunction is associated to the text ‘s “ field. ” The field refers to the capable affair in the text or the context of usage. It answers the inquiry: What is go oning? Linguistic signifier, after all, is a semiotic of “ attitudinal placement ” ( Belz, 2003 ) .
Ideation tends to concentrate on discourse content and on the types of activity that are undertaken. Ideation besides focusses on the mode in which participants in acquisition activities are described, the composing, and categorization. Thus it can be said that ideation trades with the issue of the manner in which experience of world, symbolism and stuff are construed in discourse.
Wayss in which this facet of grammar might act upon our position of ELT class design
Different classs have their ain alone designs that would provide to the specific demands of the scholars. In peculiar, the ELT class design should be evaluated exhaustively by the instructors and scholars, in order to find if the class design is appropriate and within the appreciation of the scholars. Although the footings “ class ” and “ course of study ” are normally considered distinguishable from each other, this paper will undertake the design of the course of study since the course of study is merely the abstract portion of the class ( the existent lessons that happen within the schoolroom ) .
Among the factors that will act upon the design of the course of study are political and economic factors ( Willis & A ; Garton ) . For illustration, a certain state has been colonized by another state that is more inclined to international political relations and economic system. The colonised state that originally deals merely in local political relations and economic sciences affair should encompass to the attitude of the coloniser ; therefore a new course of study will be designed in resemblance to the course of study of the coloniser.
The coming of engineering besides shapes the design of a course of study or class. In the ancient times, lessons are delivered merely through verbal communicating, tape recording equipments, written documents, and composing in chalkboard. Recently, with the assistance of engineering, classs and syllabus designs integrate the use of computing machine database, audio analyser, etc.
On the other manus, “ beliefs about the linguistic communication larning procedure ” affects the class design ( Willis & A ; Garton ) . In the old times, pupils were taught foreign linguistic communication such as English, get downing on simple or high school degree merely. But with the psychological survey that it is best to larn a certain linguistic communication get downing on a really immature age, authoritiess are take downing the age demands to get down analyzing foreign linguistic communication.
Experiential grammar is rather critical to critical text response. in the design of ELT classs, chosen words and constructions show how universe events are experienced. Researching experiential grammar may besides uncover a batch about the worldview expressed in a text, and it must be noted that textual significance is interpreted in relation to assorted sets of intertext.
The usage of clauses is critical to the survey of English linguistic communication, and has a large consequence on ELT class designing. The conceptional metafunction is besides critical to the designing of ELT classs. Analyzing foreign linguistic communications paves the manner for perfect communicating, which farther enhances international trade and universe peace.
It is common to perceive course of studies and classs as different things. This is partially as a consequence of the fact that it must be admitted merely by customary collocation, given that the two footings are non ever used indistinguishably. ELT classs may besides be taken to intend a existent series of lessons, although a “ course of study ” may stand for something instead more abstract, with less inside informations of how single lessons are conducted.