Definitions And Forms Of Language English Language Essay

Language has been defined as a system of meaning-a semiotic system ( Halliday and Webster, 2003, p. 2 ) . By semiotic they were mentioning to as something, holding to make with significance. Hence it can be said that it is a system of significances, which can be created, and significances, which can besides be exchanged ( Halliday and Webster, 2003 ) . One of the innovators of lingual surveies, Sapir ( 1921 ) writes that linguistic communication is a strictly human and non-instinctive method of pass oning thoughts, emotions and desires by agencies of voluntary produced symbols ( Lynons, 1981, p.3 ) . However, this definition is confounding and inherently imprecise ‘ since it does non clearly states what precisely constitute this ‘ideas, emotions and desires ‘ of linguistic communication. Hence this definition has many restrictions. One of the most celebrated definition is by Halls ( 1968 ) states that linguistic communication is ‘ the establishment whereby worlds communicate and interact with each other by agencies of habitually used-auditory arbitrary symbols ‘ ( Lynons, 1981, p.4 ) Here Halls has highlighted a important factor in the perusal of linguistic communication that is, he understood it to be an interaction. Therefore, it has a range to developed within that community if the talkers interact with each other.

One of the most cardinal statements made by Lynons is that he said that ‘to use one peculiar linguistic communication instead than another is to act in one manner instead than another ‘ .

Harmonizing to him linguistic communication can be looked at ‘as a behavior, or activity, some of which at least is experimental and recognizable as linguistic communication behavior ‘ ( Lynons, 1981, p. 9 ) . This clearly shows that linguistic communication acts as a tool for communicating. Therefore, it influences the talker though procedure and behavior.

Harmonizing to Ellis, ‘language has both signifier and scheme. This means that it has both stable elements that are constructing blocks of messages and psychological and sociological influences that shape how linguistic communication is used ‘ ( Ellis, 1999, p.x ) . The signifier of linguistic communication is concern with the structural portion of linguistic communication, which comprises of regulations and how these regulations are construction to make coherence. The different sorts of regulations, which exist within linguistic communication, are ; word formation regulation, sound regulation, and syntactical constructions ( Ellis, 1999, p.x ) . On the other manus scheme in linguistic communication is concern with ‘how communicating is used to accomplish a intent or a end ‘ ( Ellis, 1999, p.x ) . Whenever a thought-process is being taken into consideration while the talker is pass oning so this is a kind of scheme since the talker keeps in head the context of the topic in relation to his hearer.

Harmonizing to Ellis, linguistic communication ‘marks ‘ your individuality in the community and enables you to pass on with it. The linguistic communication that one learn while turning up is known as a natural linguistic communication, construction of linguistic communication is concern with the alone system of sounds that has significance ( Ellis, 1999, p.1 ) . Language besides deals with sentence structure that is concern with the administration of words. Language has a construction that changes really small over clip or does non alter at all. ( Ellis, 1999 ) .

Meaning and Form in Linguisticss:

One of the most influential bookmans of lingual is Saussure ‘s, he propounded the cardinal construct of lingual marks ( Fawcett, 2000 ) . Harmonizing to him that a mark consists of ‘a form ‘ and ‘a signified ‘ and Fawcett when farther when he interprets that a mark has both signifier and significance ( Fawcett, 2000 ) . In the widest sense a mark may be defined as ‘a signifier, which stands for something else ‘ ( Dirven and Verspoor, 2004, p.2 ) . The construct of linguistic communication as ‘a mark system ‘ enables the reader to understand linguistic communication both as signifier of regulations and every bit good as the significance within the linguistic communication. The mark system is non a inactive object, that is, significances can be turn into signifiers and signifiers into significances ( Fawcett, 2000 ) . Fawcett wrote that the relationship between the set of significances and the set of signifiers is realisations. However, this does non intend that these procedures are contraries of each other ( Fawcett, 2000 ) . This is because linguistic communication is a symbolic mark.

Harmonizing to Driven and Verspoor, ‘a symbolic mark or symbols, does non hold a natural nexus between the signifier and the thing represented, but merely has a conventional nexus ( Dirven and Verspoor, 2004, p. 2 ) . Semiotics is the subject that is concern with the surveies of system of marks in all its manifestation. Semioticss trades with other signifiers of human and non-human communicative behavior such as vesture, maintaining distances, baring one ‘s teeth etc ( Driven and Verspoor, 2004 ) . The rule of symbolicity is based on ‘the conventional coupling of signifiers and significances, as is typically found in the word stock of a linguistic communication ‘ ( Driven and Verspoor, 2004, p.12 ) . Therefore linguistic communication can be said to be arbitrary since there is no existent nexus between signifiers and significances in linguistic communication.

However, Fawcett when farther when he stated that there is a differentiation between a linguistic communication taken as a whole and a text ( Fawcett, 2000, p. 35 ) . By the term text he was mentioning to as ‘an case linguistic communication in usage ‘ , the text may be in written or spoken signifier. ( Fawcett, 2000 ) . In systemic functional linguistics linguistic communication and texts has been describe every bit linguistic communication as possible and linguistic communication as case ( Fawcett, 2000 ) . Where an ‘instance ‘ is the portion of the ‘potential ‘ that is presently activated ( Fawcett, 2000, p.36 ) . The relationship between the ‘potential ‘ and an ‘instance ‘ of that ‘potential ‘ is one of instantiation [ the term instantiation is being referred to a procedure of making something immediately ] ( Fawcett, 2000, p.36 ) .

The term signifier includes sentence structure, grammatical and lexical points, and constituents of modulation or punctuation. Therefore signifier is a construct that looks at linguistic communication as ‘from above ‘ since sentence structure and points straight realize intending in linguistic communication ( Fawcett, 2000 ) .

Syntax, syntactic regulations, syntactic analysis and Grammar:

The word sentence structure comes originally from Greek which literally means ‘a seting together or an agreement ‘ ( Yule, 2006, p.86 ) . ‘Syntax is learnt through a procedure of execution a peculiar set of cosmopolitan constructions ( Chomsky, 1986 ) ; lexis is learnt by set uping a set of arbitrary associations which operates within a given society ( Waxman, 1996 ) ; comprehension and production are reliant on general cognitive processs ( Harley, 2001 ) . Hence the acquisition of sentence structure is frequently characterise as a procedure of triping ‘ ( Sakas and J.D. Fodor 2001 ) [ Hout, 2003, p.1 ] . Syntax will regulate the construction of grammar while the lexical points trade with how the construction is being implemented ( Hout, 2003 ) . One of the most important factor of sentence structure is that there is a structural ambiguity in linguistic communication. Structural ambiguity in syntax trades with phrases that can be represented into two distinguishable underlying readings that have been represented otherwise in deep construction ( Yule, 2006, p. 88 ) . Harmonizing to Yule it is the grammar that will able to demo the structural differentiation between these underlying representations ( Yule, 2006 ) . One of the most of import regulations of grammar is recursion. These regulations can be applied more than one time in bring forthing a construction. Yule provinces that one can reiterate the phrases utilizing different types of words, for every bit long as the sentence made sense.

Furthermore, we must be able to set sentences inside other sentences. ‘In rule there is no terminal to the recursion that would bring forth of all time longer versions of complex sentences with this construction ‘ ( Yule, 2006, p.89 ) . Hence it is really of import for the sentences to do grammatical sense in order for the recursion regulation to take topographic point. Christmas when farther when he said: ‘the grammar will hold to capture the fact that a sentence can hold another sentence inside it or that a phrase can be repeated every bit frequently as required. We should observe that recursion of this type is non merely a characteristic of grammar, but can besides be an indispensable portion of the theory of cosmic construction ‘ ( Yule, 2006, p. 89 ) . This shows that recursion can happen within the figure of sentences and this is what makes grammar structural and important for giving signifier to linguistic communication.

Syntactic Rules:

Christmas demonstrated the different syntactic description, which is usage for analysising sentence structure, are syntax classs. These include sentence ( S ) , noun phrase ( NP ) , noun ( N ) , article ( art ) , verb ( V ) and many more. Other symbols like pointers are besides use for construing as ‘consist of ‘ or ‘rewrite as ‘ . It is normally used for the undermentioned sort of regulation:

NP> Art N ( Yule, 2006, p. 89 ) .

This is a simple sort of manner of saying that the sentence is a noun phrase which consist of or rewrite as an article and followed by a noun. Other regulation that has been highlighted by Christmas is:

NP> Art ( Adj ) N ( Yule, 2006, 89 ) .

This short manus signifier translate as noun phrase being rewrite as an article and a noun with an option of including an adjective in the specific infinite between them. The brackets indicate that the adjective is optional. Hence symbols play a important in specifying the syntactic analysis since each symbol is represented for a specific characteristic in understanding the grammatical construction of linguistic communication. The 3rd symbol is represented as a curly brackets { } which indicate that merely one of the component enclosed in the curly brackets may be selected, no affair how many are present in it ( Yule, 2006 ) . The curly bracket is used when three or more components are present as a pick to be selected for a sentence but the most of import thing about this regulation is that merely one of them may be selected as a pick even though there are many components that are present. Otherwise, if this is non followed so the regulation will be broken.

NP > { Art N

Professionals

PN } ( Yule, 2006, p.90 )

There is another regulation diagram which Yule has demonstrate known as the tree diagram, this diagram is used for stand foring the hierarchal administration of one construction ( Yule, 2006, p.90 ) . NP

– –

Art N

Harmonizing to this regulation, ‘a noun phrase rewrites as an article followed by a noun ‘ ( Yule, 2006, p.90 ) . The 2nd regulation has been written as ; ‘ a noun phrase rewrites as either an article, an optional adjective, and a noun or a pronoun or a proper noun ‘ ( Yule, 2006, p. 92 ) .

S> NP VP

NP> { Art ( Adj ) N, Pro, PN }

VP> V NP ( PP ) ( Adv )

PP> Prep NP ( Yule, 2006, p. 92 ) .

One of the most of import regulations of sentence structure is the lexical regulation. Lexical regulation is used for doing the construction alteration into recognizable English. Lexical regulation is use to stipulate which word can be used when we rewrite constitutional such as N. It is based on the regulation that grammatical sentences are being construction. This regulation can be elaborated as a tree construction to show a grammatically right sentence.

Second

a†™ a†?

NP VP

a†™ v a†?

Art Adj N a†™ v a†? a†?

V NP PP Adv

v a†™a†?

PN Pre NP

a†™v a†?

Art Adj N

This is a diagram that demonstrates the different regulations that is applicable in a sentence [ both structural regulations and lexical regulations are included ] to organize complex phrase construction grimmer of English. However, one still needs to integrate recursion in the sentences ( Yule, 2006 ) . The first few regulations reference does non follow the recursive regulation since they are simple structured sentence and merely a individual sentence is being created. In order for the recursion regulation to take topographic point complex sentences much be created, that is, one sentence must be created within a sentence [ these sentence construction were known as clauses ] . These sentences tend to be boringly recursive since one sentence can easy be put inside another sentence, illustration ; ‘John believed that Cathy knew that Mary helped George ( Yule, 2006, p. 93 ) . In this sentence PN was used followed by a verb, so a complement phrase ‘that ‘ , followed by PN so a verb once more so reasoning with a PN. This sentence demonstrated that the recursion regulation had occurred since the PN was ever followed by the verb and complement phrase helped the sentence to be more structured.

The last regulation is known as the transformational regulation, this regulation is of import because, ‘essentially what it do is take a specific portion of a construction, like a subdivision of a tree, off from one portion of the tree diagram and attach it to a different portion ‘ ( Yule, 2006, p. 95 ) . In order for this regulation to work ‘we have to stipulate which type of component can be moved in this manner, every bit good as from where and to where ‘ . For this regulation to be applicable, we need to spread out our phrase construction regulations to include an subsidiary verb ( Aux ) such every bit will as portion of the sentence. This new regulation can be express as: S > NP Aux VP ( Yule, 2006, p.96 ) .

These are merely few of the syntactic regulations and analysis of sentence structure that have been discuss here. They are the basic issues and methods that are used for anglicizing the construction and signifier of sentence structure ( Yule, 2006 ) .

Semanticss:

‘Semantics is the survey of the significance of words, phrases and sentences ‘ ( Yule, 2006, p. 100 ) . Harmonizing to Saeed ( 2003 ) ‘semantics is the survey of significance communicated through of linguistic communication ‘ . Semantic is one of the constituents of grammar, which has a really of import topographic point in lingual. One of the most important facets of semantic is the relationship between word significance and sentence significance ( Saeed, 2003 ) . Since there is a huge figure of words that one learn, it is merely when one determines the productiveness of linguistic communication that one is cognizant of the vocabulary involved. In order for semantic to be studied, as a portion of lingual there are some basic premises:

There are three footings, which describe the different degree of linguistic communication that is, the vocalization, sentences and propositions. ‘An vocalization is created by talking ( or composing ) a piece of linguistic communication ‘ ( Saeed, 2003, p.12-13 ) . Sentences on the other manus comprises of ‘abstract grammatical elements obtained from vocalizations ‘ ( Saeed, 2003, p.13 ) . Sentences are abstract because of modulation since this has a direct impact on the significance of the sentence utter in a conversation.

Another signifier of abstraction is placing proposition, in order to accomplish this certain regulations are followed where by the ‘verb is viewed as a map, and its capable and any objects as statements of the map ‘ ( Saeed, 2003, p.14 ) . Therefore, proposition can be identify as ‘a manner of capturing portion of the significance of sentences ‘ ( Saeed, 2003, p.14 ) . When linguistic communication is used in non-literal term so it is known as figurative and some of the nonliteral portion of linguistic communication is metaphor, sarcasm, metonymy, exaggeration and meiosiss ( Saeed, 2003 ) . However, it is really hard to do this differentiation because words keep switching their significances with clip.

Morphology:

Goethe have coined the term morphology, which means ‘shape or signifiers ‘ , hence, morphology is the survey of internal construction or signifier of linguistic communication ( Aronoff and Fudeman, 2005 ) . The most basic construction of morphology is known as morphemes, it can be define as the smallest unit of lingual which has any grammatical map ( Aronoff and Fudeman, 2005, P. 2 ) . Since in morphological analysis words are broken up to organize the basic construction of grammar, the past tense of a morpheme is an allomorphs or discrepancy. When words are attach to a nucleus word this is known as a root, the word attach in forepart of it is called an affixed and the one attach buttocks is called a root. Sometime the root and the root are the same and merely the new word that is attached to it is taken.

Analysis:

In order to acquire a comprehensive apprehension of the essay, a piece of authorship will be analysed so as to foreground the grammatical facet and show the methods and regulations that have been mention above. In this little piece most of the sentences follows the recursive regulation.

The first line is a metaphor saying the looming effects of oil. Here the talker is doing an vocalization, ‘there is no banquet which does non come to an terminal ‘ . As mentioned earlier, this falls under semantics since it is an implied sentence instead than hold a actual term attach to it. The recursive regulation occurs in many of the sentences since most of these are complex sentences whereby one sentence is present within another sentence [ lines 2,3,4,13,14,15, 22, 23, 26, 27, 28 ] showing this regulation. The regulation NP> { Art ( Adj ) N, Pro, PN } is seen in lines 9, 28.

Complementary phrases have been seen in the piece reference, giving it a structural signifier and grammatical flow in the transition lines 4,6,23. The last regulation that has taken topographic point in syntactic analysis is the transformational regulation, whereby apart of the sentence is taken out to organize a different subdivision wholly with the nowadays of an subsidiary verb, these were nevertheless, found absent in this piece of authorship.

Some of the morphological facet of anglicising is taken into history. Some allomorphs or discrepancies are found in these lines [ 6,7,8,16,28 ] .

Decision:

This essay concentrates on the grammatical and syntactic analysis of lingual. It bridges the theoretical part with the practical sides of linguistic communication. Hence it has covered few cardinal constructs of morphology, sentence structure and grammar. The analysis has been taken from a magazine, which shows accent on the linguistic communication that is use on a current day-to-day article. Hence this stresses on the linguistic communication of the present clip. Since linguistic communication is of all time germinating and the manner of pass oning of all time altering, it is of import to clear up how phonemics, morphology and syntax drama a function on the development of linguistic communication and communicating on the whole. Each of these has different regulation that governs it and in understanding them, one is able to understand how the different manners of linguistics entwine with each other to organize words and significance. For construction has an of import function as significance in decoding linguistic communication and communicating.

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