The purpose of this chapter is to look at relevant research surveies in relation to assessment in the schoolroom context, and to research the function of schoolroom appraisal in more inside informations, with a specific focal point on formative linguistic communication appraisal. It appears that the instructors ‘ schoolroom appraisal patterns and schemes may straight impact scholars ‘ acquisition, and this includes immature scholars. ( Oksana: non merely with immature learnersaˆ¦..so what should I set here? ? ) Classroom instructors are in the front line of assisting scholars larning and measuring their public presentation in the schoolroom. Therefore, the literature reappraisal is chiefly concerned with the function of schoolroom appraisal and the relationship between schoolroom appraisal patterns and larning. The undermentioned subdivision clarifies some nomenclature and explores the links between appraisal and larning with immature linguistic communication scholars in the EFL context through a reappraisal of literature on experiences of appraisal with primary-age scholars.
2.2 Definitions of appraisal and classroom-based appraisal
In this subdivision, the definition of the term “ appraisal ” is provided and the definition of classroom-based appraisal ( CBA ) is discussed to supply more inside informations of the relationship between appraisal and acquisition in schoolrooms. In the educational context, the term “ appraisal ” is frequently associated with “ proving ” for most of the instructors, scholars and other stakeholders. However, proving is merely one component of appraisal and it really encompasses a wider scope of factors from trials to dynamic and collaborative activities and undertakings. Therefore, it is necessary to clear up the difference between appraisal and proving before looking at the definition of classroom-based appraisal ( Oksana: insert page numberaˆ¦what? ) .
2.2.1 The differentiation between appraisal and testing
Ioannou-Georgior and Sophie ( 2003: 4 ) supply a broader reading of appraisal ; they describe assessment as ‘a general term which includes all methods used to garner information about kids ‘s cognition, ability, apprehension, attitudes and motive. Appraisal can be carried out through a figure of instruments ( for illustration, trial, self-assessment ) , and can be formal or informal. ‘ This definition suggests that instructors may utilize both formal and informal methods to roll up information in relation to scholars ‘ public presentation, such as their ability and attitudes, as an grounds of larning. Ioannou-Georgior and Sophie ( ibid ) point out that appraisal refers to all sorts of methods, whether they are formal or informal, with the purpose of roll uping groundss of scholars ‘ acquisition. ( Oksana: similar to above, suggestion: take it )
The surveies of Rea-Dickins ( 2000 ) , Lambert and Lines ( 2000 ) travel further to propose that appraisal is a changeless ongoing procedure instead than a erstwhile thing. Rea-Dickins ( 2000 ) illustrates assessment as ‘the general procedure of monitoring of maintaining path of the scholars ‘ advancement. ‘ ( p. 376 ) . She highlights that such procedure is a uninterrupted method to supervise the scholars ‘ public presentation. Lambert and Lines ( 2000 ) besides show the similar position of point, they define assessment as ‘the procedure of assemblage, construing, entering and utilizing information about students ‘ responses to educational undertakings ‘ ( p. 4 ) From their point of view, appraisal is related to what instructors do during the procedure of instruction and acquisition, including assemblage, naming, entering and utilizing information about students ‘ public presentation and feedback. As can be seen, appraisal is a portion of both instructors ‘ and scholars ‘ life within schoolroom and is integrated to the procedure of instruction and acquisition. It is besides used to supervise and react to scholars ‘ regular work, such as larning activities, undertakings and trials.
On the other manus, proving refers to a process that is used to mensurate scholars ‘ ability by instructors and testers ( Rea-Dickins, 2000 ) . Harmonizing to Ioannou-Georgior and Sophie ( 2003 ) , proving is a process with a certain nonsubjective and is used by instructors to measure scholars ‘ public presentation in order to understand whether the scholar has achieved this aim or non. They besides point out that proving ‘used undertakings or exercisings and assigns Markss or classs based on quantitative consequences ‘ ( p. 4 ) This seems to propose that proving is one of the tools that used by instructors to measure their scholars ‘ ability and is a manner to show what scholars have learnt. It besides implies that proving is a erstwhile thing instead than an on-going procedure. As can be seen, proving is a process with a certain nonsubjective and is used to roll up quantitative consequences, in footings of Markss or classs. It is used to mensurate what the scholars have learnt and to look into whether they have met their end or non ; meanwhile, appraisal refers to all methods of roll uping both quantitative and qualitative informations in relation to scholars ‘ public presentation and is a uninterrupted procedure. ( Oksana: Yes, but it is schoolroom based appraisal specifically that does thisaˆ¦..what? ) In fact, through clear uping the boundaries between proving and appraisal may assist us to acquire insight into the significance and definition of classroom-based appraisal.
2.2.2 Definition of Classroom-Based Appraisal
Classroom-based appraisal is defined by Airasian as ‘the procedure of roll uping, synthesising and construing information to assistance in schoolroom determination doing ‘ ( 2005, p. 2 ) . He highlights the work that instructors need to take during the procedure of appraisal in the schoolroom context, with the purpose of back uping instructors in determination devising, such as make up one’s minding what signifiers of appraisal are most appropriate for deriving information about scholar ‘s acquisition and mensurating accomplishment. In schoolrooms, instructors collect informations in relation to scholars ‘ demands, strength, and failing and seek to construe the information on the footing of instructors ‘ ain beliefs, capacities and cognition. They so supply aid to scholars and may be able to back up single acquisition demands. Such on-going procedures, including delegating classs, supplying feedback and acquisition chances, and modifying the instruction and acquisition, are taking to regenerate, maintain path and record scholars ‘ public presentation in the schoolroom. By making so, instructors may be able to heighten scholars ‘ acquisition and assist them to shut the spread between their current position and their mark degree ( Sadler 1989 ) .
Further, Mckay describes that ‘classroom appraisal or instructor appraisal refers to assessment carried out by instructors in the schoolroom ‘ ( 2006, p. 140 ) . He so notes that schoolroom appraisal may be formative, for case, when the intent is to supply feedback to assist scholars better acquisition, or it may be summational, when the intent is to enter and describe students ‘ accomplishment and attainment ( Rea-Dickins 2000 ) . As can be seen, the intents for schoolroom appraisal may take to utilizing assessment information formatively or summatively by instructors. For illustration, they may necessitate to utilize formative appraisal to place scholar demands and utilize summational appraisal to supply scholars ‘ accomplishment to school governments in the terminal of a school twelvemonth. In fact, there are a assortment of intents for instructors to utilize schoolroom appraisal. Rea-Dickins suggests three aims of utilizing schoolroom appraisal: ‘teaching ‘ , ‘nurturing larning ‘ , and ‘measuring larning ‘ ( 2000 ) . In other words, instructors may utilize schoolroom appraisal to modify their instruction methods and stuffs, supply appropriate aid to scholars and run into the bureaucratic demands.
Classroom appraisal plays a important function in roll uping information about scholars ‘ acquisition and can besides be used to back up instructors ‘ instruction and acquisition ( Rea-Dickins, 2001 ) . It is a uninterrupted and incorporate procedure which can be planned in progress every bit good as be unplanned, such as detecting scholars ‘ linguistic communication public presentation during the class of learning and assessment activities. The functions of instructors may hold an impact on scholars larning in the schoolroom, whether as facilitators to develop scholars ‘ linguistic communication development or as assessors to mensurate scholars ‘ linguistic communication acquisition, ( Rea-Dickins, 2008 ) . Teachers may utilize both formative and summational appraisal as pedagogic tools to scaffold scholars, adjust their instruction, and assign classs for scholars in the schoolroom. It is of import for instructors to develop schoolroom appraisal accomplishments and schemes, and convey approximately positive alteration in schoolrooms. The purposes of following schoolroom appraisal schemes are to back up scholars larning and instructors ‘ instruction, and to run into the ultimate accomplishment of the course of study ends.
Rea-Dickins ( 2001 ) provides a theoretical account of schoolroom appraisal which illustrates instructors ‘ functions in four phases in the schoolroom appraisal procedure ( see Figure 2.1 ) . It besides reveals the fact that instructors may necessitate to play a mediating function in order to cover with assorted demands from bettering larning and modifying instruction. For case, in phase 1, the Planning phase, instructors may be translators to explicate the acquisition ends and assessment standards with scholars and judges to place scholars ‘ demands and degrees. They may go protagonist in phase 2 in order to scaffold scholars and supply feedback to them. As for phase 3, instructors may besides necessitate to be translators to construe the acquisition grounds and humanitarians to polish the appraisal procedure ; meanwhile, they may necessitate to be studies to describe and enter the acquisition advancement to administrative governments.
Phase 1: Planning
Identifying the intent for the appraisal? ( why? )
Choosing the appraisal activity ( how )
Fixing the scholars for the appraisal
Who chooses/decides for each of the above
Phase 4: Recording & A ; Dissemination
Recording & A ; describing advancement toward NC
Formal reappraisal for LEA or internal school intents
Schemes for airing of formal reappraisal of scholars
Phase 2: Execution
Introducing the appraisal ( why, what, how )
Scaffolding, during assessment activity
Learner self- & A ; peer monitoring
Feedback to scholars ( immediate )
Phase 3: Monitoring
Recording grounds of accomplishment
Interpreting grounds obtained from an appraisal
Revising instruction and acquisition programs
Sharing findings with other instructors
Feedback to scholars ( delayed )
Figure 2.1 Procedure and schemes in schoolroom appraisal[ 1 ]
However, instructors may non be able to foretell the complex interaction between these two appraisal intents before really implementing the appraisal active. For case, teacher-planned summational appraisal may besides supply formative appraisal chances for pupils during the instruction procedure. Rea-Dickins ( 2006 ) points out that the boundary and interaction between formative and summational intents of appraisal ‘ can non be identified in any watertight manner in progress, as they will blossom and be enacted through the schoolroom discourse ‘ ( p. 183 ) . As can be seen, instructors need to be flexible with their schoolroom appraisal patterns and be able to utilize both formative and summational appraisal as pedagogic tools to scaffold scholars, adjust their instruction, and assign classs for scholars in the schoolroom. Therefore, it is of import for instructors to understand the maps of both formative and summational appraisals and how to utilize them to modify their instruction, enhance student accomplishment, and study to school governments, parents and other stakeholders.
2.3 The Functions of Classroom Assessment: Formative and Summative Assessment
On the footing of the definition of schoolroom appraisal ( 2.2 ) , schoolroom appraisal may be used as a assortment of instruments by instructors to roll up informations in relation to scholars ‘ demands, ability, cognition, understanding and public presentation in the schoolroom. This seems to connote the primary function instructors play in schoolroom appraisal procedure and the importance of associating formative and summational appraisal to efficaciously heighten scholars ‘ acquisition and study it to other stakeholders, including parents, other instructors, scholars themselves, and school governments. In this subdivision, the maps of schoolroom appraisal, in footings of formative and summational appraisal, will be discussed, peculiarly with appraisal for acquisition, through a reappraisal of the literature in relation to the function of both formative and summational appraisal in schoolrooms.
2.3.1 The Role of Formative and Summative Assessment
Classroom instructors are in the front line of helping scholars to develop their ability and heighten their acquisition, therefore, it is important for instructors to acknowledge the different maps and features between formative and summational appraisals and to incorporate them into mundane instruction and acquisition. Harlen and James ( 1997 ) portion the different functions of formative and summational appraisal in schoolroom appraisal. They urge the demand to separate the differences between formative and summational appraisal, in footings of the maps and features, and so link and beckon them together. To uncover the complexnesss of the differences between formative and summational, some research studies have provided a assortment of readings to assist instructors to clear up the construct of formative and summational appraisal.
Harmonizing to the study of Task Group on Assessment and Testing, known as TGAT, it defines formative and summational appraisal through clear uping the different intents and clocking between them. For formative appraisal, instructors may utilize it to understand the ‘the positive accomplishments of a student ‘ ( DES/WO, 1988, parity. 23 ) ( Oksana: This is rather an old mention, is at that place anything newer/more recent on this point? ) and so be after their instruction in order to assist the student to make to the following measure. It highlights the dynamic procedure of instruction and acquisition in the schoolroom and more significantly, it points out the future way through utilizing the consequences of appraisal. Formative appraisal is a uninterrupted procedure of seting instructors ‘ instruction and scholars ‘ acquisition ; meanwhile, summational appraisal is used for systematic recording of scholars ‘ overall accomplishment. In other words, instructors may utilize summational appraisal to observe scholars ‘ public presentation, such as entering the class or tonss of instructor made and standardised trials, after a certain period of clip.
In 2001, Clarke expressed similar positions in supplying a clear illustration for formative and summational appraisal:
If we think of our kids as plantsaˆ¦summative appraisal of the workss is the procedure of merely mensurating them. The measurings might be interesting to compare and analyze, but, in themselves, they do non impact the growing of the workss. Formative appraisal, on the other manus, is the garden equivalent of eating and irrigating the workss – straight impacting their growing ( p2 ) .
As can be seen, the chief map of formative appraisal is to foster students and better acquisition, which is a uninterrupted procedure of interaction between instructors and scholars. For case, in schoolrooms, instructors provide counsel for scholars toward betterment through formative assessment feedback during the procedures of instruction and acquisition. As for summational appraisal, it takes topographic point after the instruction and acquisition. Teachers may rate or do judgements in relation to scholars ‘ acquisition in order to inform and describe to other stakeholders. In the schoolroom, instructors use formative appraisal to assist scholars larning every bit good as modify their ain instruction methods and stuffs. They besides use summational appraisal to delegate classs and study attainment at the terminal of a school twelvemonth for administrative intents ( Bachman & A ; Palmer 1996 ) . As such, formative appraisal requires the ability of the instructor to name scholar ‘s public presentation, in footings of what causes him or her to acquire smitten, and to assist learner to understand what to larn, how they learn, and how good they have learned.
2.3.2 Formative Classroom Appraisal: appraisal for larning
More late, the focal point of the schoolroom appraisal surveies has shifted from signifiers of trial to the interactions between appraisal and schoolroom acquisition. This displacement besides highlights the importance of the betterment of larning through formative instructor appraisal. Black and Wiliam ( 1998 ) reexamine a assortment of past research surveies in relation to classroom formative appraisal. They point out that several empirical surveies show grounds to back up the claim that bettering formative appraisal do raise criterions and assist students larning, peculiarly with low ability students. They besides present grounds in relation to how instructors use formative appraisal patterns and schemes to heighten students larning in the field of general instruction.
A broader account of formative appraisal is provided by Black and Wiliam, they illustrate that ‘all those activities undertaken by instructors, and/or by their pupils, which provide information to be used as feedback to modify the instruction and acquisition activities in which they are engaged ‘ ( 1998, p.7 ) . Their reading non merely points out that formative appraisal activities can be used by both instructors and scholars but besides indicates how instructors and pupils use feedback to set the instruction and acquisition. From this position, formative appraisal is embedded in instruction and acquisition and can be used to motivate scholar larning. Key formative appraisal schemes, such as effectual instructor feedback, teacher scaffolding, self- and peer- appraisal, and raising scholars ‘ self-pride and motive, may be integrated and embedded within teacher-learner ( s ) interactions ( Rea-Dickins 2006 ) .
As can be seen, the activities that conduct by instructors, such as observation, teacher made trials, take-home undertakings, and scholars, including self- and peer- appraisal, would supply information to assist both instructors and scholars improve themselves. Further, Brindley ( 2001 ) points out formative appraisal should set about by instructors ‘during the larning procedure ‘ , by making so, instructors can utilize ‘the consequences to better direction ‘ ( p. 137 ) .
In add-on, Sadler ( 1989 ) connects formative appraisal with feedback and believes that feedback to instructors and to scholars are separate. He suggests that the purpose of utilizing feedback for instructors is to name scholars ‘ public presentation and modify their instruction in order to assist scholars to heighten their abilities ; meanwhile, for scholars, the intent of utilizing feedback is to supervise their public presentation and understand their ain acquisition failings and strengths.
Further, Tunstall and Gipps ( 1996, p.393 ) place two types of feedback used by instructors in schoolrooms: appraising and descriptive feedback severally. They suggest that the former seems to be more close to ‘affective and conative ( effort-based ) facets of larning ‘ with a public presentation end, whereas the latter places the accent on the cognitive development with a command end. Teachers act as facilitators in supplying descriptive types of feedback, such as ‘making suggestions and oppugning as portion of treatment, instead than directing ‘ ( p. 401 ) . As can be seen, there is a greater links between descriptive feedback and formative appraisal.
However, Torrance and Pryor ( 1998 ) point out that teacher feedback may hold a negative influence on scholars, for case, when the instructor tries to rectify scholars ‘ errors which may take to the feeling of scholars bring forthing ‘wrong ‘ replies. It may even be seen as unfavorable judgment by the students and discourage scholars ‘ self-pride. Further, teacher feedback with ‘praise ‘ may ensue in encouraging competition among scholars alternatively of increasing scholars ‘ motive. Therefore, it is of import for instructors to acknowledge the influences and impact of formative appraisal feedback on scholar motive and self-pride.
To sum up, schoolroom appraisal is used by instructors to roll up informations in relation to the procedure and attainment of scholars with purpose of reacting to single demands and curricular demands. Formative appraisal is important in heightening scholar acquisition and shuting the spread between scholar ‘s existent degree and possible degree. The undermentioned subdivision explored appraisal of immature linguistic communication scholars in a foreign schoolroom context through reappraisal of past research surveies in relation to classroom appraisal in pattern.
2.4Research on Assessment of Young Learners in the EFL Classrooms
In this subdivision, the relevant research surveies of schoolroom appraisal of immature linguistic communication scholars are explored, followed by presenting a alone Chinese educational context, in footings of larning English in private “ ESL ” schools, as the schoolroom appraisal context in this research.
2.4.1 Classroom Assessment of Young Language Learners
Rea-Dickins ( 2000 ) points out that since the 1990s research surveies in relation to assessment for foreign linguistic communication scholars has been more in grounds ( e.g. , Low et al. , 1993 ; McKay et al. , 1994 ; Edelenbos and Johnstone,1996 ; Breen et al. , 1997 ; Leung and Teasdale, 1997 ) . Language Testing proposes a particular issue that is concentrating on appraisal for immature linguistic communication scholars, who ages 5 to about 12, in the school system. The cardinal thought of these studies in this issue is related to a assortment of intents for appraisal for immature linguistic communication scholars within an early old ages linguistic communication acquisition course of study which consequences in raising the consciousness of wider issues in relation to appraisal of immature linguistic communication scholars, such as how the cogency of classroom-based appraisal is achieved.
Teadeale and Leung ( 2000 ) pull the attending to the cogency of implement alternate appraisal and monitoring scholars ‘ acquisition public presentation through teacher appraisal. Rea-Dickins and Gardner ( 2000 ) besides look at the same issue in relation to the execution of formative schoolroom appraisal, in footings of maintaining path of scholars ‘ linguistic communication development, in the English as a Second Language ( ESL ) context. Their findings suggest the possible variables which may act upon the cogency of teacher appraisal during the assessment process. This is followed by Gattullo who explores the manner to implement formative appraisal in the Italian primary foreign linguistic communication schoolroom, where English is taught since class 3 ( age 8 ) . She investigates different formative appraisal processes through analysing schoolroom appraisal discourses and she besides observes the mundane interactions between instructors and scholars. The consequences suggest that alternatively of utilizing formative appraisal actions which may be more good for larning, including detecting procedure, analyzing merchandise and metacognitive inquiring ; instructors use more common actions, such as oppugning, rectifying and judgment.
Continuing the subject of formative appraisal of primary scholars in the EFL context, Zangl ( 2000 ) provides the methods of appraisal to derive information in relation to primary-age scholars ‘ linguistic communication accomplishments. She argues that instructors may be able to pull a developmental image for single scholars, including their general interactive accomplishments and specific linguistic communication accomplishments, through on-going appraisal throughout primary school. Hasselgren ( 2000 ) looks at the advanced ways to develop stuffs, such as trials, teacher appraisal, and scholar ‘s self-assessment, which can better both instructors and scholars ‘ appraisal accomplishments in Norse primary schools. In the context of Norway, one important difference is that there is no tradition of proving for immature linguistic communication scholars due to local policy. This contributes to high-demand assessment methods, peculiarly in stuffs development and undertaking design, and to the execution of formative appraisal, in footings of appraisal for acquisition. Both instructors and scholars are encouraged to develop their ability to measure. As can be seen, the national policy is one of of import variables that influences instructors ‘ attitude towards incorporating classroom-based appraisal into their mundane linguistic communication instruction.
It is besides important to take variables, such as scholars ‘ anterior cultural cognition, instructors ‘ cognition and ability in appraisal, and the English course of study, into history when measuring primary-age scholars of English as a foreign linguistic communication. Teachers should take and plan the appropriate assessment stuff for Young linguistic communication scholars. The stuff should be good adapted to scholars ‘ cognitive and lingual accomplishments and to their involvements.
The work of Hasselgren suggests that schoolroom appraisal may be influenced by a assortment of factors, peculiarly by the national policy. These external elements, such as the authorities policy and English course of study, may hold direct impact on the execution of appraisal, instructors ‘ attitude towards schoolroom appraisal and their schoolroom appraisal patterns in the EFL context. A brief history of primary school English instruction in Taiwan is explored in the following subdivision to derive insight into a particular English schoolroom in Taiwan.
2.4.2 “ ESL ” Program in Taiwan
English instruction and acquisition for immature scholars has become progressively of import in Asiatic states, such as Taiwan, China, Japan and Korea, where scholars study English as a Foreign Language ( EFL ) over the past few decennaries. At this point it is utile to clear up some nomenclature before presenting the English educational context in Taiwan. The term English as a Second Language ( ESL ) used in states, , such as Canada, North America and Australia, which refers to ‘learners who are utilizing English as the medium of direction in school contexts but who are non English foremost linguistic communication ( L1 ) talkers ‘ ( Rea-Dickins, 2000, p. 115 ) . On the other manus, the term English as Foreign Language ( EFL ) refers to when English is taught to non-native English talkers in non- English speech production countries, such as Europe, Asia, and Africa.
In 1997, the Ministry of Education ( MOE ) in Taiwan decided to implement curricular and instructional reforms in simple and junior high school instruction. One of the most important alterations is that English classs are officially introduced in class 3 ( age 9 ) with two 40-minute lessons per hebdomad ( Ministry of Education, Republic of China, 2010 ) . Since so, larning English has become a popular motion for immature scholars from the ages of 5 to 12 across the state. Butler ( 2004 ) points out that some Asiatic states, such as Korea, Taiwan, and Japan, have introduced English linguistic communication direction at the simple school degree, with particular focal point on unwritten communicating accomplishments. Although the officially suggested get downing age is 9, most parents want their kids to larn English every bit shortly as possible. The premise of ‘the younger the better ‘ in foreign linguistic communication acquisition is supported by many Chinese parents, who believe an early start will assist their kids to accomplish greater proficiency. These factors above contribute to the important growing in the figure of cram schools and private linguistic communication schools across the state over the last decennary.
“ Cram school ” besides known as abuxiban in Taiwan are really common and popular in competitory Asiatic states, peculiarly in Taiwan and Japan. The purpose of these schools is to assist students to heighten their accomplishment tonss ( Harnisch, 1994 ; Oneil & A ; Fukumura, 1992 ; Stevenson & A ; Stigler, 1992 ) . In 1999, a study from China Central News, on 6 April 1999, stated that at least more than one one-fourth of simple students attend private linguistic communication establishments after school to larn English. Tsai and Kuo ( 2008 ) study that there are more than 5,000 cram schools in Taiwan. Most English cram schools offer extra after-school instruction to heighten students ‘ English ability. In peculiar, legion alleged “ ESL schools ” purpose to assist Chinese scholars to larn English as a Second Language ( ESL ) through utilizing American simple text editions and learning all topics, including script, computing machine, music, societal & A ; scientific discipline, reading, math, scientific discipline, grammar, phonics and composing, in English. They besides offer an ESL plan to kindergarten kids of 3 old ages old up to pupils in class 6 ( age 12 ) . In general, kindergarten students and grade 1 to 2 scholars receive an norm of 4 to 5 lessons a twenty-four hours, each 30 proceedingss long. As for class 3 to 6 scholars, they receive about 2 to 3 lessons a twenty-four hours due to their longer simple school hours. Such “ ESL ” schools provide a alone educational context to look into these “ ESL ” English instructors ‘ perceptual experiences of schoolroom appraisal and their ain schoolroom appraisal patterns.