In this subchapter I will analyze the grades of Robert Kennedy ‘s personal engagement in the issues rendered in his selected references. If we judge his personal engagement by the figure of pronominal mentions ‘I ‘ and ‘we ‘ , so we can declare that he expresses personal engagement through the bulk of all the selected addresss. If we consider the happening of these pronominal mentions in the selected addresss, so we can province that ‘I ‘ vastly dominates in address A, what is apprehensible as this is the reference where RFK asserts his beliefs and sentiment most often. In address B the happening of ‘I ‘ and ‘we ‘ is balanced and in speech C prevails ‘we ‘ since in most of the instances RFK engages besides himself in the corporate duty which he assigns. In the undermentioned analysis I will preponderantly concentrate on those issues where Robert Kennedy, non merely expresses his engagement by speaking in first individual, but he is either physically involved in them or straight related to them, or he asserts his ain will. If we judge his engagement in the selected references by the above standards, so we can presume speech A to be the most personal as it includes several cases that meet either of these standards. Right at the turn toing portion of address A emerge some illustrations of Robert Kennedy ‘s physical engagement in the issue. For illustration when he applies sarcasm to construct a friendly and humourous ambiance and he says: “ I ‘ve come because I came from Kansas State and they want to direct their love to all of you ” ( SA, p. 1, l. 2-3 ) or when he tells a narrative from his Senate life about the ballots for his recovery:
“ I was sick last twelvemonth and I received a message from the Senate of the United States which said: “ We hope you retrieve, ” and the ballot was 42 to 40. ”
Robert Kennedy tells this humourous narrative to construct a friendly relationship with his hearers. Whether it is true or non, his statement non merely entertains the mark audience, but above all creates a relaxed personal ambiance as it shows RFK in an ordinary state of affairs from his mundane life. His anterior purpose with this message is to loosen the grade of formality that ineluctably emerges from his societal position as the Senator of New York State and this manner to acquire closer to his audience.
Robert Kennedy shows personal engagement to pull his mark audience ‘s attending to his personal ties to admit representatives of the Federative State Kansas when he expresses how proud he is to “ be associated with ” ( SA, p. 1, l. 19 ) Senator Pierson, the Senator of Kansas, or when he talks about his valued cooperation with Governor Docking ‘s male parent:
“ And I ‘m happy to be here with an old friend, Governor Docking. I do n’t believe there was anyone that was more committed to President Kennedy and made more of an attempt under the most inauspicious fortunes and with the most hard state of affairs than his male parent, who was Governor of the State of Kansas — cipher I worked with more closely, myself, when I was in Los Angeles. We were n’t 100 percent successful, but that was a relationship that I will ever value [ … ] ” ( SA, p. 2, l. 3-8 )
Robert Kennedy portions his ain feelings with the hearers as he sends away a positively charged impulse towards them in the signifier of “ I ‘m happy to be here with an old friend, Governor Docking. ” He emphasises the value of his relationship with Governor Docking senior to demo regard for an acknowledged Kansan and to confirm his dealingss to Kansas. He stresses that they worked closely together to propose that it was a serious coaction. RFK attempts to gain the audience ‘s trust with this statement. He implies that if he had the Governor ‘s assurance, who had been a extremely placed executive and their official representative, so they can swear him every bit good.
Probably the most appropriate illustrations of RFK ‘s physical engagement in the issue and at the same clip the most moving and the most emotional parts of his vocalization are those where he portions his ain experience from the Mississippi Delta, from the black ghettoes or from the reserves of the Native Americans.
“ But I have seen these other Americans. I have seen kids in Mississippi starvation, their organic structures so crippled from hungriness and their heads have been so destroyed for their whole life that they will hold no hereafter. I have seen kids in Mississippi, here in the United States, with a gross national merchandise of 800 billion dollars — I have seen kids in the Delta country of Mississippi with distended tummy, whose faces are covered with sores from famishment, and we have n’t developed a policy so we can acquire adequate nutrient so that they can populate, so that their kids are non — so that their lives are non destroyed. ” ( SA, p. 4, l. 20-25, p. 5, l. 1 )
Robert Kennedy repeats “ I have seen [ … ] ” four times to emphasize that he is speaking about the world that exists in some countries of the United States non about fictions. He speaks from his ain experience during his Senate old ages as he was sing some less developed topographic points of the state to look into the advancement of the War on Poverty* . He expresses his ain discouragement when he puts into contrast the state of affairs of the hungering kids with the value of the gross national merchandise of the state. To underscore the deepness of the state of affairs he applies exaggerations like ‘starving ‘ , ‘crippled ‘ and ‘destroyed. ‘ He draws a realistic image of the conditions by looks like ‘distended tummy ‘ or ‘faces covered with sores ‘ . ( Arthur Schlesinger in his book Robert Kennedy and His Timess ( 1978 ) describes RFK ‘s visit to the hungering kids ‘s places based on the memories of RFK ‘s comrades: “ A little kid sat on the floor rubbing grains of rice unit of ammunition and unit of ammunition. ‘His pot was lodging manner out merely like he was pregnant. Bobby looked down at the kid, and so he picked him up and sat down on that dirty bed. He was rubbing the kid ‘s tummy. He said, My God, I did n’t cognize this sort of thing existed. How can a state like this allow it? Possibly they merely do n’t cognize. ‘ He tried [ aˆ¦ ] to arouse a response from the kid, speaking, fondling, titillating. The kid ne’er looked up, sitting as in a enchantment. ‘Tears were running down Kennedy ‘s cheek, ‘ [ aˆ¦ ] ‘and he merely sat there and held the small kid. Roaches and rats were all over the floor. ‘ aˆ¦Then he said, ‘I ‘m traveling back to Washington to make something about this. ‘ ” ) ( Schlesinger, 1978:855 )
I included the above lines to show Robert Kennedy ‘s personal engagement in the issue. From this extract it becomes clear that although he used exaggerations in his statement to depict the state of affairs, there was no hyperbole in his vocalization. The world he experienced was non less cruel than he described it.
RFK feels himself responsible for the state of affairs and delegate corporate duty to the whole state as he comments “ [ aˆ¦ ] and we have n’t developed a policy so we can acquire adequate nutrient so that they can populate, [ aˆ¦ ] . ” With his statement he non merely accuses the authorities, but the whole society of being unconcerned. It is Robert Kennedy ‘s traumatic experience that makes this portion of the address most affected by his personal engagement.
Another illustration when Robert Kennedy speaks from his experience occurs when he refers to the high rate of self-destructions amongst people of the Native American reserves. He once more starts his statement with “ I have seen [ aˆ¦ ] ” ( SA, p. 5, l. 2-8 ) to underscore that he has visited theses topographic points and he was a informant to the conditions and they do non be merely in his head. Subsequently when he mentions the unemployed mineworkers of Appalachia he gets even more involved.
“ I run for the presidential term because I have seen proud work forces in the hills of Appalachia, who wish merely to work in self-respect, but they can non, for the mines are closed and their occupations are gone and no one — neither industry, nor labour, nor authorities — has cared plenty to assist. ” ( SA p. 5, l. 14-17 )
Robert Kennedy gets even more personally involved as he asserts that he is running for the presidential term because he was moved by his ain experience of the conditions of the Appalachian mine workers. He implicitly suggests that he is running for the presidential term in order to do alterations. He draws contrast between his ain enterprise and the disposal ‘s indifference to foreground his engagement in the issue. RFK accomplishes the series of statements based on his ain experience by depicting the state of affairs in the black ghettoes. Similarly as in the old instances he stresses that he has been a informant to the conditions he is speaking about.
“ I have seen the people of the black ghetto, listening to of all time greater promises of equality and of justness, as they sit in the same decaying schools and huddled in the same filthy suites, without heat, guarding off the cold and guarding off the rats. ” ( SA p. 5, l. 18-21 )
Robert Kennedy once more attempts to pull a realistic image of the conditions in the black ghettoes by including looks like ‘decaying ‘ or ‘filthy ‘ .
Another illustration when RFK shows his personal engagement occurs at the terminal of address Angstrom when he straight asks the mark audience for their aid.
“ So I come here to Kansas to inquire for your aid. In the hard five months in front before the convention in Chicago, I ask for your aid and for your aid. If you believe the United States can make better, if you believe that we should alter our class of action [ aˆ¦ ] . [ aˆ¦ ] I ask for your aid and your aid and your manus over the period of the following five months. ” ( SA p. 10, l. 10-11, 14-15 )
For Robert Kennedy asks for aid and aid he shows himself in a low-level place to some extent and at the same clip he assigns his audience an of import function of holding the possible to alter the class of actions in the state.
There is an appropriate case of RFK ‘s physical engagement in the issue in address B at the minute when he exposes his ain feelings in order to demo empathy towards the mark audience.
“ For those of you who are black and are tempted to make full with hatred and misgiving of the unfairness of such an act, against all white people, I would merely state that I can besides experience in my ain bosom the same sort of feeling. I had a member of my household killed, but he was killed by a white adult male. But we have to do an attempt in the United States. We have to do an attempt to understand, to acquire beyond, or travel beyond these instead hard times. ” ( SB p. 1, l. 17-18, p. 2, l. 1-5 )
Robert Kennedy points out his equality with the mark audience to gain their trust. He establishes an intimate bond between himself and the audience as he says, “ I can besides experience in my ain bosom the same sort of feeling. ” Then he refers to his brother ‘s blackwash, but he does non state ‘my brother ‘ , alternatively he stresses that “ I had a member of my household killed [ aˆ¦ ] . ” As though he was connoting that his heartache is bigger than theirs, for they have lost their political leader, but he has lost a member of his household, so his ties to the individual lost are stronger. He exaggerates his ain heartache, because he intends to function as a theoretical account for his audience. RFK suggests to the black members of the audience that although he has lost a member of his household and his heartache is even bigger than theirs, he is ready to go reconciled to the world and he invites them to follow him in his way as he says: “ We have to do an attempt to understand, to acquire beyond, or travel beyond these instead hard times. ” Robert Kennedy efforts to pacify his audience through his ain personal injury and this is what makes him physically involved in the issue.
An case of Robert Kennedy ‘s physical engagement occurs right at the beginning of speech C.
“ I have saved this one chance — my lone event of today — to talk briefly to you about the mindless threat of force in America which once more stains our land and every one of our lives. ”
As I have already mentioned in the subchapter dedicated to the ways of turn toing the mark audience, RFK emphasises that this address is his lone event that twenty-four hours to connote that he is distressed by the tragic event from the twenty-four hours before [ Martin Luther King ‘s blackwash ] , but at the same clip to besides propose to the audience that he respects them so much that despite his heartache he decided to maintain his reference. King ‘s blackwash made Robert Kennedy live over his brother ‘s decease. The manner he indicates that he has cancelled his other visual aspects exposes his sorrow at the tragic event and demonstrates his personal engagement.
There are several cases in address Angstrom when RFK expresses his ain will or show his beliefs. As he refers to William Allen White ‘s bequest he creates the way for the “ spirit of honest confrontation ” ( SA p. 3, l. 3 ) which he is traveling to asseverate through the remainder of the reference.
“ This spirit of honorable confrontation is what America needs today. It has been losing all excessively frequently in the recent old ages and it is one of the grounds that I run for President of the United States. For we as a people are strong plenty ; we are courageous plenty to be told the truth of where we stand. And this state needs honesty and fairness in its political life and from the President of the United States. But I do n’t desire to run for the presidential term I do n’t desire America to do the critical pick of way and leading this twelvemonth without facing that truth.
I do n’t desire to win support of ballots by concealing the American status in false hopes or semblances. I want us to happen out the promise of the hereafter, what we can carry through here in the United States, what this state does stand for and what is expected of us in the old ages in front. And I besides want us to cognize and analyze where we ‘ve gone incorrect. And I want all of us, immature and old, to hold a opportunity to construct a better state and alter the way of the United States of America. ” ( SA p. 3, l. 3-13 )
Robert Kennedy – although indirectly – but criticises the disposal for masking the existent conditions in the state. He makes it a ground for his campaigning to expose these conditions and flatly detaches himself from concealing them in “ false hopes and semblances. ” RFK demonstrates his moral duty to handle his audience with honestness in order to warrant his confronting words that may follow and however to asseverate his trustiness.
When it comes to the war in Vietnam in address A, Robert Kennedy even more often asserts his ain will and sentiment than earlier. Right at the debut of the subject he demonstrates his will and belief.
“ I do non desire, and I do believe that most Americans do non desire, to sell out America ‘s involvement to merely retreat — to raise the white flag of resignation in Vietnam — that would be unacceptable to us as a people, and unacceptable to us as a state. But I am concerned about the class of action that we are soon following in South Vietnam. I am concerned about the fact that this has been made America ‘s war. ” ( SA p. 6, l. 22-25, p. 7, l. 1-2 )
Robert Kennedy wants to do it clear to his audience right at the beginning of the subject that he excludes any signifiers of resignation as he twice declares it unacceptable. He suggests to them that his following unfavorable judgment of the war by no agencies enforces any unconditioned and immediate backdown. Then he uncovers his ain feelings about the advancement of the war and gets even more involved as he twice emphasiss that he is concerned that it “ has been made America ‘s war. ” As he moves on with the subject he becomes even more engaged in it, his vocalization becomes more affectional and categorical.
“ And I want to do it clear that if the authorities of Saigon, feels Khe Sanh or Que Son and the country in the demilitarized zone are so of import, if Khe San is so of import to the authorities of Saigon, I want to see those American Mariness out of there and South Vietnamese military personnels in at that place. I want to hold an account as to why American male childs killed two hebdomads ago in South Vietnam, were three times as many — more than three times as many, as the soldiers of South Vietnam. I want to understand why the casualties and the deceases over the period of the last two hebdomads at the tallness of the combat should be so to a great extent American casualties, as compared to the South Vietnamese. This is their war. I think we have to do the attempt to assist them. I think that we have to do the attempt to contend, but I do n’t believe we should hold to transport the whole load of that war. I think the South Vietnamese should. And if I am elected President of the United States, with aid, with your aid, these are the sorts of policies that I ‘m traveling to set into operation. ” ( SA p. 9, l. 7-19 )
Robert Kennedy lists his ain demands. He repeats ‘I want ‘ four times to pull his audience ‘s attending to the issues he requires to be resolved. He expresses his ain alarm over the unfairness of the state of affairs that more American soldiers die in the war in Vietnam than South Vietnamese in order to elicit the audience ‘s emotions. Then he expresses his sentiment about the right way that should be followed in South Vietnam, which is to allow the South Vietnamese carry the bigger portion of the load of the war. This manner he besides introduces what policies he would implement might he be elected President of the United States and becomes once more personally involved in the issue. RFK besides implies to the audience that these alterations are in their custodies as he says: “ And if I am elected President of the United States, with aid, with your aid, [ aˆ¦ ] ” and this manner he indirectly asks for their support.
Robert Kennedy expresses his ain desire for rapprochement in address B as he asks his hearers to return to their places in peace.
“ So I ask you tonight to return place, to state a supplication for the household of Martin Luther King yeah, it ‘s true but more significantly to state a supplication for our ain state, which all of us love a supplication for apprehension and that compassion of which I spoke. ” ( SB p. 2, l. 16-18, p. 3. l. 1 )
This is the minute of the address when RFK appears as though he was taking over the place of the African-American ‘s religious leader. He attempts to quiet down his audience through their religion, since the people of the black ghettoes were profoundly spiritual. He evokes in their Black Marias a feeling of empathy towards Martin Luther King ‘s household and at the same clip he reminds them on King ‘s bequest. Then he besides reminds them on his ain words as he spoke about the things they need in the United States, about “ love, wisdom and compassion toward one another. ” ( SB p. 2, l. 15 ) Robert Kennedy becomes involved, because he tries to carry his audience through his ain belief in apprehension and compassion. He becomes involved as he appears like their leader when he asks his audience to move harmonizing to his ain will.
Robert Kennedy ‘s personal engagement in the issues is non so evident in address C. It is expressed through his battle in corporate duties. Through the most of the address he talks in first individual plural, but his personal engagement is non every bit deep as in address A or B.
In add-on to the introductory portion, which I have already described in this subchapter, RFK becomes most involved personally in address C when he asserts his ain sentiment about what they should carry through together as a state.
“ Yet we know what we must make, and that is to accomplish true justness among all of our fellow citizens. The inquiry is non what plans we should seek to ordain. The inquiry is whether we can happen in our ain thick and in our ain Black Marias that leading of humane intent that will acknowledge the awful truths of our being. We must acknowledge the amour propre of our false differentiations, the false differentiations among work forces, and larn to happen our ain promotion in hunt for the promotion of all. We must acknowledge to ourselves that our ain kids ‘s hereafter can non be built on the bad luck of another ‘s. We must acknowledge that this short life can neither be ennobled or enriched by hatred or by retaliation. ”
( SC p. 3, l. 1-10 )
Robert Kennedy engages himself and his audience in a corporate duty as he repeats ‘we must ‘ four times. It is a moral duty that at the same clip reflects his ain beliefs and his ain sentiment about what should be done to stop the force in the state. Although indirectly, but RFK demonstrates his ain committedness to equality, to accomplish justness for all citizens of the state.
The above analysis proves what I maintained at the beginning of this subchapter, that Robert Kennedy shows personal engagement in all of his selected addresss. His personal engagement nevertheless has different signifiers and grades in the peculiar references. It is most evident in address Angstrom where he frequently becomes even physically involved in certain issues and he often demonstrates his ain beliefs and sentiment. This is the address which contains the most cases of the pronominal mention ‘I ‘ . In address B Robert Kennedy expresses his personal engagement through empathy towards the mark audience. He tries to construct a personal ambiance between him and them to win their trust. Through the whole reference he shows apprehension, regard and equality towards his hearers. In address C, although his words are emotionally charged, his personal engagement is achieved largely through his battle in the corporate duty that he assigns. He does non implement his will or sentiment, merely presents the facts that lead to or straight provoke the force in the state and makes the whole state responsible for them. His personal engagement is reflected by his ain reading of the state of affairs and his ain proposals of declaration.