Effects of trade barriers

Chapter 1

Introduction

Trade is an exchange of services and goods for other services and goods or for money, Trade ( 2010 ) . The paper discusses about the effects of trade barriers on international trade, i.e. to place one or more variables ( rising prices, transit cost, duty, remittals, population, GDP deflator and exchange rate ) in the survey that consequence international trade the most.

A trade barrier is a general term that describes any authorities policy or ordinance that restricts international trade ( Trade barrier, 2010 ) .

The job discussed is the consequence of trade barriers on international trade. In order to turn to the job, two hypotheses have been developed and tested. Each hypothesis explains the consequence of variables as barrier to international trade.

Secondary informations of three old ages comprised on twelvemonth 2005-2007, collected from the beginning “ World Trade Organization ” ( WTO ) . The statistical tool applied to prove the hypothesis is multi-variate arrested development theoretical account as there are more than one independent variable and one dependant variable. The independent variables identified in this paper are ( Inflation, Exchange Rate, Remittances, GDP, Tariff, Population and Transportation Cost ) the dependant variable are ( Imports and Exports ) . The statistical consequence of the hypothesis testing can be seen in the undermentioned chapters.

Inflation

Generally rising prices is defined as a rise in the general degree of monetary values of goods and services over clip, where as most of the economic expert define rising prices as a rise in the monetary values of some specific set of goods or services, it is of import to understand that the rise in monetary values is for specific set of goods and services and it should be changeless, every bit good as a rise in monetary value of one good or service as compared to other does non intend an addition in rising prices it should be increased for every merchandise or service. Inflation is measured as the per centum rate of alteration of a monetary value index ( Haq & A ; Hussain, 2008 ) .

Measures of Inflation

There are many steps of rising prices each for different sector,

  • Consumer Price Indices ( CPI )

CPI measures the monetary value of goods and services purchased by a “ consumer ” ( Haq & A ; Hussain, 2008 ) .

Cost-of-Living Indexs ( COLI )

Are indices similar to the CPI which is frequently used to set fixed and contractual incomes ( Haq & A ; Hussain, 2008 ) .

  • Producer Price Indexs

( PPIs ) measures the monetary values acknowledged by manufacturers. This differs from the CPI in that monetary value subsidisation, income, and revenue enhancements may do the sum acknowledged by the manufacturer to differ from what the purchaser paid. Producer monetary value rising prices measures the force per unit area being put on manufacturers by the costs of their natural stuffs. This could be “ passed on ” as consumer rising prices, or it could be absorbed by net incomes, or offset by increasing productiveness ( Haq & A ; Hussain, 2008 ) .

  • Commodity Price Indexs

( CPI ) measures the monetary value of a choice of trade goods. In the present trade good monetary value indices are weighted by the comparative importance of the constituents to the “ all in ” cost of an employee ( Haq & A ; Hussain, 2008 ) .

GDP Deflator

GDP deflator is a step of the monetary value of all the goods and services included in Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) ( Haq & A ; Hussain, 2008 ) .

  • Capital Goods Price Index

So far ( CGPI ) has non been established, where as several economic experts have late pointed out the necessity of mensurating capital goods rising prices ( rising prices in the monetary value of stocks, existent estate, and other assets ) individually.

Indeed a given addition in the supply of money can take to a rise in rising prices ( ingestion goods rising prices ) and or to a rise in capital goods monetary value rising prices.

The growing in money supply has remained reasonably changeless through since the 1970s nevertheless ingestion goods monetary value rising prices has been reduced because most of the rising prices has happened in the capital goods monetary values, Haq & A ; Hussain ( 2008 ) , where as there are two common known steps widely reported in many states, i.e. CPI and GDP Deflator.

The above chart shows the trade of universe developed states in footings of exports and imports, the sum is in US billion dollars, the following chart is of rising prices of the developed states of the universe, the intent is to compare and analyse the states rising prices rate and trade in order to analyze the impact caused by rising prices on states trade.

As it can be seen that each state has different impact of rising prices on its imports and exports, for case Australia rising prices rate was 2.30 % in twelvemonth 2007 where as its exports were 142 billion dollars and its imports were 160 billion dollars, likewise for Canada its rising prices rate was 2.10 % and its exports were 431.1 billion dollars and its imports were 386.4 billion dollars, hence if a comparing is made between these states it can be seen that every state has a different impact of rising prices on its trade, hence it can be said that the ground for this difference of alteration is the size of state ‘s economic and fiscal construction.

Duty

A duty is a revenue enhancement forced on an imported or exported trade goods. In general idiom, nevertheless, it has come to intend “ import responsibilities ” charged at the clip goods are imported ( Parkin, 1996 ) .

Harmonizing to Japans imposts duty jurisprudence a duty “ a revenue enhancement based on the criterion of appraisal of monetary values or volume of imported goods ” ( Tariff, 2010 ) .

Functions of Duty

There are three major maps of duties:

  1. To function as a footing of income ;
  2. To protect domestic industries ; and
  3. To rectify trade deformations ( disciplinary map ) ( Functions of Duty, 2010 ) .

The Income Function

The income map merely means that the income from duties provides authoritiess with a beginning of revenue enhancement gross. In the yesteryear, the income map was so a major ground for using duties, for case Japan generates about 845 billion hankerings in duty gross per twelvemonth, which represents about 1.9 per centum of entire revenue enhancement gross ( Meti, 2010 ) .

Protection of Domestic Industries

Duties are besides used as a policy tool to protect domestic industries from competition of importing goods, every bit good as duties are besides used as a beginning of protection of market entree from foreign exporters ( Meti, 2010 ) .

Redress to Trade Distortions

Corrective duties are used as a redress for trade deformations caused by companies to wound domestic industry, for case anti-dumping understanding is used to enforce responsibilities on companies exporting goods that are specifically banned and do harm to domestic industry of importing state ( Meti, 2010 ) .

Remittance

Remittance can be defined as amounts of money that a migratory worker sends back to his or her state of beginning ( Wimaladharma, Pearce & A ; Stanton, 2004 ) .

Remittance plays a critical beginning of income for developing state economic systems, every bit good as 1000000s of single families, preponderantly hapless adult females and their kids. Unlike assistance or concealed investing flows, remittal reaches the hapless straight, and the hapless make up one’s mind how the money is spent. Importantly, remittal services besides offer a agency for pecuniary establishments to increase their outreach and significance to hapless clients ( Wimaladharma, Pearce & A ; Stanton, 2004 ) .

For case the largest remitting states in footings of volume are the United States with remittals amounting to $ 28.4 billion, Saudi Arabia with remittals amounting to $ 15.1 billion and Germany with remittals amounting to $ 8.2 billion ( Wimaladharma, Pearce & A ; Stanton, 2004 ) .

In the survey, Ratha ( 2003 ) , it was found that more than three-fourthss of remittals go to take down mid-income and low income developing states. India receives the largest volume of remittal mounting to $ 10 billion, so Mexico with $ 9.9 billion, followed by the Philippines with $ 6.4 billion ( Wimaladharma, Pearce & A ; Stanton, 2004 ) .

Exchange Rate

The monetary value of one state ‘s currency expressed in another state ‘s currency. In other words, the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another. For case, the higher the exchange rate for one euro in footings of oneyen, the lower the comparative value of the hankering ( Investopedia, 2010 ) .

Exchange Rate and Trade

Exchange rate is one of the of import factors in an unfastened economic system since it affects so many concern, investing and strategic determinations. Assorted empirical surveies have been conducted to measure the influence of exchange rate on trade balance, with the aim of supplying valuable inputs to policy shapers on the utility of exchange rate policy such as devaluation-based change policies ( effected through nominal exchange rate ) to equilibrate a state ‘s foreign trade for case, Greenwood ( 1984 ) , Himarios ( 1989 ) , Rose & A ; Yellen ( 1989 ) provided the grounds of relationship between exchange rate and trade balance.

In a survey, Oskooee ( 2001 ) stated that grasp of exchange rate straight affects a state trade as it can be used as an attempt to increase international fight and aid to better its trade balance. On the other manus it was besides reported in the survey that depreciation of exchange rate additions exports by doing exports reasonably cheaper, and daunt imports by doing imports reasonably more expensive, therefore bettering trade balance ( Liew, Lim, & A ; Hussain, 2000 ) .

Japan and ASEAN

A survey conducted utilizing trade balance informations from twelvemonth 1986 to 1999 between Japan and 5 ASEAN states to analyze the impact of exchange rate on states trade balance. It was found in the survey that the function of exchange rate alterations in originating alterations in the trade balances has been overstated. It is widely expected that the lessening of ASEAN-5 exchange rates with regard to Nipponese hankerings would better these economic systems ‘ trade balances with Japan during the sample period of survey ( Liew, Lim, & A ; Hussain, 2000 ) .

Gross Domestic Product

Gross domestic merchandise is the value of corporate or entire production of goods and services in a state during a given clip period ( Parkins, 1996 ) .

Measures of GDP

There are two common steps of GDP viz. :

  1. Outgo Approach.
  2. Factor Income Approach.

Outgo Approach

In outgo approach the GDP is measured by adding ingestion outgo, investing, authorities purchase of goods and services and net exports ( Parkins, 1996 ) .

Factor Income Approach

In factor income attack the GDP is measured by adding all the incomes paid by the houses to household for the services of factor of production, for illustration compensation of employees, net involvement, rental income, and net incomes paid for entrepreneurship ( Parkins, 1996 ) .

Chapter 2

Literature Review

Transportation system Cost

Europe

A comparative survey, Conlon ( 1981 ) , was conducted in 1981 between Australia and Canada to look into the function of transit cost as a trade barrier in trade flow of both the states. It was found in the survey that in Australia nominal conveyance costs contribute over 40 per cent of the trade barrier in its trade flow, where as in Canada conveyance costs provide over 17 per cent of the entire barriers.

In the survey by, Casas & A ; choi ( 1985 ) , it was found that transit cost being the trade barrier has two affects on the state economic system 1 ) implicit duty consequence, 2 ) resource cost consequence.

The Implicit Cost Effect

In the inexplicit cost consequence, Casas & A ; choi ( 1985 ) an addition in transit costs affects the trade flows by increasing the domestic comparative monetary value of the imported goods.

Resource Cost Effect

In the resource cost consequence, Casas & A ; choi ( 1985 ) an addition in transit cost, displacements productive resources from traded goods to the conveyance sector, i.e. in instance of addition in transit cost, the resources used to bring forth goods domestically were allocated for payments of transit measures due to which production of domestic goods suffered.

United Kingdom

Similarly an empirical survey, Binkley & A ; Harrer ( 1981 ) , conducted in the United Kingdom to analyze the function of transit cost as trade barrier, it was found that Transportation system costs between states pose a formidable barrier to merchandise, similar to other trade barriers such as duties. This survey was farther supported by the survey of Sampson and Yeats in which it was concluded that “ conveyance costs to be a more important trade barrier for United Kingdom exports than duties ” , ( Sampson & A ; Yeats: Binkley: 1978 & A ; Harrer: 1981 ) . Similarly another survey conducted in the United Kingdom besides concluded that transit cost is more effectual trade barrier as compared to duties ( Sampson & A ; Yeatss, 1978: Binkley & A ; Harrer: 1981 ) .

United States

A similar survey by, Finger & A ; Yeats ( 1976 ) , conducted in the United States gave the similar decision that that effectual shield through international transit costs is at least every bit high as that due to duties, Geraci & A ; Prewo ( 1977 ) . In a survey it was concluded by the writer that progressive decrease in the transit cost resulted in the growing of trade between United States and Europe, Shiue ( 2002 ) . Similarly another survey conducted in the United States besides concluded that transit cost is more effectual trade barrier.

Africa

A survey conducted in Africa to analyze the consequence of transit cost on African trade, the consequences indicated that there is a really small trade flow within the Africa and the remainder of the universe, due to rigorous trade policies, for illustration harmonizing to, Collier ( 1995 ) , Collier & A ; Gunning ( 1999 ) , Lim & A ; atilde ; Os and Venables ( 2001 ) , “ There is a common belief that Africa trades “ excessively small ” both with itself and with the remainder of the universe. The hapless public presentation is typically attributed to protectionist trade policies and high conveyance costs. Similarly another survey concluded that the ground behind the low trade is the hapless substructure and inappropriate conveyance policies ( Amjadi & A ; Yeats 1995: Lim & A ; atilde ; o & A ; Venables, 2001 ) .

Australia

A survey conducted in Australia, Sampson & A ; Yeats ( 1977 ) to place the trade barriers doing diminution in Australian exports, it was found in the survey that transit cost is a major subscriber to worsen in export as compared to duties, in other words it can be said that 66 per centum of the entire Australian exports are decline due to transit cost.

China

A survey conducted in China by analyzing assorted tendencies in trade barriers, the intent of the survey was to place trade barriers impacting Chinese exports, and it was found in the survey that transit cost is a major trade barrier as compared to duties and local markups ( Li, 2007 ) .

Tanzania

An empirical survey, Kweka ( 2001 ) conducted for developing states such as Tanzania it was found in the survey that transit cost as a trade barrier have two impacts on the economic system:

  1. It reduces the export fight, Kweka ( 2001 ) , since the cost incurred by the manufacturer and cost paid by the purchaser is widens by the high transit cost. In other words it can be said that due to the addition in transit cost most of the export orders to developing states such as Tanzania are declined.
  2. The 2nd impact, Kweka ( 2001 ) on the economic system of developing states is a positive impact, due to high transit cost the trade of locally produced goods additions, this is due to the fact that the spread between the monetary values of locally produce goods and imported goods become so broad that it becomes about impossible for the people of importing state to purchase imported goods as a consequence 95 per centum of the purchases are made off locally produce goods. Ultimately taking a growing in the overall economic system.

Duty

There are figure of surveies conducted to analyze the impact of duty as a trade barrier, for case in a survey it has been found that duty and capital controls lead to merchandise distortion. Where as on the other manus it has besides been that found duty barriers in the importation states tend to hold a negative, though undistinguished, consequence on exports of states ( T. Tamirisa, 1999 ) .

Another survey analyzing the impact of duty as barrier on trade found that duty has a important negative consequence on common exports, in portion because of important trade cost, where as in presence of duty barrier the impact on imports is relatively weak ( T. Tamirisa, 1999 ) .

One more survey analyzing the impact of duty as a barrier in trade found that duty is one of the important factor of common trade mediate states, as compared to state ‘ size wealth, exchange and capital controls, while duty rate significantly cut down export of developing and passage economic system ( T. Tamirisa, 1999 ) .

A survey conducted to analyze the relationship between trade barriers and trade flow. The survey identified figure of barriers such as exchange control, duty, NTBs, it has been found that duty is one of the major trade barrier as compared to interchange control and NTBs. The survey besides concluded that duty with other barriers of trade tend to cut down the volume of trade, every bit good as duty entirely have a cheerless impact on the common trade of states ( Lee & A ; Swagel, 1997 ) .

The survey besides provided the grounds that state holding bi-lateral trade is affected by duty charges as a consequence it does non merely have a strong negative consequence imports but it acts as a significant barrier to export besides. Final survey concluded that duty act as a barrier to both imports and exports of a state ( Lee & A ; Swagel, 1997 ) .

Another survey conducted in twelvemonth 1993 by Lee to analyze the deformation caused by duty in international trade found that duties charges lower the long-term growing rates more significantly in a state that needs to import more under a free trade government. Equally good as authorities intercession in footings of enforcing a duty on the imports of foreign goods leads to the addition in monetary value paid by the domestic buyer i.e. ( 1 + 7 ) times the monetary value received by foreign exporters ( Lee, 1993 ) .

Therefore it can be said that, duty has two effects on the economic system, viz. the distortion of resource distribution and the transportation of income, deformation consequence of duties ever decrease the steady-state degrees of the capital stock, end product, and ingestion. Where as transportation of income aid to retain the income earned through exports within the state, in presence of duty where as in absence of duty same income earned through export is used to settle import measures. On the other manus the survey besides concluded that when the duty rates are high, the productiveness of public input diminishes ; therefore, higher duties ever lead to take down growing rates ( Lee, 1993 ) .

Empirical surveies have found that duty liberalisation would reassign trade from the rich to the hapless and from the local to the planetary. It has been estimated that the riddance of duties would make more trade for hapless states than for richer states. They besides imply that duty riddance would deviate merchandise away from Continental discriminatory trading countries ( lai & A ; zhu, 2004 ) .

The survey provided the grounds that duties, and distance-related barriers and production costs are of import factors impacting bilateral trade flow, where as duty being the major component impacting the trade flow ( lai & A ; zhu, 2004 ) .

For case the trade among OECD states is free signifier duty charges where as non OECD states have the highest duty charges. As a consequence, the impact of duties on trade within OECD states is likely less than 3.7 % whereas the impact of duties on trade among non-OECD states likely exceeds 3.7 % ( lai & A ; zhu, 2004 ) .

Population

There are figure of surveies conducted to analyze the impact of population on trade. These surveies discussed assorted inquiries sing the benefits of openness of trade between states for case, who additions from an gap of the boundary lines between two neighbouring states? Will any state lose as boundary lines are opened? Is it the little state or the big state that benefits most? ( Shachmurove & A ; Spiegel, 2004 )

It is general perceptual experience that states with big populations holding no trade tend to hold larger net incomes at the disbursal of consumers i.e. since there is no foreign manufacturer in the state all the net incomes earned through production is entirely taken by the state it self in simple words it can be said monopoly. Where as if the same state holding trade with other states or foreign manufacturers are merchandising in the state tends to cut down its net incomes, as portion of the net income is taken by foreign exporter. On the other manus maintaining the same scenario for a state with little population tend to hold lower net incomes in the absence of trade and it will further see a diminution in its net incomes with the presence of foreign manufacturer ( Shachmurove & A ; Spiegel, 2004 ) .

There are figure of surveies conducted that provided the grounds that states holding population aging jobs have direct impact on the state trade, for case a survey by, Kenc & A ; Sayan ( 2001 ) , showed that alterations in age composing of population are likely to impact economy and outgo forms, the ensuing alterations in composing of demand are expected to impact comparative monetary values between outgo and investing goods. On the supply side, the diminution in labour supply and the slow down in capital formation associated with population aging had cause alterations in capital-labor ratios. As a consequence it alters comparative factor monetary values and leads to second-round effects on resource allotment. Furthermore, since the alterations in the comparative capital strengths across traded and non-traded sectors affect existent exchange rates and trade forms, they are expected to make extra effects on spouse state economic systems as good ( Sayan & A ; Uyar, 2002 ) .

On the other manus if the states sing population aging are big in the international trade, where as their spouses are little and have non yet faced a population aging job themselves. In other words, trade goods and capital traded at the footings set by big economic systems may do these little states vulnerable to the effects of population aging even if they have comparatively immature populations ( Sayan & A ; Uyar, 2002 ) .

Gross Domestic Product ( GDP )

There are figure of surveies conducted to analyze the impact of gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) on trade ( imports & A ; exports ) of a state, for case a survey conducted utilizing gravitation equation to analyze the impact of gross domestic product on exports of a state, the survey classified the sample into three classs a ) homogenous goods, B ) differentiated goods, and degree Celsius ) an mediate class ( Feenstra, Markusen & A ; Rose, 2001 ) .

It found in the survey that if a trade of one state with another move from homogenous goods to differentiated goods, so the stretch of exports with regard to GDP rises well ( Feenstra, Markusen & A ; Rose, 2001 ) .

The determination of the survey is through empirical observation strong and important both economically and statistically, every bit good as the survey besides stated that the GDP of the exporting state is found to be a powerful exemplifying variable in the comparative strength of bilateral trade dealingss ( Feenstra, Markusen & A ; Rose, 2001 ) .

Another survey conducted in India to analyze the impact of assorted economic variables such as ( distance, GDP, population, duty, and exchange rate ) on Indian trade flows. Previous surveies have besides been conducted utilizing gravitation theoretical account to analyze the impact of economic variables on trade flows, it was reported in the old surveies that distance has a negative and important impact on trade where as GDP and population have a positive and important impact on trade flows ( Srinivasan & A ; Archana, 2008 ) .

Similarly the old surveies, the survey conducted in India reported the similar findings, i.e. larger distance reduces common trade and a larger GDP and population of the trading states increase trade. It was besides found in the survey that size of the economic system is an of import influential factor explicating the influx and escape of goods and services.

A survey similar to old surveies was conducted to analyze the impact of gross domestic product on trade flows of a state. The survey supported the findings of the old surveies that tariff barrier of importing state have a negative and important impact on exporting states, where as the survey besides reported that the larger gross domestic product and population have a positive impact on bilateral exports of states ( Tamirisa, 1999 ) .

A survey conducted by, Ghartey ( 1993 ) , utilizing economic informations of three states ( United States, Japan and Taiwan ) to analyze the impact of gross domestic product of each state on its trade flows, it was found in the survey that United states GDP promoted its exports, where as for Japan and Taiwan the impact was opposite ( Chen, 2009 ) .

Similarly another survey conducted by, Jung & A ; Marshall ( 1985 ) , to analyze the relationship between GDP and exports, the survey used 30 one old ages of GDP and exports informations from twelvemonth 1950 to twelvemonth 1981 for 37 developing states, it was found in the survey that there is no relationship between GDP and exports of 37 developing states except Israel ( Chen, 2009 ) .

China

A survey conducted in China by, Shen ( 1999 ) to analyze the relationship between exports and GDP, the survey used twenty one old ages of exports and GDP informations from twelvemonth 1977 to twelvemonth 1998, the survey found that there is a short term relationship between the Chinese GDP and exports, where there is no long term relationship between the two variables ( Chen, 2009 ) .

Pakistan

A survey conducted in Pakistan to analyze the impact of GDP on Pakistan trade flows, it was found in the survey that an addition in GDP i.e. addition in domestic income consequences in addition in imports, for case a one-percent addition in Pakistan GDP increases imports from US and Japan by an tantamount per centum. Where as if compared to UK and Germany the trade flow is positive and little but non important ( Akhtar & A ; Malik, 2000 ) .

Inflation

What precisely is rising prices? A relentless addition in the degree of consumer monetary values or a relentless diminution in the buying power of money, caused by an addition in available currency and recognition beyond the proportion of available goods and services. Inflation occurs when the monetary value degree rises from one period to the following ( Robinson, 2007 ) .

The Impact of Inflation on International Trade

A survey conducted in U.S, Robinson ( 2007 ) to look into the impact of rising prices on international trade and little concern. It was found that rising prices creates uncertainness that discourages productive activity, nest eggs and puting and finally reduces the fight of a state in international trade. It was besides found that if rising prices is non offset by a state with a less valuable currency, the U.S. ‘s exports become more expensive and less attractive. This makes other states ‘ imports more attractive. As a consequence this forms an economic system of imbalanced trade with more decreased U.S. economic system and international trade ( Robinson, 2007 ) .

Inflation has many disadvantages ; it creates uncertainness, in that people do non cognize what the money they earn today buy tomorrow. This uncertainness discourages productive activity, salvaging and puting. Inflation reduces the fight of the state in international trade. If rising prices is non offset by a state with a less valuable currency, the U.S. ‘s exports become more expensive and less attractive. This makes other states ‘ imports more attractive. This forms an economic system of imbalanced trade which consequences in a much more decreased U.S. economic system ( Robinson, 2007 ) .

Inflation and Trade

A survey conducted, Fitoussi ( 2007 ) , to look into the impact of rising prices on trade found that in the last 15 old ages or so, disinflation and the addition of universe trade seem to hold gone manus in manus. It was found that in the past three decennaries a downward tendency in rising prices caused an inward tendency in universe trade ( Fitoussi, 2007 ) .

The first fact that can be observed is that the past three decennaries were characterized both by an upward tendency in universe trade ( measured as exports over GDP ) and a downward tendency in rising prices ( measured as annual alteration in CPI ) ( Fitoussi, 2007 ) .

Remittances

In general remittals are defined as a part of the net incomes a migratory sends to relatives back place, IMF ( 2010 ) . It has been estimated that workers migrated to different states send place between US $ 2000 to US $ 5000 a twelvemonth, i.e. in footings of per centum about 20 % to 30 % of their income.

It has been found in the old researches that hapless states receive larger sum of remittals as compared to high income states for case In 2007, the top three receivers of remittals India, China, and Mexico-each received over $ 25 billion. But smaller and poorer states tend to have comparatively larger remittals when the size of the economic system is taken into history. Expressing remittals as a portion of GDP, the top receivers were Tajikistan ( 36 per centum ) , Moldova ( 36 per centum ) , Tonga ( 32 per centum ) and Kyrgyz Republic ( 27percent ) .

Remittances as a portion of GDP amounted to 3.6 per centum of GDP in low-income states in 2006 compared to 1.7 per centum in middle-income states ( Ratha & A ; Mohapatra, 2007 ) .

Numbers of surveies have been conducted to analyze the impact of remittals on the trade of a state ; these surveies provided a mix of grounds sing the impact of remittals on states trade, for case some surveies provided the grounds that remittals can better a state ‘s creditworthiness and thereby heighten its entree to international capital markets for funding substructure and other development undertakings, in other words it can be said that addition in influx of remittals increase the foreign militias of a state, hence it enhances the ability of a state to run into its foreign trade duties ( paying of import measures ) .

This sweetening of state ability indicates a mark of addition in its economic activity as a consequence it attracts foreign investors and foreign export orders ( Ratha & A ; Mohapatra, 2007 ) .

For case the ratio of debt to exports of goods and services, a cardinal liability index, would increase significantly if remittals were excluded from the denominator.

Exchange Rate

Turkey

A survey conducted, Vergil ( 2001 ) , to look into the impact of exchange rate volatility on Turkish trade flows consisting on 10 old ages informations from twelvemonth 1990 to twelvemonth 2000. It was found in the survey that exchange rate volatility has a negative impact on Turkish trade flows.

Africa

A survey conducted to analyse the impact of exchange rate volatility on African states trade flows. The survey used 33 sub-Saharan African states exchange rate macro-economic public presentation indexs data. It was found in the survey that exchange rates contributed a great trade towards Africa ‘s hapless economic public presentation, Ghura & A ; Grennes ( 1993 ) , i.e. overestimate in exchange rate resulted in lower degree of exports, lower degree of existent GDP per Capita and lower degree of Savings ( Shatz & A ; Tarr: 1990 ) .

G-7 States

A survey conducted by international pecuniary fund to look into the impact of exchange fluctuation on universe trade, in the survey the G-7 states trade was taken as universe trade. The intent of the survey was to compare the consequences of IMF 1984 survey and the current scenario of universe trade. In the IMF survey of 1984 it was found that there is no significance relationship between exchange rate fluctuation and trade flow, on the other manus the recent survey of twelvemonth 2004 besides supported the IMF survey of 1984 findings.

Developing States

A survey conducted in 2002 to look into the impact of G-3 exchange rate volatility on developing states trade flows, it was found in the survey that exchange rate negatively impacts trade, in other words it can be said that a one per centum point addition in G-3 exchange rate volatility decreases existent exports of developing states by about 2 per cent, on norm ( Esquivel & A ; Larra & A ; iacute ; n B: 2002 ) .

There are legion surveies conducted in the old old ages that provide the grounds that exchange rate does hold an impact on the state trade flow for illustration, a survey conducted in twelvemonth 1999, Ariccia ( 1999 ) , Esquivel & A ; Larra & A ; iacute ; n B ( 2002 ) and in twelvemonth 2000, et Al ( 2000 ) provided a stronger empirical grounds of negative impact of exchange rate on states trade flow. Similarly another survey by, Caballero & A ; Corbo ( 1989 ) , Esquivel & A ; Larra & A ; iacute ; n B ( 2002 ) , besides provided the grounds that higher volatility of the exchange rate impair exports in a big group of developing states.

It is normally agreed, Esquivel & A ; Larra & A ; iacute ; n B ( 2002 ) , by the research workers that the basic ground of diminution in exports is due to fluctuations in exchange rate. It is because of higher exchange rate uncertainness ; the bargainers tend to cut down their trade volume because they do non desire to put on the line their expected net incomes from trade ( Brodsky, 1984: Esquivel & A ; Larra & A ; iacute ; n B: 2002 ) .

Similarly another survey, Esquivel & A ; Larra & A ; iacute ; n B ( 2002 ) , conducted in 1996 to find the impact of exchange rate on exports of a state it was found that exchange rate non merely impact the state exports but besides act as a trade barrier, it was besides found in the survey that exchange rate act as a noteworthy trade barrier in developing economic systems where as it was found that exchange rate does non hold noteworthy impact on developed economic systems ( Tamirisa, 1999: Esquivel & A ; Larra & A ; iacute ; n B: 2002 ) .

Chapter 3

Theoretical Framework & A ; Hypothesis Construction

As discussed in old chapters that international trade is an exchange of services and goods across international boundary lines, in other words it can be said that international trade refers to export of goods and services from house to foreign purchaser and visa versa.

It is of import to understand that international trade is a really of import beginning of gross for developed or developing states of the universe, without international trade any state ( developed or underdeveloped ) had to be limited to goods produced within its ain boundary lines every bit good as the state besides see a downswing in its economic growing. The international trade is most dearly-won as compared to domestic trade ; the ground for such a high cost is because extra cost is imposed by the importing state such as duties, clip costs due to surround holds, and the legal system or civilization of the importing state.

In order to see the consequence of trade barriers on international trade a theoretical model have been developed comprised on old surveies that verified the effects of each trade barrier on international trade, two hypotheses have been developed and tested. Each hypothesis explains the consequence of variables as barrier to international trade.

Given below is the theoretical model for each hypothesis comprised on old surveies that verified the effects of each trade barrier on international trade, on the footing of which hypothesis are constructed.

A comparative survey, Conlon ( 1981 ) , was conducted between Australia and Canada to look into the function of transit cost as a trade barrier in trade flow of both the states. It was found in the survey that in Australia nominal conveyance costs contribute over 40 per cent of the trade barrier in its trade flow, where as in Canada conveyance costs provide over 17 per cent of the entire barriers. Hence this survey explains the point that transit cost act as a trade barrier for international trade, as it can be seen that transit cost contribute over 40 per centum of the trade barrier in trade flow of Canada.

An empirical survey conducted in the United Kingdom to analyze the function of transit cost as trade barrier, it was found that Transportation system costs between states pose a formidable barrier to merchandise, similar to other trade barriers such as duties. Hence this survey explains the point that transit cost act as a trade barrier for international trade ( Binkley & A ; Harrer, 1981 ) .

A survey conducted to analyze the impact of duty as a barrier on trade, it was found in the survey that that duty and capital controls lead to merchandise distortion. Where as on the other manus it has besides been that found duty barriers in the importation states tend to hold a negative, though undistinguished, consequence on exports of states ( T. Tamirisa, 1999 ) . Therefore it can be said that duty act as a barrier to international trade specially for importing state.

Another survey conducted analyzing the impact of duty as a barrier to merchandise found that that duty with other barriers of trade tend to cut down the volume of trade, every bit good as duty entirely have a cheerless impact on the common trade of states ( Lee & A ; Swagel, 1997 ) . Hence this survey proves the point that duty non merely move as a trade barrier to international trade, but has a cheerless impact on the common trade of the states.

Number of surveies have been conducted that examine the impact of remittals on international trade for case, a survey conducted that analyze the impact of remittals on international trade, the survey found that remittals can better a state ‘s creditworthiness and thereby heighten its entree to international capital markets for funding substructure and other development undertakings, in other words it can be said that addition in influx of remittals increase the foreign militias of a state, hence it enhances the ability of a state to run into its foreign trade duties ( paying of import measures ) . This sweetening of state ability indicates a mark of addition in its economic activity as a consequence it attracts foreign investors and foreign export orders ( Ratha & A ; Mohapatra, 2007 ) . Therefore it can be said that remittals have a direct on a state trade.

Number of old surveies besides provided the grounds of remittals impact on trades of states for case it has been found in the old researches that hapless states receive larger sum of remittals as compared to high income states such as India, China, and Mexico-each received over $ 25 billion, where as on the other manus hapless states such as Tajikistan, Moldova and Tonga receive over $ 25 billion per twelvemonth hence bettering the foreign modesty of the states ( Ratha & A ; Mohapatra, 2007 ) . Therefore it can be said that remittals help to better the economic conditions of hapless states every bit good as it besides better the trade conditions of the states besides.

A survey conducted by, Vergil ( 2001 ) , to look into the impact of exchange rate volatility on Turkish trade flows consisting on 10 old ages informations from twelvemonth 1990 to twelvemonth 2000. It was found in the survey that exchange rate volatility has a negative impact on Turkish trade flows. Hence this survey proves the point that exchange rate has an impact on the trade ( exports and imports ) of the state.

Similarly another survey conducted to analyse the impact of exchange rate volatility on African states trade flows. The survey used 33 sub-Saharan African states exchange rate macro-economic public presentation indexs data. It was found in the survey that exchange rates contributed a great trade towards Africa ‘s hapless economic public presentation, Ghura & A ; Grennes ( 1993 ) , i.e. overestimate in exchange rate resulted in lower degree of exports, lower degree of existent GDP per Capita and lower degree of Savings ( Shatz and Tarr: 1990 ) . Hence it can be said that alterations in exchange rates have a direct impact on the exports of a state.

A survey conducted in U.S, Robinson ( 2007 ) , to look into the impact of rising prices on international trade and little concern. It was found that rising prices creates uncertainness that discourages productive activity, nest eggs and puting and finally reduces the fight of a state in international trade. It was besides found that if rising prices is non offset by a state with a less valuable currency, the U.S. ‘s exports become more expensive and less attractive. This makes other states ‘ imports more attractive. Hence this survey proves the point that rising prices has a direct impact on the trade of the state, as the survey provided the grounds from US trade flows i.e. an addition in rising prices lowers steadfast fight ensuing in expensive and lower exports for the state.

Another survey conducted, Fitoussi ( 2007 ) to look into the impact of rising prices on trade, the survey used the last 15 old ages of informations and so, disinflation and the addition of universe trade seem to hold gone manus in manus. It was found that in the past three decennaries a downward tendency in rising prices caused an addition in the universe trade. Therefore it can be said that lessening in rising prices leads to increase in the trade of state specially in instance of exporting states.

A survey conducted to analyze the impact population on trade of a state, for case a survey by, Kenc & A ; Sayan ( 2001 ) , showed that alterations in age composing of population are likely to impact economy and outgo forms, the ensuing alterations in composing of demand are expected to impact comparative monetary values between outgo and investing goods. On the supply side, the diminution in labour supply and the slow down in capital formation associated with population aging would do alterations in capital-labor ratios. As a consequence it alters comparative factor monetary values that effects resource allotment. Furthermore, since the alterations in the comparative capital strengths across traded and non-traded sectors affect existent exchange rates and trade forms, they are expected to make extra effects on spouse state economic systems as good ( Sayan & A ; Uyar, 2002 ) . Hence this survey provide the grounds that aging population non merely effects the demand for goods and services of a state it besides effects the labour capital of a state i.e. lower the labour capital smaller the productiveness and smaller the exports of a state.

Another survey conducted to look into the impact of population on trade found that trade goods and capital traded at the footings set by big economic systems may do these little states vulnerable to the effects of population aging even if they have comparatively immature populations ( Sayan & A ; Uyar, 2002 ) . Hence this survey proves the point that population impacts the trade of the state.

H1: Imports, transit cost, duties and population explain exports of a state.

A survey conducted in India to analyze the impact of assorted economic variables such as ( distance, GDP, population, duty, and exchange rate ) on Indian trade flows. It was reported in the survey that distance has a negative and important impact on trade where as GDP and population have a positive and important impact on trade flows ( Srinivasan & A ; Archana, 2008 ) . Hence this survey proves the point that GDP of a state has a direct impact on its trade. I.e. larger GDP increases exports of a state.

A survey conducted by, Ghartey ( 1993 ) , utilizing economic informations of three states ( United States, Japan and Taiwan ) to analyze the impact of gross domestic product of each state on its trade flows, it was found in the survey that United states GDP promoted its exports, where as for Japan and Taiwan the impact was opposite ( Chen, 2009 ) . Hence this survey besides proves the point that GDP of a state has a direct impact on trade i.e. larger GDP increases exports of a state.

H2: Gross domestic merchandise and exports explain imports of a state.

Chapter 4

Research Methods

Data Collection

Secondary informations of three old ages comprised on twelvemonth 2005-2007, collected from the beginning “ World Trade Organization ” . The information is comprised on independent variable, Transportation Cost, Tariff, Population and Gross Domestic Product.

The intent is to look into the impact of each macro-economic variable as a trade barrier on international trade. To prove the impact of each macro-economic variable on international trade a hypothesis has been established for each micro-finance supplier. The hypotheses are as follows:

H1: Imports, transit cost, duties and population explain exports of a state.

H2: Gross domestic merchandise and exports explain imports of a state.

Empirical Model/ Statistical Tool

Where ten is the dependent variable ( Export ) , a is the intercept that defines the value of dependent variable when all independent variable are Zero, b1 ( import ) , b2 ( transit cost ) , b3 ( duty ) and b4 ( population ) are the independent variables and c1, c2, c3 and c4 are the incline each Independent Variable with regard to Dependent Variable. Since the information contains several independent variables and a dependent hence multi-variate arrested development theoretical account is used to prove all two hypotheses. Arrested development predicts the value of the dependant variable utilizing value of the independent variable.

As mentioned above, a hypothesis has been established to place the part made by each macro-economic variable act uponing international trade, hence given below are the empirical consequences and their accounts.

Empirical Consequences

Export

A hypothesis has been established to prove the influence of each macro-economic variable international trade. To prove relationship between macro-economic variables and international trade four independent variables import, transit cost export, duty and population and a dependent variable export are taken.

The R Square value in the Model Summary tabular array illustrates the sum of discrepancy in the dependant variable that can be explained by the independent variables. The independent variable, Transportation Cost Exports, duty and population histories for 92.5 per cent of the discrepancy in the Exports. We can see that important value F ( 1, 22 ) ( p value ) = 0.000. At P & lt ; 0.05 so the consequence is acceptable and there is relationship between dependant variable Exports and independent variables Transportation Cost Exports, duties and population. Hence our hypothesis H1 ( Import, Transportation cost, duty and population explain exports of state ) is accepted. The R value ( 0.962 ) indicates the multiple correlativity coefficients between all the entered independent variables and the dependant variable. The Std. Mistake of the Estimate is a step of the variableness of the multiple correlativities.

An ANOVA tabular array is so produced, which tests the significance of the arrested development Model.

We can see from our tabular array that Sig. ( p value ) = 0.030. At P & lt ; 0.05 our forecasters are significantly better than would be expected by opportunity. The arrested development line predicted by the independent variables does explicate a important sum of discrepancy in the dependant variable. It would usually be reported in a similar manner to other ANOVAs: F ( 1, 22 ) = 67.372 ; P & lt ; 0.05

The following end product is the coefficients tabular array shows which variables are separately important forecasters of our dependent variables.

The un-standardized coefficients B column gives us the coefficients of the mugwumps variables in the arrested development equation including all the forecaster variables.

The standardised Beta coefficients column shows the part that an single variable makes to the theoretical account. The STD Error column provides us with an estimation of the variableness of the coefficients. Harmonizing to the above consequences of import came that Total value 73.7 % are related and Sig p= 0.000 & lt ; 0.050. where as consequences of Transportation Cost Export came that Total value 38.3 % are related and Sig p=0.000 & lt ; .050, where as the above consequences of Duty came that entire value 30.7 % are related and Sig p=0.000 & lt ; .050 and the that of Population entire value -14.3 % are related and Sig p=0.030 & lt ; .050 Hence the hypothesis H1 ( Import, Transportation cost, duty and population explain exports of state ) is accepted.

Model – 2

Import

Where I is the dependent variable ( import ) , K is the intercept that defines the value of dependent variable when all independent variable are Zero, l1 ( GDP ) , l2 ( export ) are the independent variables and M1, and M2, are the incline each Independent Variable with regard to Dependent Variable. Since the information contains several independent variables and a dependent hence multi-variate arrested development theoretical account is used to prove the hypotheses. Arrested development predicts the value of the dependant variable utilizing value of the independent variable.

As mentioned above, one hypothesis has been established to place the part made by each macro-economic variable act uponing international trade, hence given below are the empirical consequences and their accounts.

Empirical Consequences

Import

A hypothesis has been established to prove the influence of each macro-economic variable international trade. To prove relationship between macro-economic variables and international trade two independent variables export, and GDP and a dependent variable import are taken.

The R Square value in the Model Summary tabular array illustrates the sum of discrepancy in the dependant variable that can be explained by the independent variables. The independent variable GDP, Export accounts for 87.1 per cent of the discrepancy in the Imports. We can see that important value F ( 1, 24 ) ( p value ) = 0.000. At P & lt ; 0.05 so the consequence is acceptable and there is relationship between dependant variable imports and independent variables GDP, and Export. Hence our hypothesis H2 ( Gross domestic merchandise and exports explain imports of a state ) is accepted. The R value ( 0.938 ) indicates the multiple correlativity coefficients between all the entered independent variables and the dependant variable. The Std. Mistake of the Estimate is a step of the variableness of the multiple correlativities.

An ANOVA tabular array is so produced, which tests the significance of the arrested development Model.

We can see from our tabular array that Sig. ( p value ) = 0.000. At P & lt ; 0.05 our forecasters are significantly better than would be expected by opportunity. The arrested development line predicted by the independent variables does explicate a important sum of discrepancy in the dependant variable. It would usually be reported in a similar manner to other ANOVAs: F ( 1, 24 ) = 88.505 ; P & lt ; 0.05

The following end product is the coefficients tabular array shows which variables are separately important forecasters of our dependent variables.

The un-standardized coefficients B column gives us the coefficients of the mugwumps variables in the arrested development equation including all the forecaster variables.

The standardised Beta coefficients column shows the part that an single variable makes to the theoretical account. The STD Error column provides us with an estimation of the variableness of the coefficients. Harmonizing to the above consequences of GDP came that Total value 56.6 % are related and Sig p= 0.000 & lt ; 0.050. Where as consequences the above consequences of Exports came that entire value 49.0 % are related and Sig p=0.000 & lt ; .050 Hence the hypothesis H2 ( Gross domestic merchandise and exports explain imports of a state ) is accepted.

Chapter 5

Summary of Test of Research Hypotheses

As mentioned in the old chapters that two different scenarios have been taken based on the secondary informations from twelvemonth 2005-2007 taken from “ World Trade Organization ” . Each scenario discusses the impact of each macro-economic variable as trade barrier on international trade, for each scenario a hypothesis was developed. The independent variables taken in the survey were ( Import, Transportation Cost, Tariff, Population, Export and Gross Domestic Product ) the dependent variables were ( Import and Export ) . The consequences and their findings are as follows.

Findingss

Through the arrested development analysis of secondary informations it is found that macro-economic variables ( Transportation cost, Tariff, Gross Domestic Product and Population ) are the primary trade barriers among macro-economic variables that are able to impact international trade as compared to other three macro-economic variables i.e. ( Remittances, Inflation rate and Exchange rate ) it is besides found that rising prices rate is one of the major trade barrier act uponing international trade among secondary trade barriers. Where as exchange rate is the 2nd major trade barrier act uponing international among secondary trade barriers, every bit far as remittals is concerned it has the least or no influence on international trade among secondary trade barriers. The ground for transit cost being the primary trade barrier is that an addition in transit cost due to ( increase in fuel monetary values or long distances ) leads to an addition in domestic monetary values in importing state, as a consequence the importation state tend to cut down importing orders due to diminish in demand of the imported goods. Where as duty is concerned importing states in order to protect their domestic trade tend to increase duty as a consequence cost of goods of exporting state increases more than cost of goods produced in the importing state, Gross domestic merchandise and population, are besides major trade barriers act uponing international trade the ground for this is that aging population tend cut down exports of a state as aging population tend have a lower demand for imported goods as compared to immature population. Where as remittals is concerned they influences imports of a state instead than exports of a state the ground for this is that a hapless state holding limited resources is to a great extent dependent on the remittals therefore an addition in remittals leads to increase in imports, hence it can be said that remittals increase imports instead than exports.

The statistical readings given above show the degree of significance of each macro-economic variable, the credence and rejection of consequence depends upon the significance degree i.e. P & gt ; 0.05 is non acceptable where as P & lt ; 0.05 is acceptable. Transportation system cost, duty, population and Gross domestic merchandise are able to act upon international trade as a trade barrier. Where as remittals, rising prices rate, and exchange rate are non able to act upon international trade as trade barrier.

Chapter 7

Discussion/Conclusion

The old research surveies conducted in several states indicate that macro-economic variables ( transit cost, duty, remittals, rising prices rate, population, exchange rate and gross domestic merchandise ) , have a important and positive impact on international trade, on the footing of old surveies hence it can be said that macro-economic variables taken in this bash explains imports and exports of states. Where as this conducted survey clearly indicates with the empirical grounds that merely some of the macro economic variables i.e. ( transit cost, duty, population and gross domestic merchandise are able to act upon or explicate imports and exports of states, on the other manus macro-economic variables i.e. ( remittal, rising prices rate and exchange rate ) have secondary impact i.e. weak or no influence on import and exports of states. The awaited findings of this research can assist both the authorities & A ; other stakeholders to re-formulize their policies & A ; schemes particularly in instance of exporters to counter high trade barriers and for importers to cut down or minimise trade barriers for addition in trade.

Chapter 8

Deductions

This survey used secondary beginning for informations aggregation and analysis comprised on three old ages, of twelvemonth 2000-2007 from “ World Trade Organization ” . The independent variables used in the survey are ( Inflation, Exchange Rate, Remittances, and GDP deflator, Tariff, Population and Transportation Cost ) . The dependant variable used in the survey is ( Imports and Exports ) .

Since this survey used secondary informations for analysis of consequence of trade barriers on international trade. Further research can be conducted utilizing the same survey by utilizing the primary beginning ( i.e. questionnaires, studies ) for information aggregation and analysis. The primary beginning will be more effectual in analysing the consequence of trade barriers on international trade, as it will supply a clear image of each trade barrier impact i.e. any alterations ( addition or lessening ) occurred in the imports and exports of studied states during the twelvemonth 2005-2007. Since this survey analyzed the informations of foreign states, farther this survey can be conducted in Pakistan to analyze the impact of each trade barrier on Pakistan trade flows.

Chapter 9

Mentions

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