English is a really of import linguistic communication presents, because it is the lone linguistic communication that links the whole universe together, unites it. The other linguistic communications may be of import for their local values and civilization. Kumar in his article points out that English is an cosmopolitan linguistic communication that connects people and has a immense impact on instruction. English can be used as a linguistic communication in any portion of the universe as it is a lingua franca. Peoples talking English might non hold the same speech pattern as others, but the linguistic communication at least will be apprehensible.
In recent old ages, there has been a rapid advancement in the demographics of English talking communities around the universe, with a growing in the figure of users and scholars of English. In most instances, these scholars and users are those who would hold been classified as “ non-native ” talkers. The evolving nature of English in the globalization context has called for a reappraisal of a figure of cardinal scopes in applied lingual surveies of English. Scholarly arguments have surfaced about assorted political issues including the cogency of the old differentiation between “ native ” and “ non-native ” talkers, what form English should, or is likely to, take as a linguistic communication of international communicating ( lingua franca ) , and which groups are empowered and which 1s disadvantaged by the speed uping prominence of English.
What state does English belong to?
Smith, Widdowson and Canagarajah are discoursing really of import and up-to-date issues of universe Englishes. In the presented fragments of their plants they are concerned upon English linguistic communication belonging and the perfect pronunciation.
Harmonizing to Smith and Widdowson, English belongs to the talkers. Language is connected to people, non to a nation-state. In this manner, linguistic communication is the belongings of whichever state chooses to utilize it. Worth detecting while looking at the history is that, while English originated in England, as a effect of circulating it through imperium, it no longer belongs to England entirely. Further, many of England ‘s former settlements have replaced her in power and prestigiousness.
Languages evolve within a local scene. While American English has spread globally, it is seen as foreign outside of the United States. In for illustration India, English is a common linguistic communication and it ‘s development is different that in topographic points where it is the primary linguistic communications. However, Indian English is no less valid a linguistic communication than any other signifiers of English. English belongs to any state that chooses to utilize it.
English became a tongue franca. It is chosen as a manner to pass on among people from different first linguistic communication backgrounds across lingual boundaries. It is being shaped by its non-native talkers and native talkers. Harmonizing to Seildhofer ( 2005 ) , the bulk of verbal exchanges do non affect any native talkers of the linguistic communication, and, what is interesting, there is still a inclination for native talkers to be regarded as keepers over what is acceptable use. In order to set up the ‘rules ‘ of utilizing English research has been done at the degree of phonemics, pragmatics and lexicogrammar.
Language and individuality.
Smith ‘s words shows that linguistic communication can be taken as a tool to pass on. It does non belong to English people or anyone else – it is given to everyone. English is my 2nd linguistic communication, but I am one of the many. Roughly merely one out of every four users of English in the universe is a native talker of the linguistic communication ( Crystal, 2003 ) . As we, European, are told they ALL are utilizing Receive Pronunciation. It is perfectly non true. There are few English languages in UK and much more assortments, idioms and single or regional fluctuations. Which fluctuation or idiom should be taught in schools? Is RP the right pick? Public schools in Poland do non hold any other pick than RP, as it is included in the class books. It is believed to be the ‘perfect ‘ English, so instructors are passing tonss of clip seeking to sound like native-speakers and rectifying pupils ‘ pronunciation.
Language and idiom have took a critical function in individuality formation. The procedure of going a member of a community has ever been realized by geting cognition of the maps, sociology, and reading of linguistic communication ( Ochs and Shieffelin ) . In most of the universe, the ability to talk two or more linguistic communications or idioms is a given, and linguistic communication pick by minority groups is “ a symbol of cultural dealingss every bit good as a agency of communicating ” ( Heller, 1982, p.308 ) . Nowadays, linguistic communication indicates historical and societal boundaries that are less random than district and more discriminating than race or ethnicity. As Castells ( 1997 ) notes:
If patriotism is, most frequently, a reaction against a threatened independent individuality, so, in a universe submitted to civilization homogenisation by the political orientation of modernisation and the power of planetary media, linguistic communication, the direct look of civilization, becomes the trench of cultural opposition, the last bastion of self-denial, the safety of identifiable significance.
Language as individuality besides plays a significant function in today ‘s universe. Identity is multiple, critical, and conflictual, based largely on the picks that persons make in different fortunes over clip ( Henriquez et al. 1984 ; Schecter, Sharkeu-Taboada, and Bayley, in: Weedon 1987 ) . Language is profoundly rooted in personal and societal history which allows a greater flexibleness than race and ethnicity. Is gives a individual an ability to consciously or unconsciously express double individualities by the lingual picks they make – even in a individual sentence ( through code-switching ; see Blom and Gumperz, 1972 ) . Through picks of linguistic communication and idiom, people invariably make and refashion who they are.
Accent and individuality.
A individual ‘s individuality is determined non merely by personal but besides by societal individuality. Social individuality includes cultural individuality and originates from group rank ( Tajfel, 1978 ; Turner, 1987 ) . Accent and linguistic communication are considered to be major determiners of societal individuality although recent research raises uncertainties as to whether non-native talkers ever regard their speech pattern to be portion of their individuality ( Darwing, 2003 ) . Having a foreign speech pattern, can do either positive or negative emotions. On one manus, speech pattern is a portion of our personality and points back to the state of beginning, a topographic point you probably have fond memories of. On the other manus, heavy speech pattern can do trouble in understanding or misinterpretations every bit good as standing out from the other talkers. Harmonizing to Canagarajah alternatively of blowing clip on seeking to hold pronunciation as similar to RP as it is possible and working hard to take speech pattern, instructors should see the fact that it could go a positive portion of the individuality with a small work and they should concentrate more on bettering theirs learning accomplishments. The speech pattern in which we speak English makes us alone. Trying to lose the speech pattern or enforcing it onto for illustration pupils may hold negative consequences particularly on personality. The are more of import things that instructors should work on, like ELT degree and methodological analysis.
English Language in Polish instruction system.
English is widely consider as a planetary linguistic communication. The procedure of globalization has been measuring since 1850s. Unfortunately “ The cold war ” stopped the spread of the linguistic communication in the middle-east Europe. Dobrzycka ( Warsaw University ) was the first 1 who rised this issue in Poland in 1946. In the debut she considers English as an international linguistic communication, but she was entirely in her believes. Cristal ( 2003 ) continued her surveies in English as a Global Language.
English is one of the most popular foreign linguistic communications taught in Poland. It is believed that cognizing and being able to utilize it gives a ‘communication power ‘ around the universe. Education system had to take it into history ; particularly every bit far as learning English as a second/foreign linguistic communication is concern. An illustration of this state of affairs can be found in Poland. Compulsory instruction is at that place from age 6 to 18. Citizenship instruction is an progressively of import characteristic of the course of study. Foreign Language Learning is compulsory from twelvemonth 4 in Primary Schools though in pattern many schools start learning foreign linguistic communications ( normally English ) from twelvemonth 1 and even in some instances in twelvemonth 0, at pre-school to give kids a better start.
During the recent several old ages Poland have introduced a mandatory class of English for kids in primary classs. For this ground the authorities is developing new sets of criterions, but in pattern the instruction policy in most instances remains input-based instead than output-based and paperss that describe the coveted degree of linguistic communication proficiency and accomplishments frequently do non be. Teaching is focused largely on grammar regulations and it is teacher – centered. Tools for internal and external appraisal are besides under developed or even unmentioned. So the criterions every bit good as the course of study paperss remain sometimes obscure and unfocussed. It is non for whole state graduated table, but it happens largely in small towns and little towns where schools are more concerned upon supplying pupils with basic cognition than any extra like foreign linguistic communication.
Practical application of any educational substructure, nevertheless, must trust on the instructors, for whom the linguistic communication programme will necessitate to supply appropriate preparation, professional support and development chances. In all will profit in positive, swearing relationships in the schoolroom, which are indispensable for the publicity of student/ instructor assurance, motive, and independency, and therefore for linguistic communication acquisition.
My learning experience is focused largely on immature scholars. I have been learning English in a province school in Zakrzew ( near to Radom ) for a twelvemonth as a University pattern. I had been a private coach excessively. The school is situated in a little town. Some pupils come at that place from far off, but it is still the nearest school. The edifice is rather new and monolithic, but really cozy. As childs are from different societal backgrounds I came across assorted attitudes to larning every bit good as outlooks towards it. Most of them are from little small towns, some from the town. A really clear differentiation is made besides by childs household fiscal position. Poorer households can non even afford text edition for kids.
English linguistic communication is in the Polish course of study from about 12 old ages of age. In this primary school it seems to be non every bit of import as other topics. A clear grounds of that is timetabled of English categories. There are merely 2 – 3 lessons ( 45minutes ) per hebdomad, depends on the age of the pupils. Few old ages ago the authorities stated, that in linguistic communication categories can non be more pupils than 15. It helps a batch in learning English.
Although pupils have different background they are all really similar. First of all, they are all Polish in the same age. What goes following, is their attitude towards larning English as a compulsory topic. Deserving mentioning is fact, that there are few pupils whose parent is abroad. Is is non a meaningless fact, because those childs can see England as a ‘dreamland ‘ and learn is thirstily or as a topographic point which took his/her parent and resist to larn.
Harmonizing to Zielonka ( 2005, p.147 ) , foreign languages instructors in Poland have traditionally been qualified to learn foreign linguistic communications entirely. These instructors are the nucleus of FL learning staff at the minute. Although Poland is going a popular finish for foreign English instructors, in the presented school all of them are Polish. However, there are two English instructors who used to populate in England. They have got different learning methods, focused largely on ‘language in usage ‘ non merely on grammatical constructions. Those experient instructors are considered to be better than others. Seidlhofer sees them valuable merely because they are non-native instructors, like their co-workers: The non-native instructors has been through the procedure of larning the same linguistic communication, frequently the same L1 ‘filter ‘ , and she knows what is like to hold made the foreign linguistic communication, in some sense, her ain, to hold appropriated it for peculiar intent. It is an experience which is shared merely between non-native instructors and their pupils. ( Seidlhofer 1999, p.238 ) .
Polish is the official linguistic communication of Poland. It is spoken by most of the 38 million dwellers of Poland ( nose count 2002 ) . Some minority linguistic communications are taught at schools autonomic nervous systems used in offices. In the Kaszubian territory the names of some establishments are given in two linguistic communications, Polish and Kashubian. ( Zielonka, 2005, p. 1 ) The Polish linguistic communication originated in the countries of contemporary Poland from several local Western Slavic idioms, most notably those spoken in Greater Poland and Lesser Poland. It portions some vocabulary with the linguistic communications of the neighbouring Slavic states, most notably with Slovak, Czech, Ukrainian, and Belarusian. The school that I used to learn is located 12 kilometer from Radom ( cardinal Poland ) . Due to the localization of function there are Belorussian and Ukrainian cultural minorities in the part, although there are none in this school.
Poland is reasonably much ethnically homogenous. Ukrainian, Belorussian, Slovakian, and Lithuanian minorities reside along the boundary lines. It should be pointed out that there are communities shacking in distinguishable geographical parts, for illustration Silesians in Silesia, which demonstrate a weaker sense of cultural, cultural andlinguistic individuality than either the minorities populating districts which are non so clearly defined, for illustration Kashubs or Belorussians ( White Russians ) , or those populating in the diaspora and non busying a distinguishable district, such as Ukrainians and Ruthenians after the post-war supplantings. The capital and other metropoliss are sing some inward migration from aliens.
The function of English in Poland.
Harmonizing to Fannell ( 2001, p. 256 ) , Poland belongs to the spread outing circle, this means that state acknowledge the importance of English as an international linguistic communication though it has no history of colonization and English has no particular administrative position. This is English as a foreign linguistic communication.
Why do people larn English? As mentioned before, English is an international linguistic communication, a tongue franca, a medium to pass on. States are more closely linked with each other than of all time before, companies operate global, scientists of different nationalities co-operate, and tourers travel practically everyplace. The ability to pass on with people from other states is acquiring more and more of import.
Communication engineerings, the Internet, electronic mail and other technological promotions have all contributed greatly to mobilising people to the furthering of the English linguistic communication over the last decennary every bit good. “ Any linguistic communication at the centre of such an detonation of international activity would all of a sudden hold found itself with a planetary position, ” notes Crystal ( 2003 ) . “ And English… ‘a linguistic communication on which the Sun ne’er sets ‘ … was in the right topographic point at the right clip. ”
Today, we will admit that English is brushing the planet ‘s physical, economic, cultural and cyber infinite. Hollywood, Microsoft, Coca-Cola – English is the linguistic communication of pop-culture, of touristry, of markets and trade, of the Internet. It ‘s the linguistic communication the immature in the underdeveloped universe, the powerful universe, and the universe larning the democracy experience forced to larn. It is going a planetary linguistic communication unlike any other in the history. English is an progressively egalitarian linguistic communication. It encompasses more than merely a convenient agency of communicating among the Earth ‘s citizens ; it ‘s an ideological motion – even if by accident.
Paradigm displacement in ELT.
In assorted Fieldss of cognition every thing is traveling to alter and Linguistics is non an exclusion. This alteration is known among scientists as “ Paradigm Shift ” . Throughout the history of linguistics, the lingual theories, ideas and thoughts have kept adjusting.
The construct of “ Paradigm displacement ” was foremost introduced by Thomas Kuhn in 1962 in his book “ The Structure of Scientific Revolution ” which represents a turning point in the people ‘s screening and comprehending the progresss and alterations in human life. Paradigms provide all phenomena with a theory-determined topographic point in the scientist ‘s field of vision. Harmonizing to him “ Paradigm ” means a set of processs, theoretical accounts, and hypotheses.
English Language Teaching in Poland has alteration but it still needs more extremist alterations to run into pupils outlooks and cosmopolitan demands. As pointed out by Rogers ( ) displacement from “ learning ” to “ larning ” is required. Classrooms need to be learner-centered alternatively of being teacher-centered, because pupils are larning otherwise presents ( Sprague & A ; Dede, 1999 ; Shirer, 1999 ) . The important alteration from learning to larning noticed by Angelo ( 1966 ) is traveling “ from a teaching civilization that ignores what is known about human larning to one that applies relevant cognition to better pattern ” .
In Polish schools pupils are still passing more clip on metalinguistic activities like analyzing grammatical regulations and memorising vocabulary. Gass ( 1977, p.158 ) states that “ increased metalinguistic consciousness ” can take topographic point between the signifiers scholars are utilizing and 1s used by the native- English talker. It means that the more the scholar is exposed to the native-speaker address, the greater chance there is for the scholar to do appropriate alterations, to sound like native-speakers. This point of position is wholly opposite to the 1 presented earlier by Canagarajah, and supported by many linguists concerned upon losing individuality.
The paradigm displacement which is go oning in ELT will be good for the World Englishes. As emphasiss before by Smith every county adjust English to their demands and particularly to their first linguistic communication and civilization forms and behaviors. The linguistic communication and linguistic communication instruction methods need to alter as English is no longer a British linguistic communication. It has an international position, which means it belongs to everyone. The flexibleness of the linguistic communication makes it every bit alone as every state is.