Evolution of broadband


The last 15 old ages has experienced a great transmutation in the record of broadband engineerings, and this has captured the imaginativeness and invention of technological scientists around the universe. The development of broadband engineerings would shortly acquire to the 4th coevals.

Looking back at the assorted and different evolutionary tendencies, 1G brought about voice, 2G web coverage and capacity, 2.5G voice and informations, and 3G the desire for informations at high velocities which led to the nomadic wide set experience.

As the broadband revolution continued, the lifting competition amongst the providers in the broadband service market exerted more force per unit area on service providers to map their schemes for bringing to offer a individual service with voice, informations and picture provided by a individual nexus. As a consequence of increased demand for improved services and increased capacity for nomadic webs, all IP-based web architecture was created. This led to the development and find of Wimax and LTE.

Wimax and LTE are said to be the following coevals high velocity wireless entree engineerings. Both engineerings will offer wireless entree as a replacement to fixed entree ; provide high information rate cyberspace services, and will widen broadband services with mobility to countries where presently no fixed broadband entree is.

This reappraisal compares the two engineerings from a technological position.

What is Wimax?

Wimax stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access and is specified in the IEEE 802.16 criterion. Wimax was formed by the Wimax forum.

An Overview of Wimax

Wimax is a wireless metropolitan country web engineering which gives broadband radio entree nexus to stationary, ready to hand and rolling users. It uses OFDM and non line of sight engineerings and can offer backup support to cellular webs, Wifi hot spots, offer campus connectivity or extensively heighten the public presentation of public Wi-Fi hot spots by increasing the end product comparative to its input in the backhaul web, which makes it easy to put up Wi-Fi entree points.

There is besides nomadic wimax formed by the wimax forum. It offers broadband entree in a moving vehicle. It offers wireless entree making up to fifty kilometers, leting users to obtain wireless entree without through line-of-sight with the base station, giving an overall velocity of about a 100 Mega spots per second for a individual base station.

Furthermore, WiMAX offers a last-mile nexus to unaccessible distant clients, as many are outside the scope of direct orbiter nexus or overseas telegram connectivity. With WiMAX these barriers can be lifted and new clients can be captured. It is faster to put up, easier to scale and more supple ; therefore, it provides or acts as a replacement to clients that are non contended with overseas telegram connexion.

Application countries of Wimax

High Speed Internet Access:

WiMAX is said to replace bing wireless entree engineerings, where it is non sensible to utilize direct satellite links or overseas telegram connexion. A good topographic point to utilize wimax will be in privy or cragged countries where it is expensive to put overseas telegrams or acquire a direct orbiter nexus. It expected that WiMAX will be better as a consequence of it wireless capablenesss. It will be really to be really valuable and ready to hand in states where they do non hold existing/good land-line communicating system or a good gsm substructure. [ 1 ]

Small and Medium Business:

The radio broadband entree of wimax will supply the dependableness and speed to run into the demands of small and mean size concerns in really low populated countries. [ 2 ]

Support for Wi-Fi Hot Topographic point: It will function as a backhaul for wifi hot spots. [ 3 ]

Features and Capabilities of Wimax

  1. It has a transmittal scope of up to 31 stat mis
  2. Frequency Range 2-66 GHz
  3. Supports IPv4, IPv6, Ethernet, ATM conveyance engineering
  4. Supports public key-infrastructure hallmark
  5. Provides 56-bit DES cardinal encoding technique
  6. Down-Link entree OFDMA 75Mbps+ ( 20MHz spectrum )
  7. Uplink entree OFDMA up to 25Mbps+ ( 20MHz spectrum )

Centrally synchronized design:

  • It has a good security and unafraid proof technique
  • It has a strong wireless interface which makes work efficaciously in non line of sight conditions ;

Express-IP services:

  • Its effectivity has been enhanced to present about 100 Mbps ( cyberspace ) services in 3.5 MHz ;
  • It offers about 3550 Mbps ( cyberspace ) with immense channels.

LTE ( Long term development )

It is a broadband engineering developed by the Third Generation Partnership undertaking ( 3GPP ) .It is an commercialism trade group [ 4 ] . 3GPP named the engineering ‘Long term development ‘ because it represents the following coevals of nomadic broadband in a patterned advance from GSM.

An overview of Long term development

The current rise in the usage of nomadic cyberspace and surfacing of new applications like the Multimedia Online Gaming, nomadic telecasting and the web 2.0 inspired the 3rd Generation Partnership Project ( 3GPP ) to deliver the Long-run Evolution ( LTE ) . LTE is the most recent and most up-to-date criterion in the nomadic webs. LTE will guarantee 3GPP ‘s competitory advantage amongst other nomadic engineerings.

LTE, whose wireless entree is called Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network ( E-UTRAN ) , will better:

  1. End-user throughputs
  2. Capacity for sectorization and diminish user plane latency
  3. User satisfaction with maximal mobility.

Using Internet Protocol ( IP ) as pick protocol for transporting all types of traffic, LTE is anticipated to prolong IP-based traffic with end-to-end Quality of service ( QoS ) , enabling enhanced voice communicating over IP and superior merger with other multimedia services.

The first stage of LTE is expected by the terminal of the following 3 old ages and would be commercially available by the terminal of 2015. 3GPP is stipulating a new Packet Core called the Enhanced Packet Core ( EPC ) web architecture to back up the E-UTRAN with a lessening in the figure of web elements, easiness of functionality, enhanced redundancy and basically let for connexions and handover to other overseas telegram or fixed lines and radio engineerings. This provides the service suppliers with the capacity to convey a unflawed mobility experience.

Aims of LTE

LTE has four chief aims, which are:

  1. To cut down the system and user equipment complexness
  2. To enable the apparatus of a flexible spectrum in bing or new frequence spectrum and let interoperability with other 3GPP Radio Access Technologies ( RATs ) .
  3. To supply superior quality service
  4. Better Voice communicating over the cyberspace ( i.e. VoIP ) .

The Features and capablenesss of LTE

  • Downlink OFDM 100Mbps+ ( 20MHz spectrum )
  • Uplink SC-FDMA 50Mbps+ ( 20MHz spectrum )
  • ( Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing ( OFDM ) – based wireless design and techniques are used to distribute informations over many sub-carriers provides greater unsusceptibility to attenuation, ensuing in an overall addition in bringing dependability )
  • FDD – Frequency Division Multiplex
  • End-user latency & lt ; 10mS
  • Control plane latency ( Transition clip to active province ) & lt ; 100mS ( for idle to active )
  • Flexible and Scalable Bandwidth – ( 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15 and 20MHz ) 1.25MHz suited for inward migration ( re-use of bing spectrum ) and 5MHz – 20MHz for clear spectrum green field deployments and enlargement of spectrum as demand grows
  • Frequency spectrum pick and flexibleness of deployment in GSM, CDMA, UMTS bands ( 450, 700, 850, 900, 1700, 1800, 1900, 2100, 2500MHz ) means that planetary roaming will be possible
  • Mobility will be supported up to 350km/hr but like other engineerings will be optimized for lower velocities.
  • Coverage country in footings of cell capacity is within 5 – 100km with little decrease in signal strength after 30km.
  • VoIP Roughly 3 times UMTS voice capacity
  • MIMO – Advanced aerials already standardized will increase the overall sector throughput
  • E2E QOS leting prioritization of different category of service

Evolved Packet Core ( EPC )

  1. New and simplified informations centric ( all IP ) nucleus web having collapsed architecture and improved redundancy
  2. Centralized mobility and application/services bed ( IMS based )
  3. E2E QOS leting prioritization of different category of service
  4. Access engineering agnostic nucleus web leting connexion to other radio and fixed line entree webs
  5. Connection to legacy GSM/UMTS nucleus offers smooth subscriber LTE migration

A Technical Comparison between Wimax and LTE.

Taking a expression at both Wimax and LTE, one may fall into the enticement that they are both the same proficient criterion merely called different names.

Looking closely, I realized that though Wimax and LTE may hold a batch of underlying techniques and proficient criterions in common, but they every bit have some differences which is what makes them alone and different.

Differences between Wimax and LTE

VoIP Performance:

Wimax merely allows 16 concurrent users per cell per MHz, and focuses on mobile mobility with vehicular velocity up to 120 km/hr.

While on the other manus, LTE allows 24 concurrent users per cell size per MHz ; and allows for vehicular velocity up to 350 km/hr.


Wimax allows for fast informations programming, DL & A ; UL, dynamic resource allotment, frequence selective programming and concurrent executions

While LTE, allows for about 100 % efficient scheduling mark.

Looking at these observations, we can state that due to timeline benefits new service suppliers every bit good as bing operators desiring to offer nomadic services may probably take Wimax as their engineering for nomadic broadband services. Besides, we can come to a decision that the bing UMTS/HSPA service suppliers will evidently migrate to 3GPP LTE, whereas most CDMA 2000 and GSM/EDGE suppliers will choose nomadic wimax for nomadic broadband.

Challenges faced by Mobile broadband

There are a batch of challenges which mobile broadband faces, but the most critical 1s are:

  • The ability to come out with a engineering at a really low cost per spot
  • The addition service purveying – that is holding assorted services at lower cost with enhanced and great user satisfaction.
  • Supply a engineering that is flexible between new and existing frequence sets
  • Making certain the new or bing engineering has a simplified architecture
  • Supplying engineerings with unfastened interfaces
  • Guaranting that the engineering have a sensible terminal power ingestion

Summary and Conclusion

WiMAX and LTE have similar public presentations.

  • They both use OFDMA in downlink with a high order transition and cryptography.
  • Their peak public presentation is comparable for tantamount transition and codification rate
  • They both support FDD and TDD with channel bandwidth up to 20 MHz
  • They both support a high order multiple inpits multiple end products antenna solutions
  • They both offer decreased latency
  • A new spectrum is compulsory for either LTE or WiMAX to keep wider and larger channel bandwidths.
  • Multi-Band/Multi-Mode endorser devices are needed in both state of affairss for internetwork and planetary nomadicity.


  1. Wireless backhaul for lte – demands, challenges and options retrieved on the 10th of October from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp? tp= & A ; arnumber=4536680 & A ; isnumber=4536597
  2. Spectral efficiency appraisal and wireless public presentation comparing between lte and wimax retrieved on the 10th of October from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp? tp= & A ; arnumber=4699652 & A ; isnumber=4699392
  3. Following Generation radio entree gateway retrieved on the 10th of octoober from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp? tp= & A ; arnumber=4753911 & A ; isnumber=4753904
  4. Infrastructure execution challenges for lte and wimax air interfaces retrieved on the 10th of October from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp? tp= & A ; arnumber=4449072 & A ; isnumber=4449070
  5. Lte, hspa and nomadic wimax ; A comparing of proficient public presentation retrieved on the tenth 0f October from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp? tp= & A ; arnumber=4449073 & A ; isnumber=4449070
  6. Stefania et Al, 2009. lte the umts long-run development theory: from theory to pattern, Wiley & A ; boies ltd.
  7. Mustafa Ergen, 2009. Mobile broadband including wimax and lte, spring scientific discipline + Business media Iraqi National Congress.
  8. Farooq Khan, 2009. Lte for 4G nomadic broadband: air interface engineerings and public presentation, Cambridge University Press.
  1. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tutorialsweb.com/wimax/wimax.htm
  2. hypertext transfer protocol: //guidewimax.blogspot.com/
  3. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.rfdesign.info/doc-desc/18/WiMAX-An-Introduction.html
  4. hypertext transfer protocol: //myavatarstate.blogspot.com

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *