Factors Affecting Reading Habits Among Undergraduates English Language Essay

Reading is a procedure of decryption, understanding and interoperating information from images, marks, codifications and written letters Leedy, 1956 ; Smith and Robinson, 1980 ; Devarajan, 1989 ; and Irwin 1998. Reading has legion benefits that improve a individual ‘s linguistic communication acquisition, cultural enrichment, critical thought and societal accomplishments. However, literature has shown that immature grownups in Malaysia seem to hold hapless reading wonts. Kaur and Thivagarajah, 1999 confirmed that most of their Malayan undergraduate respondents read really small and this showed a major diminution in reading English Materials. Another research worker, Pandian ( 2000 ) found that bulk of university pupils stated that they were non willing to read English Language Material or any other 2nd linguistic communication. There are many jobs faced by undergraduates in reading such as deficiency of involvement, undergraduates are forced to read and deficient clip to read. The intent of this survey is to place factors impacting reading wonts among undergraduates in University of Malaya. The respondents of this survey are undergraduates from different modules in University of Malaya. The aim of the survey is twofold ; The first is look into the reading wonts of undergraduates in University of Malaya and the 2nd is to place the factors impacting reading wonts among undergraduates in University of Malaya. The instruments used in this survey is a questionnaire consisting of 30 points adopted from assorted instruments including instruments from of Christina Clark and Amelia Foster from the National Literacy Trust ( 2003 ) , Kumar & A ; Ansari ( 2010 ) , Oyeronke ( 2009 ) and Lone ( 2011 ) . Twenty University Malaya undergraduates were selected to take part in this survey. After the information was analysed it was found that there were four factors that affected the reading wonts among undergraduates in University of Malaya. There four factors are enjoyment of reading, reading involvement, clip factor and influence of media and equals.

Introduction

Reading is a procedure of decryption, understanding and interoperating information from images, marks, codifications and written letters ( Leedy, 1956 ; Smith and Robinson 1980, Devarajan, 1989 ; and Irwin 1998 ) .This procedure has been around since worlds started interacting with each other. Reading is besides seen as a procedure of pass oning between the author and the reader. Reading started as reading symbols and image as this can be proven by the huge drawings found in ancient artifacts and in caves. As worlds evolved so did linguistic communication and this brought to the development of the alphabets. By recognizing single alphabets, worlds were able to read.

One the oldest definition can be found from Leedy ( 1956 ) who mentioned that reading is an effort to absorb the idea of the writer and cognize what the writer is conveying. Smith & A ; Robinson ( 1980 ) defined reading as “ an active effort on the portion of reader to understand a author ‘s significance ” . Devarajan ( 1989 ) defined reading as “ the art of interoperating printed and written words ” . Harmonizing to Goodman ( 1995 ) , reading Begins with a lingual surface look encoded by a author and ends with intending which the reader decoded. In other words, Goodman says reading is seen as the receptive procedure of written communicating. In 1998, Allen and Burton cited in Goodman mentioned that reading is a complex procedure of doing intending from images, diagrams or written text and eventually interoperating it by its context. Irwin ( 1998 ) said that reading is the ability to recognize words, understand its significance and interoperating the significance base on our comprehension and background cognition. There are many definitions of reading from many research workers, yet the simplest definition agree by many is reading is a complex procedure of apprehension and interoperating a text composed of written marks. Readers make usage of background cognition, vocabulary, grammatical cognition, experience with text and other schemes to assist them understand a written text

Reading non merely improves the reading accomplishments and linguistic communication acquisition but besides improves societal accomplishments. Reading improves general cognition and communicating accomplishments and this leads to more engagement in the community. A individual is able to portion the thoughts, sentiments and experiencing with those around him particularly with the other gender ( Cunningham and Stanovich, 1997 )

However, literature has shown that immature grownups in Malaysia seem to hold hapless reading wonts. Kaur and Thivagarajah, 1999 confirmed that most of their Malayan Undergraduate respondents read really small and this showed a major diminution in reading English Materials. Another research worker, Pandian ( 2000 ) found that bulk of university pupils stated that they were non willing to read English Language Material or any other 2nd linguistic communication

Problem Statement

Reading is a necessary accomplishment when it comes to geting a 2nd linguistic communication. Reading has a batch of benefits including bettering the linguistic communication acquisition, bettering the construction of the cognition and grammar and bettering eloquence and truth. The benefits of reading are good known but there are still a big figure of people with hapless reading wonts particularly undergraduate pupils. The intent of this survey is to place factors impacting reading wonts among undergraduate in University of Malaya. The respondents of this survey are undergraduates from different modules in University of Malaya. It is hoped that with this survey, a better apprehension of reading wonts will be obtained and will assist in the teaching method of learning reading to undergraduates.

Research Objective

The aim of the survey is twofold ; The first is look into the reading wonts of undergraduates in University of Malaya and the 2nd is to place the factors impacting reading wonts among undergraduates in University of Malaya.

Significant of the Study

This research will be carried out to place the factors impacting reading wonts among undergraduates in UM. This is of import as it tells us the different factors impacting reading wonts. By understanding the factors, appropriate steps can be taken to increase reading wonts of the following coevals of undergraduates. The information obtained through this survey can profit assorted parties who are involved in third degree reading. Such parties are the parents, instructors of primary and secondary schools, instructors in Pre University, lectors in undergraduates, pupils and the course of study developers.

The first party to profit from this survey would be the parents of the kid. By cognizing the kid ‘s reading wonts, parents are able to present the benefits of reading at an early phase of life, change the ways of promoting the kid ‘s reading. Parents can increase the degree of the kid ‘s reading by supplying wagess. A right reading wont exposure may take to better acquisition of the 2nd linguistic communication.

Teachers from both primary and secondary schools can utilize the information gathered to beef up reading among their pupils. Since reading starts from immature it is hoped that the findings of this survey could assist incubate good reading wonts from a immature age as good reading wonts are of import tools for the development of personalities and mental capacities

LITERATURE REVIEW

Reading is a procedure of decryption, understanding and interoperating information from images, marks, codifications and written letters ( Leedy, 1956 ; Smith and Robinson 1980, Devarajan, 1989 ; and Irwin 1998 ) .This procedure has been around since worlds started interacting with each other

One the oldest definition can be found from Leedy ( 1956 ) who mentioned that reading is an effort to absorb the idea of the writer and cognize what the writer is conveying. Smith & A ; Robinson ( 1980 ) defined reading as “ an active effort on the portion of reader to understand a author ‘s significance ” . Devarajan ( 1989 ) defined reading as “ the art of interoperating printed and written words ” . Harmonizing to Goodman ( 1995 ) , reading Begins with a lingual surface look encoded by a author and ends with intending which the reader decoded. In other words, Goodman says reading is seen as the receptive procedure of written communicating. In 1998, Allen and Burton cited Goodman and mentioned that reading is a complex procedure of doing intending from images, diagrams or written text and eventually interoperating it by its. Irwin ( 1998 ) said that reading is the ability to recognize words, understand its significance and interoperating the significance base on our comprehension and background cognition. There are many definitions of reading from many research workers, yet the simplest definition agree by many is reading is a complex procedure of apprehension and interoperating a text composed of written marks. Readers make usage of background cognition, vocabulary, grammatical cognition, experience with text and other schemes to assist them understand a written text

Reading has legion benefits to immature grownups who are prosecuting the grade. Harmonizing to Cunningham and Stanovich ( 1998 ) , reading improves one ‘s ability to better vocabulary, and, composing accomplishments. Elley ( 1992 ) mentioned from her survey that the more frequent a immature grownup independently reads, the reading accomplishment of that individual increases. Elley besides explained that the individual ‘s wellness improves as reading leads to take down emphasis degrees and therefore the happier the individual gets. In their research, Magubhai & A ; Elley ( 1983 ) concluded that the more ESL books read leads to better apprehension of 2nd linguistic communication use and improves the first linguistic communication. Reading ESL books often help to foster strengthen eloquence, pronunciation, word picks and linkage of thoughts.

Reading non merely improves the reading accomplishments and linguistic communication acquisition but besides improves in societal accomplishments. Reading improves general cognition and communicating accomplishments and this leads to more engagement in the community. A individual is able to portion the thoughts, sentiments and experiencing with those around him particularly with the other gender ( Cunningham and Stanovich, 1997 )

Listed below are accounts on how readings are good to the readers. Reading helps to better a individual ‘s vocabulary, spelling, composing accomplishments, eloquence, proficiency, linguistic communication enrichment, cultural enrichment, critical thought, personal engagement, sociolinguistic and matter-of-fact cognition and emotional intelligent

Vocabulary

Harmonizing to the surveies carried out by Magubhai and Elley ( 1983 ) , Cunningham and Stanovich ( 1998 ) , and Elley ( 1992 ) , reading aid to better an ESL scholar ‘s vocabulary list. By reading a book or any printed text, a individual is exposure to new words he has non encounter earlier. The reader will be tempted to cognize the significance of the word by mentioning to the context of the text or by mentioning to a dictionary. The reader will so be tempted to utilize the peculiar word in his unwritten or written communicating. Saragi et Al. ( 1978 ) carried out research on the virtues of reading in geting 2nd linguistic communication. They found that extended reading consequences in a significant addition in the vocabulary of the scholar which is acquired by hold oning the significances of words in context. They mentioned reading is critical for increasing scholars ‘ choice of vocabulary in context, which can non be acquired even by mentioning to the lexicon. Classroom activities do non supply plenty range for the geting of vocabulary in context, therefore the reader has to read extensively to get a useable degree of vocabulary in context.

Spelling

Harmonizing to Walpole ( 2009 ) , reading improves one ‘s phonological consciousness, cognition of phonemics, character, phoneme and morpheme. By reading a individual can intermix the word sound together, fiting other sound together and so categorize the two sounds together to organize significance. This means the individual is cognizant how the character, morpheme and phoneme are combined phonologically. This leads to understanding the word, cognition of the significance from the contexts and the spelling of the word. The more frequent that peculiar word appears, the more familiarised the individual be with the spelling

Writing Skills

Reading has a particular relationship with authorship. Whatever is read is remembered and this helps in composing. Reading has many genres that help us to larn the construction of a peculiar linguistic communication. By reading a batch, the reader will be more familiar with the targeted linguistic communication. Vocabulary will be expended and so will the grammatical constructions. Rules of grammar wil be automatically acquired. Reading once more and once more will take to the wonder of seeking to unite sentences of words together and composing them down

Eloquence

Wolfe and Katzir-Cohen ( 2001 ) mentioned that eloquence is an of import portion of reading comprehension. Samuel ( 2002 ) defined eloquence as the “ ability to read connected text quickly, swimmingly, effortlessly, and automatically with small attending to the mechanics of reading ” . Dowhower ( 1987 ) has proven through his research that fluent readers are able to read a text faster, more accurately, and better apprehension. In another word, fluid reading allows readers to do connexions among the thoughts in the text and between the text and their background cognition. In the terminal, fluid readers can recognize words and comprehend at the same clip. By fluently reading, the readers can automatically recognize the significance of the word with the aid of the background cognition and associate it to the context of the text.

Proficiency

By often reading books in a mark linguistic communication, a individual can better his proficiency. Reading once more and once more helps a reader to be familiar with the linguistic communication construction and the regulations of the grammar. Reading stuffs from other genres, helps the reader to grok the state of affairss from different contexts. For illustration what do you state during a funeral or what to state in a shopping composite? The reader will be tempted to utilize the phrases found in the books or reading stuffs, and when the phrase is repeated, the reader will so be proficient.

Language Enrichment

Reading provides scholars with a immense scope of the assorted lexical or syntactic points. Readers will go familiar with the characteristics of the written linguistic communication. They learn about the sentence structure and discourse maps of sentences, the mark linguistic communication constructions, the different ways of linking thoughts, which develop and enrich their ain authorship accomplishments. Readers besides become more productive and adventuresome when they begin to comprehend the profusion and diverseness of the linguistic communication they are seeking to larn and get down to do usage of some of that possible themselves. Therefore, they improve their communicative and cultural competency in the reliable profusion, naturalness of the reliable texts. On top of that, reading aids to develop the grammatical facets of the linguistic communication. Literature involves a profound scope of vocabulary, duologues and prose ( Truong Thi My Van, 2009 ) . Though poesy is normally criticized for its complex and far-fetched syntactic constructions, it can at the same time be a good beginning for practising grammatical constructions.

Cultural Enrichment

Literary texts such as verse forms, short narratives, dramas and novels facilitate understanding on how communicating takes topographic point in certain civilizations in different parts of the universe. Although the universes of literary texts are fanciful one, it presents a full and colorful scene in which characters from many societal and regional backgrounds can be described ( Collie, and Slater. 1990 ) . By reading, the reader will be able to see the characters ‘ feelings, ideas, imposts and behaviors. This colorful created universe can rapidly assist Malaysian Undergraduates to experience for the norms that shape a society through written signifiers. Literature can complement other stuffs used to develop the Malaysian scholar ‘s apprehension into the English linguistic communication. As a decision literature can supply pupils with entree to the civilization of the people whose linguistic communication they are analyzing.

Critical Thinking

In his 2009 paper Truong Thi My Van, literature is a good medium for critical thought sweetening among linguistic communication scholars. The writer besides states that reading can convey about alterations in the attitudes of the scholars. Harmonizing to Langer ( 1997 ) , reading allows SLA readers to reflect on their lives, acquisition, and linguistic communication. In page 607, Langer said that by reading literature text it helps to open “ skylines of possibility ” . This allows pupils to inquiry, interpret, connect, and explore. Literature therefore helps in the development of higher order believing accomplishments. Today, critical thought is highly of import for instruction particularly at advanced degrees of instruction or in order words Undergraduates. Critical thought prepares us non to take things for granted and to try to unknot the concealed docket of texts.

Personal Engagement

Reading can be utile in the acquisition of 2nd linguistic communication as it actively involves the reader to the text. Once any SLA reader begins to read, he or she will be drawn to the text. The longer the reader reads the more confined he or she becomes and when this happens, the intent of reading alterations from understanding the significance to happening out what happens following in the secret plan ( Hismanoglu 2005 ) . The reader so becomes so involved that nil else affair. When this happens, the reader the reader feels closer to the characters or a peculiar character and portions their emotional responses. This is good to linguistic communication acquisition. At this occasion, the prominence of the choice of a reading text in relation to the demands, outlooks, and involvements, linguistic communication degree of the pupils is apparent ( Elliot, 1990 ) .

Sociolinguistic and Matter-of-fact Knowledge

As mentioned by Hismanoglu ( 2005 ) , literature is an illustration of reliable stuff land this can assist with the development of the English Language among Malayan Secondary School Students. Due to its genuineness, literature can develop sociolinguistic and matter-of-fact cognition as manifested in communicative competency theoretical accounts ( McKay, 2001 ) . Sociolinguistic and Matter-of-fact competency are two of the chief constituents of the communicative linguistic communication. Literature due to its genuineness is equipped with sociolinguistic and matter-of-fact information. These two characteristics are more related to ‘appropriateness ‘ in linguistic communication which can be found merely in contextualized linguistic communication such as literary texts particularly dramas and dramas. Readers can acquire firsthand experience as how to utilize the existent linguistic communication state of affairss.

Emotional Intelligent

Reading literary texts foster emotional intelligence. Emotional Quotient is specifically related to human ability to command and pull off their emotions and feelings in hard state of affairss. Students learn to command their anxiousness fondness, feeling and emotion through reading ( Gajdusek, and new wave Dommelen, 1993 ) . Therefore literature is a good beginning for fostering Emotional Quotient.

Problems in Reading among Undergraduates of a Second Language

There are many jobs in reading faced by undergraduate readers of a 2nd linguistic communication. The chief job is the deficiency of involvement in reading books in English or other 2nd linguistic communication. Readers prefer to read book or any printed or on-line stuff in their female parent lingua. They are familiar with the linguistic communication construction and have been reading in their female parent lingua since immature. Many readers have troubles in understanding what they read as the words are alienated to them. This may be caused by their strangeness with the spelling of the word and sometimes the word may hold two different significances. They are no able to understand the context of the text and hence lose involvement in the book.

Another major job is readers are forced to read. Dowhower ( 1987 ) has proven through his research that when a individual is forced to read something, so the individual will non bask the book and this leads to detesting the book. The information from the book will non be absorbed into the individual ‘s head. Smith & A ; Robinson ( 1980 ) defined reading as “ an active effort on the portion of reader to understand a author ‘s significance ” and when you are forced to read nil is understood. Reading for pleasance or in other words reading for the merriment of it will better one ‘s linguistic communication acquisition, critical thought accomplishments and matter-of-fact cognition.

Frustration of readers towards text is frequent job to reading. Frustration happens when the reader is unable to understand the significance of the sentence in the first two times of reading Hismanoglu ( 2005 ) . Readers will so take clip to decrypt the text and if they still ca n’t understand they will go forth the book. Another ground harmonizing to Hismanoglu is the reader is unable to link with the context of the trial. Readers of academic books find it hard to grok the significance because of the long accounts and the blend temper of the text. When there are excessively many unknown words, reader tend to jump those unknown words and this leads to non understanding the context of the reading stuff.

Time is another job faced by undergraduates. With a feverish agenda, undergraduates are able to pass sufficient clip reading. Hismanoglu 2005 stated that the reader will be more familiar with the linguistic communication construction as reading stuff are reliable stuff and this can assist with the development of the English Language or other 2nd linguistic communication. Due to its genuineness, literature can develop sociolinguistic and matter-of-fact cognition as manifested in communicative competency theoretical accounts ( McKay, 2001 ) If a reader does n’t hold adequate clip to read, he or she will lose out in bettering themselves.

Methodology

Research Design

This survey uses a quantitative research attack. Quantitative research is the precise count of behavior, cognition, sentiments, or attitudes ( Cooper and Schindler, 2006, p.716 ) . There are several grounds why a quantitative questionnaire study was chosen. Harmonizing to Sekaran ( 2003 ) , a questionnaire study will guarantee comparison of informations, addition velocity and truth of entering and easing informations processing. Many relevant surveies associating to perceptual experiences have used the quantitative study attack. Quantitative method can arouse information from a larger figure of topics in a short period clip and it is cost effectual

Research Instrument

The instruments used in this survey is a questionnaire consisting of 30 points adopted from assorted instruments including instruments from of Christina Clark and Amelia Foster from the National Literacy Trust ( 2003 ) , Kumar and Ansari ( 2010 ) , Oyeronke ( 2009 ) and Lone ( 2011 ) . The questionnaire has three subdivisions. The first subdivision had 8 inquiries sing the respondents ‘ personal information, inquiries in this subdivision ranged from gender to the spoken linguistic communication at place. Section B consists of 10 inquiries sing the respondents ‘ reading penchants. The concluding subdivision consisted of 10 inquiries that focused on reading and two inquiries on jobs in reading. The inquiries in all three subdivisions were pick base inquiries.

Sampling

Twenty undergraduates from five modules which are Faculty of Arts and Social Science, Faculty of Business and Accountancy, Faculty of Engineering, Faculty of Languages and Linguistics and Faculty of Science participated in this survey. They were handily selected. The research worker administered the questionnaire to those who were in University of Malaya Main Library and the parking batch

Datas Analysis

The questionnaires were collected and the information was entered in a templet utilizing Microsoft Office Excel 2007.The information was cleaned and analysed. As this is a pilot survey with 20 topics, it was easier and faster to analyze the information without utilizing SPSS ( Statistical Package for Social Science. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the undergraduate pupils ‘ responses.

Consequence

The Demography of the Respondents

The demographic profile of the respondents is given in Table 1

Table 1 Demography of the Respondents

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Gender

Male

6

30 %

Female

14

70 %

Age

18-20

3

15 %

21-23

13

65 %

23 & A ; above

4

20 %

MUET Band

1

1

6 %

2

13

76 %

3

0

0 %

4

3

18 %

Undergraduate Year

1

5

25 %

2

10

50 %

3

4

20 %

4

1

5 %

Mother Tongue

Malay

7

35 %

Mandarin

5

25 %

Tamil

7

35 %

Arabic

1

5 %

Spoken Language

Malay

7

35 %

Mandarin

5

25 %

Tamil

7

35 %

Arabic

1

5 %

Base on Table 1, bulk of the pupils are females ( 70 % ) , aged 21-23 ( 65 % ) , have obtained Band 2 in MUET ( 76 % ) and are in the 2nd twelvemonth of survey ( 50 % ) . The per centum of pupils with the Mother Tongue and their Spoken linguistic communication correspond to each other.

Reading Preferences

The reading penchants among undergraduates in University of Malaya are summarized in Table 2

Table 2 The Reading Preferences

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Enjoy Reading Books

Yes

16

80 %

No

4

20 %

Read Books In?

English

5

25 %

Mother Tongue

15

75 %

Number Of Books Read In The Past 6 Calendar months

One

2

10 %

Two

3

15 %

Three

3

15 %

Four

3

15 %

Five

1

5 %

Six And Above

8

40 %

Frequently Of Reading In A Month

Once A Week

4

20 %

Two To Three Times A Week

8

40 %

Four Timess A Week

2

10 %

Everyday

6

30 %

Time Spend Reading In One Session

Less Than 30 Minutes

1

5 %

30 Minutes To One Hour

4

20 %

One And A Half Hour

2

10 %

Two Hourss

2

10 %

More Than Three Hours

4

20 %

Time Of The Day

Morning

4

20 %

Afternoon

2

10 %

Evening

4

20 %

Night

14

40 %

Table 2 shows bulk of the pupils ( 80 % ) enjoy reading books while most of them ( 75 % ) prefer to read in their ain Mother Tongue. 40 % of the pupils read more than five books in the past six months.

Eight of the pupils ( 40 % ) , read two to three times per hebdomad. The clip spent per reading session is distributed equally over less than 30 proceedingss and more than three hours where both are 20 % . Out of 20 pupils, merely 40 % or 14 pupils prefer to read at dark

Reading Materials

The reading stuffs of undergraduates in University of Malaya is given in Table 3

Table 3 Reading Materials

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Reading Material

Printed Material

7

35 %

On-line Material

4

20 %

Both

11

55 %

On-line Devicess

Computer

2

10 %

Laptop

17

85 %

Tablet

3

15 %

Smart Phone

2

10 %

Reading Genres

Thriller

7

35 %

Authoritative

3

15 %

Horror

4

20 %

Crime

5

25 %

Love affair

9

45 %

Fantasy

7

35 %

History

6

30 %

Biography

2

10 %

Sports

4

20 %

Politicss

1

5 %

Education

7

35 %

Academic

3

15 %

Religious

7

35 %

Magazine

6

30 %

Health

7

35 %

Cooking

5

25 %

Science Fiction

6

30 %

Beginning Of Material

Bookstore

14

70 %

Library

11

55 %

Friends

7

35 %

Photostatted

3

15 %

Free On-Line

14

70 %

Amazon

1

5 %

Other On-line Shop

1

5 %

Table 3 describes that 11 pupils ( 55 % ) like to read both printed and online stuff. The most frequently used online device for reading online stuff is the laptop ( 85 % ) .

The Romance Genre was reported to be the most preferable reading genre with a sum of 11 pupils ( 45 % ) . Merely one pupil ( 5 % ) preferred the political genre.

The major beginning for printed stuff was the bookshop. This can be seen with 70 % of the pupils said they bought they reading stuff from the bookshop. For online stuffs, 70 % of the pupils mentioned that they read the material on-line for free

Reading Influence

The current reading influence of the undergraduates in University of Malaya is given in Table 4

Table 4 Reading Habit

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Current Influence

Parents

4

20 %

Siblings

2

10 %

Friends

8

40 %

Lectures

8

40 %

Media

7

35 %

Prefer To Read At:

Home

12

60 %

Library

8

40 %

Entirely

17

85 %

Choice Of Reading Material

Writer

6

30 %

Title

11

55 %

Drumhead

8

40 %

Monetary value

2

10 %

Illustration

3

15 %

Genre

6

30 %

Pages

4

20 %

Screen

2

10 %

Suggestion From Others

3

15 %

Base on Table 4, most of the pupils cited that their friends ( 40 % ) , their talks ( 40 % ) and the media ( 35 % ) act upon their current reading.

85 % of the pupils ( 17 ) reported that they prefer to read entirely and their preferable topographic point to read is either at place ( 60 % ) or in the library ( 40 % )

11 pupils or 55 % select their reading stuff based on the rubric, while merely 2 pupils, 10 % choose their stuff based on the monetary value of screen.

Reading Purpose of undergraduates

The reading intent among undergraduates in University of Malaya is provided in Table 5.

Table 5 Reading Purpose of undergraduates in University of Malaya

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Purpose Of Reading

Get Information

16

80 %

Mention

6

30 %

To Pass The Time

6

30 %

To Complete A Course

3

15 %

Language Acquisition

6

30 %

Improve Pragmatic Knowledge

3

15 %

Reading Improves

Vocabulary

8

40 %

Spelling

5

25 %

Language Structure

6

30 %

Theories

4

20 %

Grammar

3

15 %

Pronunciation

2

10 %

General Knowledge

17

85 %

Unknown Word

Refer To Dictionary

15

75 %

Guess The Meaning Of The Word

6

30 %

Ask Around For Meaning

6

30 %

Guess The Meaning From Context

9

45 %

Skip The Word

2

10 %

Table 5 shows that without uncertainty most of the pupils read in order to acquire information from the reading stuff ( 80 % ) . 85 % of respondents said reading improves their general cognition.

Surprisingly when the pupils come across unknown words, most of them ( 75 % ) refer to a dictionary while 9 pupils ( 45 % ) conjecture the significance on the word based on the context.

After Reading

The activities after the undergraduates read their reading stuff is provided in Table 6

Table 6 After Reading Activity

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

After Finish Reading

Visualize The Plot

6

30 %

Summaries The Book

7

35 %

Talk To Others About The Book

13

65 %

Reflect About The Book

3

15 %

Feel Relief The Reading Is Done

3

15 %

Who Do You Talk To

Parents

1

5 %

Siblings

5

25 %

Friends

18

90 %

Teacher

2

10 %

How Often Do You Talk

Never

1

5 %

Once I Start Reading

4

20 %

Once I Finish Reading

11

55 %

When I Am Force To

1

5 %

Whenever The Subject Comes Up

7

35 %

Base on Table 6, 65 % of the pupils talked to others about the reading stuff they had read and most of them ( 90 % ) talked to their friends. 11 pupils or 55 % of the respondents, said that they talk to other one time they finish reading while, 7 pupils ( 35 % ) Begin to speak about the reading stuff whenever the subject arises

Reading Problems Faced by undergraduates in University of Malaya

The jobs faced by undergraduates of University of Malaya is given in Table 7

Table 7 Reading Problems Faced by Undergraduates in University of Malaya

Variable

Frequency

Percentage

Problems When Reading

Not Able To Understand What I Read

3

15 %

Many Unknown Wordss

5

25 %

Not Enough Time

11

55 %

Not My Mother Language

4

20 %

Degree Of Text Is High

6

30 %

Problems In Completing A Book

Excessively Many Pages

6

30 %

Rather Do Something Else

4

20 %

There Are No Illustration

3

15 %

The Text Is Not Interesting

10

50 %

I Lose Interest While Reading

11

55 %

I Would Read More If

I Enjoy The Book

18

90 %

I Have More Time

12

60 %

I Read With Person

0

0 %

I Talk About The Book Often

2

10 %

I Am Not Forced To Read

5

25 %

There ‘s A Reward

2

10 %

There ‘s Are Illustrations

6

30 %

The Level Of Text Is Suitable

9

45 %

The Books Are Cheaper

5

25 %

There ‘s Not Many Pages

7

35 %

Base on Table 7, the chief ground for non reading is deficient clip as suggested by 55 % of the pupils. For non finishing the reading stuff, 55 % mentioned that they lost involvement while reading and 50 % said that the text was non interesting to them.

On the inquiry on when they would read more, 90 % said that they would read more if they enjoyed the book, while 60 % said that if they had more clip to read.

Discussion

This survey identified four factors that affected the reading wonts among undergraduates in University of Malaya. There four factors are enjoyment of reading, reading involvement, clip and influence of media and equals. These four factors will be discussed in inside informations below

Enjoyment of Reading

From the consequences it can be that one of the chief factors that affect reading wonts is enjoyment of reading. From bulk of the respondents ( 80 % ) stated they enjoy reading. This can be proven by the figure of respondents that read more than six books in the past six months. Whenever a individual enjoys what he reads, he will pass more clip reading and this brings a batch of benefits. Such benefits are betterment in linguistic communication acquisition, linguistic communication and civilization enrichment and betterment in critical thought. A individual must bask reading to derive these benefits. It can be concluded that basking reading is an of import factor that affect reading wonts.

Reading Interest

Another factor that affect reading wonts in the involvement towards the reading stuff. The more involvement a individual has towards the reading stuff, the more the individual will read. Interest plays an of import impression if the individual finishes reading or wantonnesss the reading. From the survey, it was reported that bulk of the respondents lost involvement while reading. This may be due to non being able to understand what is being read ( 15 % ) , degree of the reading stuff is excessively high ( 30 % ) , the reading stuff is non in the female parent lingua ( 20 % ) and there are n’t any or adequate illustrations in the reading stuff ( 15 % ) as reflected from the consequences of the survey. A individual may besides lose involvement to read if he or she is forced to read. Dowhower ( 1987 ) said when a individual is forced to read something, so the individual will non bask the reading stuff and this leads to detesting the reading stuff and abandoning it. The information from the stuff will non be absorbed into the individual ‘s head. Smith & A ; Robinson ( 1980 ) when you are forced to read nil is understood. At times reader loses involvement while reading because of long accounts and the bland tone ( Hismanoglu 2005 ) of the text. Illustration helps the reader to see the scene of the text or the context of the text. Without illustrations, readers find it difficult to understand what is read. When readers are no able to understand the context of the text and hence lose involvement in the book

Time Factor

The consequence besides showed that clip is a cardinal factor impacting reading wonts. The more clip a individual spends reading, the more he or she acquires the targeted linguistic communication. This determination corroborates with literature. Hismanoglu 2005 stated that the reader will be more familiar with the linguistic communication construction as reading stuff are reliable stuff and this can assist with the development of the English Language or other 2nd linguistic communication. Due to its genuineness, literature can develop sociolinguistic and matter-of-fact cognition as manifested in communicative competency theoretical accounts ( McKay, 2001 ) . Literary texts such as verse forms, short narratives, dramas and novels facilitate understanding on how communicating takes topographic point in certain civilizations in different parts of the universe. If a reader does n’t hold adequate clip to read, he or she will lose out in bettering themselves. Establish on this survey, the respondents spend less than three hours reading in a individual session. They complained that they do n’t hold adequate clip to read as due to a feverish agenda. Majority of the respondents said they read at dark after a whole twenty-four hours of categories or activities. 60 % claim that they would read more if they had more clip.

Influence Media and Peers

Influence of reading dramas an of import factor that affect reading wonts. Young grownups tend to follow the latest fad that is traveling on. The nutrient consumed, apparels used and manner of speech production are all base on the latest “ in thing ” . The same can be said approximately reading as many tend to follow the tendency. Readers are influenced by their friends and the media. If a certain genre is popular in the media particularly telecasting and films, so the undergraduate would take reading stuffs that are in that genre. In this survey 35 % of the respondents stated they are influenced to take the reading material base on the media. Young grownups tend to read stuffs that their friends read. 40 % of the respondents agree that their friends influence their readings.

Restriction

The findings of this survey should be viewed in the visible radiation of a certain restriction. This is a pilot survey hence the sample size was little. With a larger sample size more penetrations on the reading wonts can be obtained.

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