Fiscal Imbalances And Inflation: Case Study Of Pakistan

Abstract. Deficits are a characteristic of any economic system and more so of a developing economic system due to the irresistible impulses of puting for future growing. In instance of Pakistan, it has been observed that in recent old ages rising prices has crossed the threshold point and financial instabilities have been the most of import factor in lending towards rising prices. This paper focuses on relation between financial shortages and rising prices and how financing financial shortages affect rising prices. For this, a long tally informations of Pakistan get downing from Fiscal year1976 to Fiscal twelvemonth 2007 has been analyzed. Different manners of funding financial shortage have been observed which include shortage funding, financing through external adoptions and internal adoptions. The empirical findings of the survey indicate that there exists a positive relation between financial shortage and rising prices. All the manners of funding shortage are positively and significantly related to rising prices in Pakistan. This has been through empirical observation tested by using cointegration trial. The consequences imply that shortage funding is the most inflationary manner of financing financial shortage.

Keywords: Fiscal Imbalances, Money Supply, Borrowing, Inflation and Pakistan

JEL Classification: E310, E510, E620, H810


If one were to name the factors that have impeded Pakistan from achieving the higher growing way, the high financial instability and rising prices rate would look at the top. Pakistan has been confronting a consistent financial instability since two decennaries. It is argued that financial instabilities might hold played an of import function in explicating monetary value fluctuations. During 90 ‘s the critical undertaking faced by the State Bank of Pakistan was to command rising prices at the targeted degree and besides to guarantee macroeconomic stableness. During the financial twelvemonth 1998 to the financial twelvemonth of 2003, the overall rising prices rate was 4.6 per centum on norm, which is an declarative of comparative monetary value stableness in the state. Earlier during financial twelvemonth of 1973 to the financial twelvemonth of 1980, the rising prices rate averaged at 14.3 per centum. During 1980 ‘s economic system experienced a relatively moderate rate of rising prices averaged at 7.2 per centum per annum. In fact, financial sector indexs besides moved in the same way during the sub-periods mentioned earlier.

In Pakistan relentless financial instabilities have contributed to low national nest eggs and investing, hindering growing public presentation. Seven or eight old ages ago, the state ‘s financial shortage averaged at 10 per centum of GDP and this is now at 6.3 per centum. How can a 20-year mean shortage of 7 per centum of GDP be financed? Either through borrowing from foreign sector, domestic sector or by publishing new notes ( shortage funding ) . All beginnings of funding financial shortage have their ain drawbacks. Financing through external adoptions causes the external debt load to turn which creates Balance of Payment jobs and increases involvement payments which in bend makes financial shortage instability more terrible. If funding is through publishing money, it straight leads to rising prices. And if it is financed through internal adoptions including non-bank adoptions, this leads to the herding out job and increases domestic debt as good.

In Pakistan, it is argued that the chief causes behind high rate of rising prices could be chronic financial shortage and all the above manners of funding shortage are inflationary. Here the relationship between financial shortage and rising prices is presented with the aid of a spread diagram pickings clip series informations of Pakistan over a period of 32 old ages.

The spread diagram shows the relationship between rising prices and overall financial shortage. The upward motion of points shows a positive relation between financial shortage and rising prices over the last 32 old ages. This shows that Fiscal Deficits are inflationary but this needs to be tested through empirical observation.

The major aim of the paper is to analyze the impact of addition in money supply indexs on the inflationary tendency in Pakistan utilizing clip series econometric methodological analysis. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the literature reappraisal and hypotheses derivation. Section 3 reveals the methodological analysis and theoretical account specification. Section 4 shows empirical findings. Reasoning comments and some policy deductions are given in the last subdivision.


The authorities outgo, which is non financed by financial grosss, creates extra demand that consequences in high rising prices rate in economic system.

Harmonizing to a survey carried by Sergent and Wallace ( 1981 ) , those authoritiess that are running a persistent shortage have to ; sooner or later finance those shortages with increasing money creative activity that produces rising prices in long tally. Keynesian Economic Theory ( 1923 ) is of the sentiment that an addition in budget shortage causes an addition in existent involvement rate, which consequences in herding out of private investing and a high degree of general monetary values. When pecuniary shortages are financed, it means that there is an extra demand in the economic system, which creates rising prices.

Some Empirical surveies have had a small success in set uping a statistically important connexion between rising prices and financial shortage like: King and Plosser ( 1985 ) did a comprehensive survey on United States and other 12 states but found no general and important relation between financial shortages and rising prices. The survey conducted by De Haan, and Zelhorest ( 1990 ) , found that rising prices is weakly related to budget shortages except during really high rising prices period. Dornbusch, Sturzenegger and Wolf ( 1990 ) besides found a negative relation between rising prices and financial shortage.

The hypothesis of a positive relation between financial shortage and rising prices is supported by a big figure of surveies. Cevdet, Alpher and Ozmucur ( 2001 ) found a positive relation between financial shortage and rising prices. Harmonizing to their survey, the funding of shortage through money printing, internal and/or external adoptions leads to rising prices in long tally. Solomon and De Wet ( 2004 ) , utilizing one-year informations of Tanzania from 1967-2001 found that there exists a stable long tally relation between budget shortage and rising prices. The survey carried out by Catao and Terrones ( 2003 ) shows that the relation between financial shortage and rising prices is important and positive. This decision has been reached by proving a panel information of 107 states.

Harmonizing to Robert E. Lucas Jr ( 1981 ) , sustained pecuniary enlargements are ever and every where a effect of publishing money to cover the spread between authorities outgo and authorities grosss and this money printing ( shortage funding ) is straight related to rising prices. The survey conducted by Hossain ( 2005 ) , shows that after using Granger Causality Test it was found that rising prices and financial shortage have a positive relation. This relation was tested for Indonesia ‘s economic system from 1954-2002. Dabus and Tohme ( 2003 ) examined the relation between rising prices and money supply in Argentina during the period 1960-2003, in the frame work of four governments: centrist, high, really high and hyperinflation. They found that consequences varied among governments but in all instances money supply affects rising prices particularly during hyperinflation period. To prove this relation merely for Pakistan, following hypothesis has been formulated:

The higher the rate of money supply ( shortage funding ) in economic system, higher will be the rate of rising prices.

Fiscal shortages are besides financed through internal ( bank + non-bank ) adoption. The survey carried out by Chaudhary and Ahmed ( 1995 ) shows that domestic funding of financial shortages, peculiarly from the banking system leads to rising prices in long tally. Khan, Bukhari and Ahmed ( 2007 ) , are of the position that funding of financial shortage through money creative activity adds to inflationary force per unit area. On the other manus, increased authorities borrowing from cardinal bank can hold serious effects. Harmonizing to Tellius ( 2007 ) , authoritiess for funding shortage, may take to pass more than their current income by borrowing but domestic adoption causes involvement rate to lift which contributes to rising prices by herding out private investing and decrease in aggregative supply. Based on this, following hypothesis has been formulated for Pakistan:

Higher domestic adoptions lead to more rising prices.

It is besides analyzed that external adoption for financing financial shortages leads to external debt load. Fischer and Easterly ( 1990 ) are of the position that foreign adoption is ever associated with an external debt crises. Kwon, McFarlane and Robinson ( 2006 ) found comprehensive grounds that an addition in public debt ( portion of external debt ) , leads to rising prices in extremely indebted states but this form holds less strongly in advanced economic systems. Harmonizing to Pasha and Ghaus ( 2009 ) , financing financial shortage through external adoptions leads to an addition in non-interest current history shortages and capital losingss on external debt due to existent exchange rate depreciation which leads to rising prices. In position of Tullius ( 2007 ) foreign adoption and its service can impact exchange rate motions and a devaluation or depreciation occurs which adds to rising prices. This leads to preparation of following hypothesis:

Higher external adoptions lead to more rising prices.


In this paper clip series informations from 1976 to 2007 is used for a long tally analysis of relation between financial instabilities and rising prices. The dependent variable is rising prices rate measured by GDP deflator. The Independent variables include money supply ( M2 ) , entire internal ( domestic ) adoptions and entire external ( foreign ) adoptions.

The adoptions have been measured in 1000000s. The information on these variables has been collected from Pakistan Economic Survey ( assorted issues ) and United Nations Development Indicators.

The abbreviations used for variables are: –

Inflation = GDP deflator

IB = entire internal adoptions

EB = entire external adoptions

MS = money supply ( M2 )

All these explanatory variables are straight related to rising prices. For appraisal, following equation is used:

Inflation = I?o + I?1 ( IB ) + I?2 ( EB ) + I?3 ( MS ) + I…t

Where I…t is random error term

As the survey uses clip series informations to prove the above mentioned relation and since clip series informations is furnished with non-stationarity, the cogency of the ensuing trial statistics and the estimated coefficients themselves give improper consequences because the non stationary series do non travel around their mean values and they show a different tendency at each clip period. Using simple OLS arrested development theoretical account on such series give the consequences that are furnished with specious arrested development and a high value of R-square. Therefore right theoretical account application is of import if any meaningful policy deductions are to be drawn from the theoretical account estimations.

Time-series informations characteristically contains a tendency, which must be removed before set abouting any appraisal. The traditional de-trending process separates the tendency from the cyclical constituent of the series. This process is appropriate for tendency stationary ( TS ) time-series. However, many macroeconomic time-series are difference stationary ( DS ) .

DS type time-series may go stationary and application of OLS technique may besides give proper estimations but this sort of appraisal provides merely a short tally relationship between the variables to be estimated. On the other manus, if ordinary least squares ( OLS ) appraisal techniques are applied to non-differenced DS type sequences, ensuing mistake footings are serially correlated. This renders any subsequent hypothesis trials undependable. The existent finding of whether a variable is TS or DS is based upon the consequences of unit root trials. Numerous unit root trials have been presented in economic literature ; the most common trial, and the one we utilize, is the Augmented Dickey-Fuller trial. If one can reject the void hypothesis that a series possesses a unit root, so the series is TS, or integrated of order nothing I ( 0 ) . If one can non reject the nothing of a unit root, so the series is DS. Subsequent unit root trials on differenced DS series determine the signifier in which the information may be used in arrested developments. The most common happening is that first differences of DS series are stationary ; in this instance the series is said to be integrated of order one I ( 1 ) and no farther differencing of the informations or unit root proving is required.

When multiple single time-series variables are found to be integrated of order one, an extra trial is required to find whether long-run relationships exist among the variables. Cointegration trials indicate the presence of such stable long-run relationships. After using cointegration trial, Error rectification theoretical account or VAR theoretical accounts are applied to take defects, if any, in the cointegration trial. Therefore, following three econometric trials have been applied on the information ; –




4. Empirical Findings

Before discoursing the empirical findings findings, the relationship between rising prices and manners of funding shortage i.e. money supply, entire internal adoptions and entire external adoptions separately in the undermentioned spread diagrams. After graphical analysis, Johanson cointegration trial and VAR theoretical account have been applied to look into the long tally and short tally relation between dependant and independent variables.

The spread diagram presents the relationship between money supply and rising prices. The points move in upward way bespeaking a positive relation. The positive relation confirms the hypothesis that increases in money supply increases the rising prices rate in Pakistan. This relation has been supported by many other economic experts view presented earlier in the literature reappraisal.

The relationship between rising prices and entire internal adoptions has besides been investigated with the aid of spread diagram. This relationship is presented in Figure 3.

Figure 3 besides shows a positive relation between entire internal ( domestic ) adoptions and rising prices. This implies that if Pakistani authorities continues to finance financial shortage through borrowing from domestic beginnings over a long period of clip, this adds to inflationary force per unit area. This once more confirms the hypothesis that higher the internal adoption, higher will be rising prices rate in Pakistan.

Figure 3. Internal adoptions and rising prices

Figure 4 investigates the relation between entire internal ( foreign ) adoptions and rising prices. The motion of points shows that there is a positive relation between external adoptions and rising prices. This once more confirms the hypothesis, made, that more external adoptions more will be the rate of rising prices in Pakistan.

The motion of points in Figure 3 and 4 both show an upward motion taking outliers as exclusions. Therefore both figures confirm the hypotheses made before.


Augmented Dickey Fuller ( ADF ) Unit Root Test is applied to informations to set up the stationarity position of all variables. This trial is a pre-requisite of Johanson cointegration trial. Furthermore, to use the cointegration trial, all informations series must be stationary at same degree of integrating. All the variables are tested including intercept. Furthermore, all variables have been taken in their log signifiers. The principle behind taking logarithms of all variables is to do usage of dual log theoretical accounts as these theoretical accounts give a better thought of alteration in variables over clip. The ADF trial for sationarity shows that all variables are integrated of order ( 1 ) and they become stationary at first differences after including the maximal lag length of 7 periods.

As Augmented Dickey Fuller trial statistic shows that the series are non-stationary at degree and all series become stationary at first difference. Besides, the order of integrating is same. All these consequences lead application of Johanson cointegration trial because if informations is non-stationary and OLS arrested development is applied so the consequences are undependable. For long tally relation cointegration trial must be applied and after that VAR mistake rectification mechanism is applied to acquire error free consequences.

For application of Johanson cointegration trial, the necessary status is that all series must hold same order of integrating, which has already been proved. The trial is applied utilizing the premise of intercept merely. Furthermore, the slowdown length chosen for appraisal of the theoretical account is 12.

Table 2 presents the consequence of Johanson cointegration trial. The void hypothesis is rejected at R = 0. It could non be rejected after R = 0. Consequently it can be concluded that there is merely one co-integrating relationship among the variables, specified in the theoretical account. Eigen values show the comparative importance of the additive combination of the variables.

The 2nd measure in the cointegration involves building an mistake rectification theoretical account. And the best theoretical account for building an mistake rectification theoretical account is vector Autoregressive Model. Harmonizing to the theory of cointegration, if all variables are I ( 1 ) and there exists an mistake rectification mechanism, so the additive combination of the I ( 1 ) variables is ever stationary. In this instance, following additive relationship exists: –

Log ( rising prices ) = I?o + I?1 log ( MS ) + I?2 log ( EB ) + I?3 log ( IB ) + I…t

Where I…t is random mistake term which must be white noise for the estimations to be proper and right. Therefore VAR theoretical account is applied after the application of cointegration trial.

Both the cointegration trial and the VAR theoretical account show that all variables are important both in long tally and short tally ( short tally dealingss are shown by differenced equations denoted by D ) . The trials show that there exists a stable long tally relationship between dependant and independent variables and besides the independent variables positively affect dependent variable. Furthermore, the cointegration estimations are besides stationary, which satisfies the premise of cointegration theory. It is shown in the undermentioned figure that the estimations are stationary as they move around a average value shown by the nothing grid line.

Figure 5. Cointegration Estimates


Using Time Series informations of Pakistan over the period of 32 old ages get downing from 1976 to 2007, the being of a stable long tally relationship between budget shortage and rising prices is tested in this survey and the consequences have been collateral. Using arrested development analysis, a important impact of manners of funding financial shortage and rising prices has been found.

All the variables i.e. money supply, internal ( domestic ) adoptions and external ( foreign ) adoptions have a notable impact on rising prices in Pakistan. It can be observed that through cointegration trial and VAR theoretical account that rising prices is extremely affected by money supply, external adoption and internal adoption. This is besides consistent with the classical position that “ duplicate the money supply in the economic system, dual will be the monetary values ” .

Therefore, maintaining these consequences in position it can be suggested that Pakistan must pay attending towards its adoption scheme. It can be observed in the present economic state of affairs that increasing money supply through shortage funding or printing of new money is adding to our inflationary force per unit area. Furthermore, borrowing from internal beginnings which include commercial Bankss and other fiscal establishments should be minimized. Equally far as borrowing from external beginnings i.e. bilateral or many-sided beginnings are concerned, they must be considered as a last resort because present twenty-four hours conditionalies applied by external beginnings non merely take to inflationary force per unit area but besides it adds to the debt load with continuously lifting involvement rate.

This survey concludes that manners of funding financial shortage create rising prices in Pakistan. And it can be concluded that financing financial shortage ( instabilities ) through money creative activity and adoptions are inflationary in Pakistan.


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