Marxism is an political orientation that was theorised by Karl Marx that is based on the societal and economic procedures of category formation in a capitalist society. Harmonizing to Marx there are two categories viz. the middle class and labor. The middle class or governing category ain and command the agencies of production. They monopolise the political power and put Torahs in topographic point in order to protect and foster their involvements. In this manner the beliefs and values will reflect and legalize their regulation. Whereas, the labor or working category are dispossessed from doing their ain support, but are forced to sell their labor for endurance. If the dominant category ‘s power is accepted as legitimate by the working category, this is known as false consciousness ( Longurst, Smith, Bagnall, Crawford & A ; Ogborn, 2008 ) . This political orientation became the footing of analyzing literature, known as Marxist unfavorable judgment. Marxist critic ‘s attack to literature is based on sociological influences, which means that the texts are the consequence of whichever historical, economic every bit good as cultural fortunes they were created in. Text from whichever epoch reveal the dominate category ‘s political orientation, therefore doing them subjective. ( Potter, 2010 )
The Great Gatsby is a fresh written by Scott Fitzgerald in 1925. The fresh focal points on the lives of the dominant category of a western capitalistic society and how they are shaped by this life style. On the other manus, Death of a Salesman was written by Arthur Miller in 1949. The fresh focal points on the life of a household of labors and how they are impacted by the middle classs in society.
The Great Gatsby does non concentrate on both economic categories. Alternatively it focuses on different groups of the dominant category, viz. old money and the nouveau riche and as a consequence this novel reflects the dominant political orientation. Although the on the job category is mentioned, they are ignored for the most portion. Old money is represented by East Egg, West Egg represents the nouveau riche and the on the job category is represented by the Valley of Ashes.
The supporter, Jay Gatsby, is portion of the nouveau riche who lives in West Egg. Jay Gatsby moves from being the boy of “ shiftless and unsuccessful farm people ” ( 1994 p.105 ) to going the proprietor of a immense West Egg sign of the zodiac with “ a marble swimming pool and over 40 estates of lawn and garden ” ( 1994 p.11 ) , this shows the possibilities offered by the American dream. Gatsby earns his money through illegal agencies, which places him in the new money class, and as a consequence he flaunts by throwing excessive parties and purchasing expensive autos. Another ground Gatsby flaunts is to acquire the attending and win the fondness of Daisy, therefore handling her as a trade good ( Tyson, 2006 ) . Old money, on the other manus, has had money for coevalss, so they do non flash. Old money, people like Tom and Daisy, look down on the nouveau riche, because they got rich quick and, because they are endangering the position quo.
Myrtle and George Wilson are working category characters but they have aspirations to travel to the upper category. George wants to accomplish this through his concern. Whereas, Myrtle has an matter with Tom in the hopes that he will finally get marrieding her. Both the Harriet wilsons are commodified by the middle class and disillusioned by the American dream. Myrtle ‘s slaying is a perfect illustration of how the middle class do non endure the effects of their actions, because they have money, “ aˆ¦they smashed up things and animals and so retreated back into their money or their huge carelessnessaˆ¦ and allow other people clean up the muss they made ” ( 1994 p.186 ) . One individual attends Gatsby ‘s funeral, showing that his attainment of the American dream was merely an semblance.
Death of a Salesman is besides a text that reflects the dominant political orientation, but in this instance the drama is written from the point of position of the on the job category. Although the dominant category has an consequence on the chief characters they are mostly ignored in the drama. Willy Loman, the supporter, is a worn out going salesman on the point of a dislocation. But Willy still believes in the capitalist values and has passed on the hopes of success onto his boy Biff. Disillusioned by the dominant political orientation, Willy is blind to its destructiveness and is fixated with his programs for Biff. Biff, nevertheless, has no purposes in following the programs his male parent has set out for him and intends to prosecute a different way, one that Miller associates with socialist society. His deficiency of thrust to follow conventional success is learning him, non that he is useless, and but that the concern universe might non be for him and that he is better off without it. He is seeking to understand himself and detect his true individuality. In the beginning of the drama, he was non certain of himself and as a consequence returned place in an effort to carry through his male parent ‘s dream. Happy, Willy other boy, has a good occupation and would wish to travel farther. He besides has uncertainnesss about his calling but has no manner to replace it. ( Swets & A ; Zeitlinger, 1994 )
The scene in which Howard, Willy ‘s immature foreman, fires Willy is a perfect illustration of the logic of the capitalist economic instrument. Willy, in an effort to avoid failure, entreaties to Howard ‘s scruples, reminding him the he has been a loyal and long term worker for the company, but to no help. Although Howard is Willy ‘s friend and neighbor, he is a concern adult male and abides by the jurisprudence of net income devising foremost, “ concern is concern ” ( 2000 p.63 ) , which is absolute in the capitalist concern universe. Willy refuses a occupation offer by Charley because he feels its charity and would destruct his image of himself as a autonomous person. Willy failure and Biff similar destiny makes Willy reject his boy. This shows how capitalist value can falsify and destruct a meaningful relationship between male parent and boy. ( Swets & A ; Zeitlinger, 1994 )
Willy decides to perpetrate self-destruction in the hopes that his life insurance payment will enable Biff to lift in the universe. But, Biff becomes the lone 1 in the drama to understand the destructive nature of capitalist values and commiserations his male parent, exclamation: “ I ca n’t bear to look at his face! ” ( 2000 p.115 )
Both texts show how in a capitalist society money gives power and those who have money control the power of society. Equally good as in western capitalist society the upper will necessarily suppress the on the job category and that the American dream is both an semblance and elusive.
This essay has discussed how the two texts differ socioeconomically, utilizing a Marxist unfavorable judgment attack. Specific mention has been made to Marxism and how it relates to Marxist unfavorable judgment, the context of both texts by concentrating on the clip periods every bit good as how the characters lived. This essay has besides looked at the socioeconomic context of The Great Gatsby and Death of a Salesman.