This paper is a survey of Paul Morel ‘s psychological science in Sons and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence on the theoretical footing of the Freudian Oedipus composite. It begins with a primary survey of the Freudian theory and so turns to different analysis of several major characters associated with Paul and their relationships. The literary analysis of this paper is developed along with psychoanalytic analysis, which centers on the grounds why Paul is to develop the Oedipus composite and why he can ne’er detach himself from this fond regard.
David Herbert Lawrence ( 1885-1930 ) is a esteemed English novelist, litterateur, pamphleteer and one of the most talented and influential figures in the 20th century literature. Along with E. M. Foster, James Joyce, Dorothy Richardson, and Virginia Woolf, he is one of the “ shapers ” of modern English fiction. Sons and Lovers is his first major novel, which is besides a singular image of English propertyless life and Lawrence ‘s first major survey of personal dealingss. It is considered to be one of the most of import and advanced novels of the twentieth century.1
Sons and Lovers is about the psychological development of a immature adult male, Paul Morel. He attempts to understand and decide the powerful ambivalency he feels towards his female parent and the other adult females in his life and go an independent person. It is a great calamity that the genitive female parent makes her boies as her lovers-first the eldest, so the 2nd. But when her boies come to manhood, they can non love other adult females, because their female parent is the strongest power over their lives, and she holds their psyches against any adult female who fights for them. The narrative of this immature adult male, Paul Morel, witnesses one of the Freudian theories-the Oedipus composite, which is one of the subjects the novel is to exemplify.
This paper is a survey of Paul Morel ‘s psychological science in Sons and Lovers on the theoretical footing of the Freudian Oedipus composite. It will get down with a primary survey of the Freudian theory and so turn to different analysis of several major characters associated with Paul and their relationships. The literary analysis of this paper will be developed along with psychoanalytic analysis, which will focus on on the grounds why Paul is to develop the Oedipus composite and why he can ne’er detach himself from this fond regard. For illustration, harmonizing to Freudian theory, most male childs ‘ Oedipus composite will bit by bit go through off because of their development of emasculation anxiousness. This factor is critical of import for the passing of the composite and it will be discussed at length by agencies of the analysis of the influence from Paul ‘s male parent, Walter Morel, and their relationship.
II. Brief Introduction to Freudian Theory on the Oedipus Complex
The most influential psychologist in the 20th century, Sigmund Freud, founded depth psychology and besides established a new system for handling behaviour upsets. His research in psychological science brought out many radical and controversial positions on human behaviour. One of the positions he maintained is that concealed beds in the kid ‘s head are animated by sexual and hostile motivations refering its parents. A typical illustration is the Oedipus composite, dwelling of sexual desire toward the parent of the opposite sex and covetous hate of the rival.2
Harmonizing to Freud, the development of the mature love inherent aptitude begins every bit shortly as the kid has sufficiently developed a sense of “ the distinctness ” 3 of its milieus to pick out its female parent as the object of its fondnesss. At first this wholly natural and unconscious fondness begins as the natural consequence of the kid ‘s dependance upon its female parent for nutrient, heat and comfort. From the female parent the kid foremost larn how to show fondness, and the maternal caresses and the confidant feeling which the kid get from its female parent by the easy analogies to love when the kid feels a witting passion for another person of the opposite sex. Its female parent, in a really existent sense of the universe, is its first love.
However, through unnatural fortunes experienced in babyhood or early childhood, a male may develop an inordinate love for his female parent, normally accompanied by a corresponding hate for his male parent. The passing4 of the Oedipus composite can be attained if the kid develops the “ emasculation anxiousness ” 5 of course by seeing the sexual organ of the opposite sex. In a male child ‘s head, the genitalias of misss ‘ have been virtually castrated. He is afraid of holding the same destiny. Owning to the emasculation anxiousness, both his sexual desire towards his female parent and ill will towards his male parent will be weakened or depressed. Finally, the Oedipus composite will bit by bit go through off. This is the most of import and important factor impacting the passing of the Oedipus composite.
Furthermore, there are other factors enabling the passing of the Oedipus composite, including the failure of the fulfilment of the kid ‘s sexual desire towards his female parent, letdown from the kid towards his female parent and the kid ‘s physical and psychological adulthood. Although these factors can weaken the Oedipus composite severally, yet it is the overall impact from all these factors that finally eliminate the Oedipus composite. Therefore, in the undermentioned analysis of the causes for the non-passing of Paul Morel ‘s Oedipus composite, the writer of this thesis will take all these points into consideration.
III. Mother ‘s Strong and Abnormal Affections
Many factors refering the Oedipus complex normally refer to the boy. However, the female parent takes the same duty for the effect. In Sons and Lovers, without the strong love lavished by Mrs. Morel, Paul would non hold been attached to her that much. So it is obvious that the strong impact from Mrs. Morel ‘s fondnesss towards her boy weighs much on the causes for Paul ‘s Oedipus composite.
We may inquire how it happens that the female parent in this narrative come to shower all her fondnesss upon her boies. The right individual she should hold loved is her hubby, while what she would hold given to Paul is the pure and simple maternal love. It is the failure of her matrimony with Walter Morel whom she had barely loved makes her bend to the boies. First is the eldest one, William, and so the 2nd, Paul.
In the gap chapter Mrs. Morel, the married woman of a cool mineworker, is anticipating her 3rd kid, the male child Paul. Actually, at that clip, her life with her hubby has already turned out to be a complete debacle. He is a rummy and a bully, a adult male with whom she “ portions neither rational, moral nor spiritual understandings ” 6. Mrs. Morel dreads the coming of the new babe, because she does non desire to give birth to a kid who is conceived in a loveless relation between its parents. “ With all her force, with all her psyche she would do up to it for holding brought it into the universe unloved. She would love it all the more now it was hers ; transport it in her love. “ 7 Towards Paul she feels, as to none of the other kids, that she is guilty of making something unfair to him and that he must compensate her for all that she has missed in her tattered love for her hubby.
Alfred Booth Kuttner, a well-known critic, considers the early dealingss between female parent and kid are full of a delicate and poetic charm.8 Paul admires his female parent really much and her presence can ever be attractive to him. Often, at the sight of her, “ his bosom contracts with love. “ ( p.67 ) Everything he does is for her, the flowers he picks every bit good as the award he wins at school. His female parent is his confidant and his intimate. When his male parent is confined to the infirmary by an accident in the mine, Paul gleefully becomes “ the adult male in the house. “ ( p.88 ) The interaction between female parent and boy is complete, as if she lives in him and he in her.
In the terminal she shared everything with him without knowingaˆ¦ She waited for his coming place in the eventide, and so she unburdened herself of all she had pondered, or of all that had occurred to her during the twenty-four hours. He sat and listened with his seriousness. The two shared livesaˆ¦ ” ( p.114 )
As the transition indicates, female parent and boy are really one while the male parent becomes simply a challenger.
Another ground why Mrs. Morel concentrates all her fondnesss on Paul is the decease of her eldest boy, William. His decease comes as a awful blow to her, who loves him passionately. This event makes her lose any involvement in life, and remain shut off from the household. However, merely a few months subsequently, Paul comes down with the same disease as his brother did. Until so, does Mrs. Morel recognize that “ I should hold watched the life, non the dead. “ ( p.140 ) Now, the strong fondnesss from Mrs. Morel used to be shared by two brothers is being put into 1. Being afraid of losing her lover or her boy once more, Mrs. Morel turns to be more dominant in the growing of Paul.
Bing a adult female with tough head and strong will, Mrs. Morel ‘s love towards Paul unconsciously becomes the dictatorship over his life. And it is the elusive response to Paul ‘s Oedipal fondnesss that leads to the calamity which about ruins a immature adult male ‘s life. Frank O’Connor, who is an Irish author and one of the Masterss of the modern short narrative, holds the position that the lone thing missing between the male child and his female parent is sexual contact9. However, Lawrence could non hold with Freudian psychological science on this point of incest. He believed that the normal result of the parent-child relationship was the consequence of feelings planted in the kid ‘s unconscious mind10. Therefore, in Sons and Lovers, the Oedipal love turns to be religious instead than physical. And this religious love manipulated by the gaining control of the male child ‘s psyche is more overpowering than any other signifiers Fruedism indicates. “ It hurt the male child keenly, this feeling about her that she had ne’er had her life ‘s fulfilment ; and his ain incapableness to do it up to her injury him with a sense of powerlessness, yet made him patiently dogged indoors. It was his infantile aimaˆ¦ ” ( p.67 ) This religious fond regard to his female parent defeats the sexual desire to physical contact and eventually transportations into another signifier of psychological incest which is profoundly rooted in Paul ‘s head. In this sense, though the physical desire of sexual intercourse can non be fulfilled, the psychological desire of incest can be satisfied. Therefore, one factor mentioned at the beginning, which enables the passing of the Oedipus composite can non be achieved. And Paul ‘s bosom and psyche will ever be with his female parent ‘s even if decease cryings them apart physically. They will still be lovers.
IV. Other Influences from the Family
In Sons and Lovers, among the other household members around Paul, his male parent and his senior brother is really influential on the defining of his manhood, because they are the senior 1s with the same sex. Actually, they are the theoretical accounts for the male child. Thus their different influences on Paul ‘s growing can non be taken for granted.
A. The great influence from the impotent male parent:
In most early analysis of the Oedipus composite presented in Lawrence ‘s Sons and Lovers, the influence of the male parent was non as every bit discussed as the impact from the female parent in its importance and decision. However, the disregard of the male parent ‘s function in the oedipal relation is critical and is worthy of reference, because the major factor for the passing of the Oedipus complex-castration anxiousness, consists in the engagement of the male parent.
Kuttner explains the male parent ‘s influence to the kid as stating that: besides its female parent ‘s, the influence of the male parent that other major configuration of our childhood is besides felt. Though non so gracious, he excessively is mighty, mightier than the female parent, since he dominates her. His presence brings about a dramatic alteration in the attitude of the kid, harmonizing to its sex. The male child, seeing that the female parent loves the male parent, strives to be like him. He takes his male parent as an ideal and sets about to copy his masculine qualities.11 However, it is a different instance with Paul Morel, because his male parent, Walter Morel is person unwanted in the household. He is a adult male with many disadvantages- ” poorness, unequal instruction and limited category outlook, work that is physically wash uping while mentally undemanding, cramped lodging and political powerlessness ” 12. He is a symbol of the working category, while Mrs. Morel was brought up in a middle-class household. So the struggle grounded in the difference of societal position put Morel in an unnatural place in the household. However, the female parent seems to hold occupied an exceeding place in the household, and she obviously dominated the family. Her letdown towards Morel, a adult male who clearly does non populate up to her ideal of manhood surely has influenced the kids ‘s feelings of their male parent. She even communicates her judgement to the kids. For case, in scenes when the kids learn from her to mock their male parent ‘s mode, to minimize his work at the mine, to sneer at his deficiency of formal instruction and in general to degrade his manhood, we can see that all the household members dislike him and turn everything against him. “ Walter Morel exiled from the rational life of the household. “ 13 The place is dominated by the female parent ‘s values and the male parent has no topographic point at that place except when working about his jobs.
Paul ‘s relationship with his male parent, or instead say deficiency of relationship, do it impossible for the male child to copy his male parent. In Paul ‘s head, his ill will towards his male parent can be more expressed by his favoritism and hatred.
One illustration in the early chapters, when Paul was reluctantly suggested by his female parent to state his male parent the award he won in a competition, best shows his favoritism upon his male parent.
“ I ‘ve won a award in a competition, Dad, ” he said.
“ Have you, my male child? What kind of competition? ”
“ Oh, nothing-about celebrated adult females. ”
“ And how much is the award, so, as you ‘ve got? ”
“ It ‘s a book. ”
“ Oh, so! ”
“ About birds. ”
“ Hm-hm! ”
And that was all. Conversation was impossible between the male parent and any other member of the household. He was an foreigner. He had denied the God in him. “ ( p.64 )
Paul ‘s responses to his male parent ‘s inquiries are brief and unhelpful. In Paul ‘s eyes, his male parent can merely believe of awards and wages in fiscal footings ; civilization, enquiry and the value of cognition are foreign to him. He is a adult male with moth-eaten penetrations to the things which the other household members value much.
Paul ‘s hatred towards his male parent is rather obvious. Once he witnesses a violent wrangle between his male parent and his brother William. They are so ferocious that about started a battle, with fists ready and articulatio genuss crouched. “ Another word, and the work forces would hold begun to contend. Paul hoped they would. “ ( p.p.59-60 ) “ Paul hated his male parent. As a male child he had a ardent private faith. ‘Make him halt imbibing, ‘ he prayed every dark. ‘Lord, allow my male parent dice, ‘ he prayed really frequently. ‘Let him non be killed at a cavity, ‘ he prayed when, after tea, the male parent did non come place from work. “ ( p.61 ) Had Paul been old plenty so, he would hold beaten his male parent in the face. Showing no regard to Morel, Paul feels that his male parent ‘s figure is weak to him though he is physically strong. There are few ideal masculine qualities in Morel. So Paul is non afraid of his male parent as he might experience himself much stronger than Morel. Unlike other male childs, Paul can non develop his anxiousness of being castrated by his male parent for loving his female parent excessively much. And his ignorance of the male parent ‘s laterality in the household is met and enhanced by Mrs. Morel ‘s depreciation of Morel ‘s manhood. Hence Kuttner points out that in Paul ‘s instance, the unnatural arrested development upon the female parent is most evidently conditioned by the male parent, whose unnatural place in the household is responsible for the deformation of the normal attitude of the kid towards its parents.14 The male parent ideal merely does non be for Paul ; where there should hold been an attractive criterion of maleness to copy, he can merely fear and contemn.
The major factor for the passing of the Oedipus complex-castration anxiousness can non take topographic point in Paul ‘s instance ; therefore he is destine to be ruined by his fond regard to his female parent. Or instead we say that Paul ‘s unnatural dependance upon the female parent is perpetuated because there is no counter-influence to detach it from her.
B. Paul ‘s imitation of his brother William:
William is the first victim of the Oedipus composite in the household. However, his decease at his early age makes him detach his arrested development upon his female parent. Mrs. Morel is really proud of William, because she thinks that she has made him into a middle-class gentleman successfully through old ages of instruction and raising. William portions the same feeling as Paul does in making everything for his female parent. When he won a first award in a race, he “ merely ran for her. He flew place with his anvil, breathless, with a ‘Look, female parent! ‘ That was the first existent testimonial to herself. She took it like a queen. “ ( p.53 )
William is a good individual who enjoys everybody ‘s grasp. And “ he ne’er drank ” ( p.54 ) , which shows a crisp contrast with his male parent. So the other kids in the household love him in a heartfelt way, peculiarly Paul. He sets William as a great theoretical account for himself, because he knows clearly that his female parent loves William really much. And what Paul wants is to be like his brother-quite successful in his work and be loved by others. What masculine qualities can non be found in his male parent can be found in his brother now. William becomes person Paul can copy. He wants to be another William to his female parent and he tries really difficult.
Another similarity which William and Paul portion is that every bit shortly as they come into contact with adult females, there is a split. Lawrence thinks that “ William gives his sex to a fribble, and his female parent holds his psyche. However, the split kills him, because he does non cognize where he is. Then Paul gets a adult female who fights for his psyche and really contend his female parent. Paul decides to go forth his psyche in his female parent ‘s custodies, and like his senior brother go for passion. He gets passion where the split begins to state once more. “ 15 Paul truly admires his brother and wants to make everything in the same manner as he does. This is a natural phase in a male child ‘s growing of happening a theoretical account of the same sex to copy. Here, William becomes Paul ‘s pick.
We can presume that Paul might portion the same destiny as his brother ‘s. Although he survives the same disease as his brother gets, he suffers the same-patterned arrested development to his female parent. In a missive to Edward Garnett, Lawrence told his friend about the narrative he wrote. He mentioned “ Paul is left in the terminal naked of everything, with the impetus towards decease. “ 16 The “ decease ” indicates the passing of Paul ‘s Oedipus composite can non be achieved when he is alive. He is destined to endure the defeats along the other half manner of his life.
V. Paul ‘s Dissatisfactions of His Love Affairs with Other Womans
In Sons and Lovers, Paul ‘s failure in organizing normal relationships with either Miriam or Clara is chiefly attributed to two grounds: one is his ain psychological immatureness, which is the major factor ; the other is the block from Mrs. Morel.
A. The immatureness of Paul ‘s psychological science:
If there were no strong love lavished by the female parent and no great influence of the male parent ‘s powerlessness, would Paul still be so affiliated to the Oedipal relationship that ruins the two relationships with his two lovers- Miriam and Clara? There is no certain reply to this premise. However, one thing can be certain that Paul, to some grade, will meet troubles in organizing relationships with adult females excessively, because his psychological science is still immature.
During the growing into his manhood, Paul has ever been taken attention of. Physically, Paul is more delicate than the other kids so that his unwellnesss ever tend to foster his female parent ‘s concentration upon him. His female parent and for a clip his sister Annie are his lone existent comrades. His brother William is excessively old to be his playfellow and other kids play no function in his early childhood. He is turning in the intricate love from adult females and weak masculine qualities from work forces. He has ever been a good male child of his female parent and he ever holds his infantile phantasy of life with his female parent. “ But I sha n’t get married, female parent. I shall populate with you, and we ‘ll hold a retainer. “ ( p.244 ) He thinks at 22 as he thought at 14, like a kid that goes on populating a fairy-tale. Even in the relationship with Miriam, he has been called a kid of four by Miriam. And it is true that she treats him as a female parent treats a perverse kid. At the age of 24, he still sums up his aspiration as the same as before.
Unlike other male childs turning into their manhood, Paul can non develop a sort of independency a mature adult male should possess. He can non populate without his household and his female parent. Although he is physically mature at 25, he still maintains a bosom of kid. The self-maturity is one factor impacting the Oedipus complex harmonizing to Freudian theory mentioned at the beginning of the essay. And it is the major internal cause for the passing of the composite. Unfortunately, Paul does non possess the psychological adulthood, which is, along with other causes, responsible for his deeply rooted Oedipus composite.
B. The failure of Miriam ‘s religious love:
Miriam Leivers is the first adult female who attracts Paul outside his household circle. It might be regarded as his puppy love that Paul is fascinated but uneasy and battles shy of personal familiarity with Miriam. However, the strength of her emotions frightens him and impresses him as unwholesome. He finds her turning soaking up in him queerly upseting. Paul resists every hint that he is falling in love with Miriam. “ We are n’t lovers, we are friends. “ ( p.173 ) And Miriam has already gone so far. Paul can make nil with her love because he can non return it. Love seems to him like a really awful thing. The honest and more impersonal passion that he feels for her frightens him.
However, Mrs. Morel makes her entreaty. She fears that Miriam will absorb Paul and take him off from her. “ She is one of those who will desire to suck a adult male ‘s psyche out boulder clay he has none of his ain left. “ ( p.161 ) Her green-eyed monster is being intensified. Her remarks on Miriam grow spiteful and satiric, and she no longer takes the problem to conceal her green-eyed monster. She makes the concluding, ruthless, cowardly entreaty.
“ And I ‘ve never-you know, Paul-I ‘ve ne’er had a husband-not-really- ”
He stroked his female parent ‘s hair, and his oral cavity was on her pharynx.
“ And she exults so in taking you from me-she ‘s non like ordinary misss. ”
“ Well, I do n’t love her, female parent, ” he murmured, bowing his caput and concealing his eyes on her shoulder in wretchedness. His female parent kissed him, a long, ardent buss.
“ My male child! ” she said, in a voice trembling with passionate love.
Without knowing, he gently stroked her face. ( p.212 )
Therefore she wins him back. But there is still some opposition in Paul. His emotions towards Miriam are invariably altering. But at last he tells her that he can non love her physically. “ I can merely give friendship-It ‘s all I ‘m capable of-it ‘s a flow in my make-upaˆ¦Let us have done. “ ( p.220 ) “ In all our dealingss no organic structure enters. I do non speak to you through the senses-rather through the spirit. That is why we can non love in common sense. Ours is non an mundane fondness. “ ( p.250 ) Miriam is wholly defeated in the battles for Paul ‘s psyche.
At the same clip, Lawrence makes clear that Miriam ‘s failure to pull Paul physically, has led to her licking in the religious struggle. The miss ‘s sexual failure is profoundly rooted, for illustration, in her ain emotional makeup. As Lawrence demonstrates, she is unable to lose herself in any simple enjoyable juncture, her organic structure is tense and lifeless, and her unnatural religious strength is coupled with a echt fright of things physical.
C. The failure of Clara ‘s animal love:
The failure of the relationship between Paul and Miriam makes Paul turns to another attempt for animal love. Clara Dawes is married, but lives separated from her hubby. She shows a frankly animal attractive force upon Paul. Like Mrs. Morel, she is unhappy with her hubby, which makes Paul feel less unfaithful to his female parent. She takes attention of Paul ‘s sexual demands, and leaves plentifulness of him over for Mrs. Morel. So the female parent is non hostile to the thought of Clara. Paul is 23 when he meets Clara, and she is about 30. Clara truly admires Paul ‘s carnal adeptness: he brings her the promise of renewed verve, and they draw close together and do love. Therefore Paul receives the impersonal love he needs, and Clara comes to full waking up as a adult female.
However, Clara is shortly disgruntled with impersonal love ; like Miriam, she wants to hold on clasp of Paul and to possess him personally, Paul is even more disturbed about another failure of relationship. At this minute, the novel turns to the decease of Paul ‘s female parent. Paul meets Clara ‘s hubby and has a battle with him. Surprisingly, Paul brings Clara back to her hubby and makes friends with Dawes, after cognizing that the hubby is despairing to win his married woman back. Then Paul takes attention of his deceasing female parent and ne’er leaves her until the terminal.
To sum up, Sons and Lovers nowadayss Miriam non as a type of human love, but as a type of religious love, Clara as a type of animal love, and neither of them can fulfill the bosom of the immature adult male who loves his female parent.
Psychoanalytical readings of Sons and Lovers by D. H. Lawrence often discuss Paul Morel ‘s psychological science in footings of the authoritative Oedipus composite, because the intimate nature of his relationship with his female parent is so complete that he finds the quality of love he can give to and have from other adult female deficient and disappointing by comparing. Owing to this ground, there are different positions on the novel ‘s decision, with some believing that Paul is at last traveling towards an independent grownup being, and others postulating that he is an emotional derelict floating towards decease out of a desire to stay with his dead female parent.
Whatever Paul will be in the hereafter, the passing of his Oedipus composite can non be attained, due to the effects from different causes discussed supra. Although his female parent is dead, she still captures his psyche, which symbolizes the rapture of their relationship and faithful love. The decease of his female parent can non liberate him and life for him is merely where his female parent is and she is dead. “ My love-my love-oh, my love! “ ( p.395 ) he whispered once more and once more. “ My love-oh, my love! “ ( p.395 ) Paul cries with a lover ‘s torment.
Paul is bound to be a failure in organizing any normal relationship with other adult females. Because when he can non travel on loving his female parent any more, “ the following best thing he can make is to happen a adult female who resembles his female parent every bit closely as possible. “ 17 Clara is such a instance, for she is a married adult female and unhappy with her matrimony. She satisfies Paul ‘s sexual desire in the incest sense. The love they make resembles Paul ‘s look of love towards his female parent and hatred towards his male parent. When Paul is through the desperation caused by his female parent ‘s decease, he will trust once more and when he has compared one adult female to his female parent and found her wanting, he will travel on to another, in eternal repeat.
Paul will keep his religion and continue his love for his female parent in other signifiers. With much religion and trueness devoted by Paul to his female parent, he can make anything which does non bring forth an existent feeling of treachery and infidelity. Although the autobiographical novel does non state us clearly about in which signifier Paul will keep his religion, we can seek the truth in the existent life of the autobiography writer-D. H. Lawrence. One point of position which O’Connor holds through his analysis of the similarity of other autobiography authors such as Andre Gide and Marcel Proust with D. H. Lawrence, provides an premise or better say it an answer.18 O’Connor references all of them feel profoundly under the influence of their female parents, slightly in the sense of the Oedipus composite. Gide and Proust remained homosexual for their full lives, while Lawrence showed strongly marked homosexual inclinations. The difference merely lies in the signifiers of continuing the religion and trueness for the Oedipal fondnesss to the female parent, possibly in the signifier of self-stimulation, or in the signifier of homosexualism. However, the truth is neither Lawrence nor Paul can of all time get away the fond regard and arrested development to their female parents. What Paul will precisely make with the remainder of his emotional life is unsure, but the non-passing of his Oedipus composite will ever specify him as his female parent ‘s boy and lover.
1For the debut to D. H. Lawrence and his first major novel Sons and Lovers, the writer of this thesis is indebted to Horage V. Gregory, “ D. H. Lawrence: Pilgrim of the Apocalypse ” , The Encyclopedia Americana Vol. 17 ( Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated, 1981 ) , p.86.
2For the debut to Sigmund Freud and his theory on Oedipus composite, the writer of this thesis is indebted to Ernest Jones, “ The Life and Works of Sigmund Freud ” , The Encyclopedia Americana Vol. 12 ( Connecticut: Grolier Incorporated, 1981 ) , p.p.83-87.
3Alfred Booth Kuttner, “ A Freudian Appreciation, ” D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers, erectile dysfunction. Gamini Salgado ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1986 ) , p.83.
4The psychoanalytic term used here refers to something base on ballss off or elapses ; transient, transitory, fleeting ; passing, disappearing. And the other psychoanalytic term “ non-passing ” used in this thesis refers to the failure of accomplishing this passing of the Oedipus composite. Sigmund Freud, “ The Passing of the Oedipus-complex ” in Collected Papers, Vol. II ( London: The Hogarth Press, 1933 ) , p.p.269-276.
5For the description of the psychoanalytic term, the writer of this thesis is indebted to Calvin S. Hall, A Primer of Freudian Psychology, trans. Chen Weizheng ( Beijing: The Commercial Press, 1985 ) , p.98.
6Alfred Booth Kuttner, “ A Freudian Appreciation, ” D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers, erectile dysfunction. Gamini Salgado ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1986 ) , p.71.
7David Herbert Lawrence, Sons and Lovers ( New York: Bantam Books, 1985 ) , p.38. All the undermentioned parenthetic pages in this thesis refer to the same book unless otherwise indicated.
8Alfred Booth Kuttner, “ A Freudian Appreciation, ” D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers, erectile dysfunction. Gamini Salgada ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1986 ) , p.72.
9Frank O’Connor, “ Sons and Lovers, ” D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers, erectile dysfunction. Gamini Salgado ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1986 ) , p.147.
10Dennis Poupard and James E. Person Jr. , ed. , Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol.16 ( Kansas City: Gale Research Company, 1985 ) , p.292.
11Alfred Booth Kuttner, “ A Freudian Appreciation, ” D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers, erectile dysfunction. Gamini Salgado ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1986 ) , p.84.
12Dennis Poupard and James E. Person Jr. , ed. , Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol.16 ( Kansas City: Gale Research Company, 1985 ) , p.314.
13Niger Messenger, How to Analyze a D. H. Lawrence Novel ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1989 ) , p.30.
14Alfred Booth Kuttner, “ A Freudian Appreciation, ” D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers, erectile dysfunction. Gamini Salgado ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1986 ) , p.88.
15Dennis Poupard and James E. Person Jr. , ed. , Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol.16 ( Kansas City: Gale Research Company, 1985 ) , p.276.
16Dennis Poupard and James E. Person Jr. , ed. , Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol.16 ( Kansas City: Gale Research Company, 1985 ) , p.276.
17Alfred Booth Kuttner, “ A Freudian Appreciation, ” D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers, erectile dysfunction. Gamini Salgado ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1986 ) , p.86.
18Such critic as Frank O’Connor agrees that Sons and Lovers is an autobiographical work by D. H. Lawrence, every bit good as a contemplation of his ain life. Frank O’Connor, “ Sons and Lovers, ” D. H. Lawrence: Sons and Lovers, erectile dysfunction. Gamini Salgado ( London: Macmillan Education Ltd. , 1986 ) , p.p.144-151.