Vocabulary as the kernel of a linguistic communication is one of chief tools for linguistic communication acquisition, and has been the object of many surveies. In fact, the vocabulary acquisition is considered as the bosom of linguistic communication acquisition and chief constituent of linguistic communication instruction ( Laufer, 1997 ) .In the yesteryear, the vocabulary was given small precedence in the literature of English linguistic communication acquisition and instruction, and received merely incidental attending in text editions ( Hedge, 2008 ; Richards & A ; Renandya, 2002 ) . This may mention to the premise that expressed the lexical direction is non necessarybecause it can be occurred by itself ( Moir & A ; state, 2008 ) . Therefore, this premise made the vocabulary instruction no popular on that clip ( Nation, 1990 ) .
Several surveies have late discussed approximately lexical job of linguistic communication scholars. For illustration, communicating is by and large associated with the lexical jobs because it breaks down when people do non cognize the right words to utilize ( Allen, 1983 ; Bowen, 1985 ) . Nowadays, it is more recognized that vocabulary dramas an of import function in a linguistic communication acquisition and instruction. For illustration, Griffiths ( 2003, 2006 ) showed the importance of vocabulary instruction to the linguistic communication scholars has been acknowledged. Hence, there is an increasing involvement in the vocabulary acquisition as chief portion of every linguistic communication acquisition and instruction. Although there is a figure of surveies on the field of vocabulary acquisition ( Folse, 2004 ; Hunt & A ; Beglar, 2005 ) , but its most effectual agencies is still ill-defined ( de Groot, 2006 ) .
For vocabulary acquisition, one manner is happening the agency of words in the dictionary and adding them in one ‘s vocabularies. Another manner is utilizing vocabulary card or blink card that is faster procedure than the old manner to increase word power. The brassy cards can be surveies about anyplace and anytime, particularly when 1 has a free clip, even really short ( Brown, 2000 ) . In add-on, they can be arranged as logical groups of the mark words ( Cohen, 1990 ; Gairns & A ; Redman, 1990 ) .Some surveies reported that linguistic communication scholars could more efficaciously better their vocabulary by utilizing the flash cards alternatively of word lists ( Mondria & A ; Mondria-de Vries, 1994 ; Schmitt & A ; Schmitt, 1995 ) . In the history of linguistic communication instruction, the flash cards have been used for many intents such as ( 1 ) to better word acknowledgment ability of pupils who are hapless in reading accomplishment ( Culyer, 1988 ) ; ( 2 ) to pattern vocabulary development of pupil during their foreign linguistic communication acquisition ( Ervin, 1988 ) ; ( 3 ) to learn English as 2nd linguistic communication ( Hart, 1982 ) ; ( 4 ) for learning construction of sentences, articles, propositions, and tenses ( Palka, 1988 ) , and ; ( 5 ) to better the reading and comprehension velocity ( Tan & A ; Nicholson, 1997 ) .
Ehri and Roberts ( 1979 ) compared linguistic communication larning ability of first graders based on printed words in context and in isolation. Their consequences indicated kids with flashcard-training base learned more about the orthographic signifier of words, while the context-trained kids learned more about the word semantic identities.Cuvo and Klatt ( 1992 ) evaluated the impacts of three instructional conditions: 1 ) learning sight words by utilizing brassy cards ; 2 ) community-referenced sight words, and 3 ) learning the phrases with a videotape scene and sight words with the natural symbols in community to youths with moderate mental deceleration. The consequences represented that larning and acknowledgment of the community-referenced sight words was really fast in all three conditions, while a generalisation from the flash card and videotape conditions occurred to the community sites. These consequences confirmed the positive effects ofusing flash cards for larning a linguistic communication ; even some surveies have reported that the flash cardsshould be used as a tool for making merriment in schoolrooms ( Nicholson, 1998 ) . Report byDin and Wienke ( 2001 ) showed utilizing brassy card is an effectual attack in larning and preparation of chemical science vocabulary and survey for high school instructors and pupils. In add-on, survey about effects of utilizing brassy card and word list attacks on linguistic communication larning ability of EFL pupil ( Learning of foreign linguistic communication vocabulary ) determined no important difference in the effectivity of both methods Baleghizadeh and Ashoori ( 2011 ) . The literature reappraisal indicates that efficiency of utilizing brassy cards method in the vocabulary acquisition and instruction procedure is limited, and needs to be re-evaluated.
Reappraisal of literature
Acquisition of vocabulary is one of the most ambitious parts for linguistic communication acquisition. In order to work out the job of burying learnt words by linguistic communication scholars through the clip, instructors can try to utilize learning devices into their categories. Therefore, this survey would wish to show a newvocabulary acquisition tool that called “ Vocabulary Flash Card ” ( VFC ) . Many research workers agree that course of study interior decorators and EFL pedagogues will experience that their duty in linguistic communication acquisition and instruction is more sensitive after cognizing there are single differences in larning process.Furthermore, it will assist them to suit instruction and acquisition in order to develop students’EFL acquisition potencies, and to back up pupils to go familiar with the attacks they can larn most efficaciously. In add-on, it canassist to the pupils forcreating and developingother techniques and tools which can actuate linguistic communication scholars more than earlier. Better understanding on students’opinions about the vocabulary acquisition procedure and utilizing techniques enables instructors to plan and supply suited stuffs and activities for bettering the pupils ‘ vocabulary acquisition and lexical competency.
Problems resulted from deficiency of vocabulary cognition may be the chief barriers to successful linguistic communication acquisition. Therefore, happening solutions for these jobs may greatly assist both linguistic communication pupils and instructors. To fix guidelines for work outing vocabulary acquisition jobs, the first measure is to detect those jobs and place their nature. Hence, this survey by uncovering chief jobs of vocabulary acquisition and give solutions to them helps English instructors, pupils, course of study interior decorators, and may be parents to alter their utilizing schemes for English linguistic communication larning to the new and more applicable 1s such as Vocabulary Flash Card ( VFC ) utilizing.
Flashcard is a card, one side of card includes new vocabulary and the other side includes interlingual rendition or equivalent word. Harmonizing to EslahkarKomachali and Khodareza ( 2012 ) flash card for EFL instruction or self-study has been utile tool for instructors and learners.Nation ( 2001 ) describes this scheme in larning vocabulary in another linguistic communication that a scholar writes foreign word on one side of a little card, and its interlingual rendition of the first linguistic communication on the other. The scholar goes through a set of cards and attempts to remember its meaning.as Tan and Nicholson ( 1997 ) stated flash cards have been used to better both comprehension and reading speed.Some research workers have criticized utilizing flash card for emphasizing memorisation over comprehension and others have argued that they should be used as a devise to make merriment schoolrooms ( Nicholson, 1998 ) .
In the yesteryear more teachersemphasized on the grammar, they pay less attending on the acquisition vocabulary. While grammar interlingual rendition attack to the instruction of linguistic communication provided a balanced diet of grammar and vocabulary, audiolinguisticssuggested that accent should be strongly on the acquisition of the grammar forms of the linguistic communication ( Shakouri and Mehrgan, 2012 ) .It was believed that if scholars were able to internalise these basic forms, their big vocabulary edifice comes subsequently ( Nunan, 1991 ) .
There are some grounds and factors about why instructors neglected vocabulary in the past.During the period 1940-1979, Allen ( 1983 ) outlined two grounds: ( 1 ) it has stress excessively much in linguistic communication schoolroom during the old ages before that clip, and people considered it as the lone key to linguistic communication acquisition, and ; ( 2 ) the significance of words couldnot adequately be thought, so it is better non to seek to learn them.
Consequences from Zimmerman ( 1997 ) would besides take us to believe that most 2nd linguistic communication scholars have traditionally been through by methods gave minimum attending to vocabulary, so it seems sensible to anticipate most instructors will go on to pretermit vocabulary linguistic communication, whether it is because of the methods by which they have learn the methods by which they are larning.
Research workers are ever seeking to happen appropriate ways to ease learning vocabulary. Learning vocabulary is different in different state of affairss and degrees. Using brassy cards comes from anaudio-lingualmethod. Teachers pay less attending to utilizing flash card in instruction and methodological analysis. This article tries to find the consequence of utilizing flash card on advancing pupils ‘ cognition of vocabulary, harmonizing to shakoori and mehrgan ( 2012 ) utilizing flash card is non effectual in larning abstract words. For learning abstract words it is better to make context, whileusing flash card enhances larning vocabulary. Both pupils ‘ engagements in schoolroom activities and public presentations on vocabulary trial have been significantly increased after utilizing flash card.
This survey indicates there was different between utilizing flash card and traditional instruction method. They believed that utilizing flash card is much better than traditional method harmonizing to four grounds. ( Mondriya and mondria-de vries, 1994 ; nalcata ; schmith and achmitt, 1995 ) . First new words can be easy practiced extensively with flash card. Learners can divide cards into several classs based on their trouble degree. It helps them to reexamine the new words. Second, working with flashcard additions vocabulary retrieval. Since scholars are presented with a 2nd linguistic communication word and its definition on the other side of the card, they can easy pattern new words and remember their significances in every bit much as the words appear on two different sides of the card. Third learning words through traditional method, because some words may have less attending than others because of the peculiar places in the category. However, there is non such a job in larning with flash card since they tend to be more flexible.