Faculty, EMB 601 School of Business North South University, Dhaka. Subject: Submission of the report on “Interpersonal Behavior” Dear Sir, We are truly privileged to have you as our instructor in EMB601 “Organizational Behavior” and we are pleased to inform you that, we have been able to meet the schedule to complete the semester report on “Interpersonal Behavior”. We have tried to employ our best knowledge to analyze the organizational culture, Interpersonal Behavior and its impact. Furthermore, if you have any queries about the research report, please feel free to ask any of the group members for further cooperation.
Sincerely Yours [pic][pic] [pic][pic] Executive Summary This study has briefed one of the important factors – Interpersonal Behavior in Organizational Behavior Management. Interpersonal Behavior consists of Conflicts, Assertive Behavior, and Power & Politics which directly and indirectly impact on Organization to achieve its goal. Functional & Dysfunctional conflict exists within 4 levels such as Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Inter-group & Intra-group in a organization. Any type of conflict may effect on four possible outcomes- “Lose-Lose”, Lose-Win”, Win-Lose” & “Win-WIn”.
Based on situation & conflict type, Persons involved in conflict may use any one of five strategies- Avoiding, Smoothing, Confrontation, Forcing or Compromise. Only the confronting strategy can be viewed as a resolution strategy but not easy for some people. A constructive alternative is to practice assertive behavior which is the process of expressing feelings, asking for legitimate changes and giving & receiving honest feedback. However assertiveness training & stroking in combination can be powerful tools for increasing one’s interpersonal effectiveness. Power & Politics of organization plays a major role in Interpersonal behavior.
Power is the ability to influence other people and events. Power develops in number of ways. There are five bases of power which are Personal Power, Legitimate power, Expert Power, Reward Power, & Corrective Power. In each case the possible outcomes include resistance, compliance or commitment. While the five bases of power are essentially acquired and used to achieve formal organizational goals, many managers and employees resort to another set of behaviors to accomplish personal goals of work. Organizational Politics refers to intentional behaviors that are used to enhance or protect person’s influence and self interest while also inspiring confidence and trust by others. However this discussion on Interpersonal Behavior guides properly to take best position in Organization. Table of Content 1Introduction6 2Conflict in organization6 2. 1Nature of Conflict7 2. 2Level of Conflict7 2. 3Source of Conflict9 2. 4A Brief Model of Conflict Resolution Process10 2. 5Effect of Conflict11 2. 6Conflict Resolution Strategy12 2. 6. 1Avoiding13 2. 6. 2Smoothing13 2. 6. 3Forcing13 2. 6. 4Compromising14 2. 6. 5Confronting14 2. 7Case Study15 3Assertive Behavior15 3. 1Stages in assertiveness16 3. 2Interpersonal Orientations17 . 3Facilitating Smooth Relations17 3. 4Stroking18 3. 5Applications to Conflict Resolution18 4Power & Politics19 4. 1Power19 4. 2Sources of Power19 4. 2. 1Power Granted by the Organization (Position Power)19 4. 2. 2Power Stemming from the Individual (Personal Power)20 4. 2. 3Power from Providing Resources20 4. 3Practical Lessons from Research about different category21 4. 4Organizational Politics21 4. 5Political Strategies for Increasing Power – Strategies for Increasing Power21 4. 6Domain of Organizational Politics22 4. 6. 1Organizational politics22 4. 6. 2Frequently Used Political Tactics22 4. 6. 3Effective Use of Politics22 Conclusion23 6Appendices23 Table of Figure Figure 1: Types of Conflict7 Figure 2: Level of Conflict8 Figure 3: Model of Conflict Resolution10 Figure 4: Effect of Conflict12 Figure 5: Conflict Resolution Strategy13 Figure 6: Types of Power20 Introduction Interpersonal Behavior is one of major part of Organizational Behavior. Interpersonal behavior consists of conflict, assertive behavioral part and Power & Politics of Organization. The following topics are covered in this report. – The Nature & Types of Conflict – Conflict Outcomes & Resolution Strategy – Different Personality Traits – Assertive Behavior Interpersonal Orientation s & Stroking – Types Of Power – Organization Politics & Influence Conflict in organization Conflict is an interpersonal process that arises from disagreement over the goals to attain for the methods to be used to accomplish goals. Actually Conflict belongs to • Perceived difference – needs, values and goals • Part of a relationship • Consequence of – growth – change On the other hand Conflict is not • Sign of a bad relationship • Negative experience • Mistake • Struggle between right and wrong 3 Nature of Conflict Conflict can occur in any situation in which two or more parties feel themselves in opposition.
Conflict is an interpersonal process that arises from disagreements over the goals to attain or the methods to be used to accomplish those goals. In addition to conflicts over goals or methods, conflicts also arise due to task interdependence, ambiguity of roles, policies and rules, personally differences, ineffective communications, the competition over scare resources, personal stress, and underlying differences in attitudes, beliefs and experiences. In organization everywhere, conflict among different interest is inevitable and sometimes the amount of conflict is substantial. [pic] Figure 1: Types of Conflict Level of Conflict Conflict can occur within an employee, between individuals or groups, and across organizations as they compete; Intrapersonal Conflict: Although most role conflict occurs when an employee’s supervisor or peers send conflicting expectations to him or her, it is possible for interpersonal role conflict to emerge from within an individual, as a result of competing roles taken. Interpersonal Conflict: interpersonal conflicts are a serious problem to many people because they deeply affect a person’s emotions. People have to protect their self-image and self-esteem from damage by others.
When self-concept is threatened, serious upset occurs and relationships deteriorate. Sometimes the temperaments of two persons are in compatible and their personalities clash. In other instances, conflicts develop from failures of communication or differences in perception. [pic] Figure 2: Level of Conflict Intergroup Conflict: Intergroup conflicts, for example, between different departments cause problems. On a major scales such conflicts are something like the wars between juvenile gangs. Each group sets out to undermine the other, gain power, and improve its image, conflicts arise from such causes as different viewpoints.
Group loyalties, and competition for resources Intra-group Conflict: Intra-group conflict belongs to different group of any departments. 5 Source of Conflict An interpersonal conflict arises from a variety of sources. Such as 1. Organizational change: people hold differing views over directions to go the routes to take and their likely success, the resources to be used and the probable outcomes. With the pace of technological, political and social change increasing and the market place hurtling toward a global economy, organizational changes will be ever-present. . Different sets of values: people also hold different beliefs and adhere to different value systems. Their philosophics may diverge, or their ethical values may lead them in different directions. The resulting disputes can be difficult to resolve, since they are less objective than disagreements over alternative products, inventory levels, or promotional campaigns. 3. Threats to status: The status or social rank of a person in a group is very important to many individuals.
When one’s status is threatened, face-saving(the drive to protect one’s self image) becomes a powerful driving force as a person struggles to maintain a desired image. Conflict may arise between the defensive person and whoever created a threat to status. 4. Contrasting perceptions: people perceive things differently as a result of their prior experience and expectations. Since their perceptions are very real to them, and they feel that these perceptions must be equally apparent to others, they sometimes fail to realize that others may hold contrasting perceptions of the same object or event.
Conflicet mayb arise unless employees learn to see things as others see them and help others do the same. 5. Lack of trust: every continuing relationship requires some degree of trust the capacity to depend on each other’s word and actions. Trust opens up boundaries provide opportunities in which to act and enriches the entire social fabric of an organization. 6. Personality clashes: the concept of individual differences is fundamental to organizational behavior. Not everyone thinks, feels. Looks or acts alike. Employees need to accept, respect and learn how to use these differences when they arise. . Incivility: Mutual respect, empathy and caring are the glues that hold work groups together yet many organizations report that they are being torn apart by rudeness and a lack of common courtesy. Workplace incivility occurs when employees fail to exhibit concern and regard for others or worse yet disrespect each other on the job. Regardless of the cause , workplace incivility can cause tensions to rise, anger to flare and conflict to emerge. 6 A Brief Model of Conflict Resolution Process [pic] Figure 3: Model of Conflict Resolution This model sumarizes the confilct and how to overcome it.
The detailed desecription will be found in later part of this section. 7 Effect of Conflict Conflict is often seen by participants as destructive, but this is a limited view. In fact, if all conflict with co-workers is avoided, each party is likely deprived of useful information about the other’s preferences and views. Conflict is not all bad rather it may result in either productive or nonproductive outcomes. A more positive view, then is to see that conflict is nearly inevitable and to search for ways in which it can result in constructive out comes.
Conflict should be managed not eliminated because it has Advanages such as: • Diffuse more serious conflicts • Stimulate search for new facts or solutions • Enhance relationships • Increase cohesiveness Apart from advantages few disadvamtgses make cautious to handle conflict smartly • Time consuming • Disrupts progress/ problem solving • Detracts from job at hand • Keeps people apart; if unresolved • Poor quality, lowers productivity • Reduces team effectiveness A model of Conflict Conflict arises from many sources and directions. It also in the speed of its emergence and in the degree of its predictability. Sometimes it smolders for ong time like a hot ember and the springs to life like a flame when the hot coal is fanned. Other times it simply seems to explode without warning, like the sudden eruption of a dangerous volcano. And just like the flame that can warm us in need or sear us with its heat, conflict can be constructive or destructive. Conflict may produce four distinct outcomes, depending on the approaches taken by the people involved. The following figure illustartaes thes outcomes. The first quadrant, termed ”Lose-Lose” depicts a situation in which a conflict deteriorates to the point that both parties are worse off than they were before.
An extreme example is the case of an executive who fires the only only person who knows the secret formula for organization’s most successful product. The second quadrant is ”Lose-Win” a istuation in which one person (individual A ) is defeated while the other one (Individual B) is victorious. In Quardant 3 (”Win-Lose”) the situation is reversed, with B loosing to A. The fourth quandrant is the ”Win-Win” outcomes of conflict, in which both parties perceived that they are in a better position than that tehy were before the conflict began.
This is preferred outcome to try to achieve in ongoing relationships. [pic] Figure 4: Effect of Conflict Conflict outcomes are a product of the participant’s intentions as well as their strategies. For example jeson my actually seek a lose win outcome in a conflict with beeky because of the perceived benefits of being defeated on a particular issue. He may fear the consequences of retribution form too many earlier victories over becky or he may try to lose in the hope that becky will reciprocate on another issue in the future . t the other extreme, Marcia my hope for a win –lose outcome in her conflict with Jessica. 8 Conflict Resolution Strategy Intentions help participants select their strategies. Once they have reached. The simplest strategies focus on the contrasting approaches of either cooperation or competition. But a widely used typology suggests that there are at least four clearly different strategies. Each of these represents different degrees of concern of ones own outcomes and for another results and has predictable outcome. [pic] Figure 5: Conflict Resolution Strategy 9 Avoiding
This is physical or mental withdrawal form the conflict . this approach reflects a low concern for either party’s outcomes and often results in a lose-lose situation 10 Smoothing Accommodating the other party’s interests. This approach places greatest emphasis on concern for others, usually to one’s own detriment, resulting in a lose-win outcome. 11 Forcing Using power tactics to achieve a win, this strategy relies on aggressiveness and dominance to achieve personal goals at the espense of the concern for the other party. The likely result is a win-lose situation. 2 Compromising Searching for middle ground or being willing to give up something in exchange for gaining something else. This strategy reflects a moderate degree of concern for self and others , with no clear cut outcome. 13 Confronting Facing the conflict directly and working it through to a mutually satisfactory resolution. Also known as problem solving or integrating this tactic to maximize the achievement of both party’s goals, resulting in a win-win outcome. Any one of the strategies may be effecive for its intended purpose of wining or loosing.
However the avoiding & smooting approaches are basically useful for hiding or dimisinshing the conflict process. This means that in some way these approaches control the degree of conflict and reduce its harmful sides effects while its is under way, but thr source of conflict still exists. Only the confronting strategy can truly be viewed as a resolution approach. Guideline for conflict resolution through Confrontation is as follows – Agree on the Common Goal – Commit Yourself to Fluid, not Fixed, Positions – Clarify the strength & Weakness of Both Parties Recognize the other persons and your own possible need for face saving – Be Candid and Up-Front, Don’t Hold Back Key Information – Avoid arguing or using “yes-but” responses, maintain control over your emotions – Strive to understand other person’s Viewpoint, needs, & Bottom Line – Ask Questions to elicit needed information; Probe for Deeper Meaning & Support – Make sure that both parties have a vested interest in making the outcome succeed – Give the Other Party Substantial Credit when the conflict is over 4 Case Study Rebecca had been working for the past five years at a timber mill in the Eastern Oregon town where she grew up. It was the highest paying job in town, and it seemed that everybody either worked at the mill or left town after high school. She was in tears one Friday afternoon and about to quit her job, though, as she stumbled through the parking lot toward her car. Her supervisor, Fred, saw her and stopped her. Fred: What’s wrong, Rebecca? You look like you just lost your best friend.
Rebecca: I can’t stand it anymore here, Fred. The guys tease me all day long, tell dirty jokes, and today before I left, Clint threw a bucket of water on me and said he was having a wet T-shirt contest. All the guys laughed! No one even tried to stop him! They treat me like dirt! Fred: I don’t think they mean anything by it, Rebecca, I think they’re just having a little fun. Rebecca: Well, it’s not fun to me. It’s Sexual harassment, and somebody’s going to answer for it! . Does this qualify as Sexual harassment, or is Clint just having a little fun? 2. What is Fred’s responsibility in this situation as Rebecca’s supervisor? 3. What other steps can Rebecca take in this situation to stop Clint and the other mill workers from doing things she doesn’t like? What Management Can do to handle and prevent Sexual Harassment • Disseminate a policy • Create a zero-tolerance environment • Have an open-door policy; frequent discussion is helpful
This case dictates the Y type manager who tried to manage the situations normally and everyone has responsibility to manage every situation all time which will avoid any odd situation. Assertive Behavior When faced with the need to negotiate with others, some managers may feel inferior, lack necessary skills, or be in awe of the other person’s power. Under these conditions they are likely to suppress their feelings or to strike out in unintended anger. A constructive alternative is to practice assertive behaviors.
Assertiveness is the process of expressing feelings, asking for legitimate changes and fiving and receiving honest feedback. An assertive individual is not afraid to request that another person change an offensive behavior and is not uncomfortable refusing unreasonable requests from someone else. Assertive people are direct, honest and expressive. They feel confident, gain self-respect and make others feel valued. By contrast, aggressive people may humiliate others and unassertive people elicit either pity or scorn from others 7 Stages in assertiveness Being assertiveness in as situation involves five stages. When confronted with an |1. Describe the behavior | |Describe the situation objectively | |2. Express your feelings | |Shows emotional reactions and feelings | |3. Empathize | |Respect logical reason and empathize with the other’s position. |4. Offer problem-solving alternatives | |Discuss, find and suggest solution or alternatives. | |5. Indicate consequences. | |Clearly express consequence (positive or negative) that will follow. | | | intolerable situation, assertive people describe it objectively, express their emotional reactions and feelings and empathize with others position. Then they offer problem solving alternatives and indicate the consequences that will follow.
Assertive behavior generally is most effective when it integrates a number of verbal and nonverbal components. Eye contact is a means of expressing sincerity and self-confidence in many cultures and an erect body p0osture and direct body positioning may increase the impact of a massage. Appropriate gestures may be used, congruent facial expressions are essential and a strong but modulated voice tone and volume will be convincing. 18 Interpersonal Orientations Each person tends to exhibit one of four interpersonal orientations, a dominant way of relating to people.
That philosophy tends to remain with the person for a lifetime unless major experiences occur to change it. One orientation dominates but it is not the only position ever taken. Interpersonal orientations stem from a combination of two viewpoints. First how do people view themselves? Second, how do they view other people in general?. The combination results four possible interpersonal orientations. 1. I’m not OK; You are OK 2. I’m not OK; You are not OK 3. I’m OK; You are not OK 4.
I’m Ok; You are OK 5. Regardless of one’s present interpersonal orientation, the I’m Ok; You are OK perspective can be learned. 19 Facilitating Smooth Relations Good interpersonal relationships among co-workers and across organizational levels take time, effort, knowledge and skill. One key skill involves interpersonal facilitation- the capacity of focus on others personal needs, sensitivities and idiosyncrasies and then work to keep conflict under control and collaboration high among team members.
Managers with well-developed interpersonal facilitation skills often engage in one or more of the following behaviors. •building on their emotional intelligence • learning about co-workers personal lives • Making mental notes about employee likes and dislikes, values, interests and preferences • Monitoring other people’s degree of job involvement, mode level, commitment and satisfaction Developing and applying their facilitative skills in a variety of social settings. 20 Stroking Stroking is defined as any act of recognition for another.
It applies to all types of recognition, such as physical, verbal and nonverbal contact between people. Strokes may be positive, negative or mixed. Positive strokes feel good when they are received, and they contribute to the recipient’s sense of being ok. Negative strokes hurt physically or emotionally and make the recipient feel less OK about herself or himself. Conditional strokes are offered to employees if they perform correctly or avoid problems. A sales manager may promise an employee that “ I will give you a raise if you sell three more insurance policies”.
Unconditional strokes are presented without any connection to behavior. Although may make a person feel good, they may be confusing to employees because they do not indicate how more strokes may be earned 21 Applications to Conflict Resolution There are several natural connections between assertiveness, interpersonal orientation and the approaches to resolving conflict. The I’m Ok; You are OK person is more likely to seek a win-win outcome, applying assertiveness and a confrontational strategy. Interpersonal Orientation |Conflict Resolution Strategy |Probable Behavior | |I’m not OK; You are not OK |Avoidance |Non assertiveness | |I’m not OK; You are OK |Smoothing |Non assertiveness | |I’m OK; You are not OK |Forcing |Aggressiveness | |I’m OK; You are OK |Confronting |Assertiveness | Assertiveness training and stroking in combination can be powerful tools for increasing one’s interpersonal effectiveness. They share the goal of helping employees feel OK about themselves and others. The result is that they help improve communication and interpersonal cooperation. Although they can be practiced by individuals, these tools will be most effective when they are widely used throughout the organization and supported by top management. Together they form an important foundation for the more complex challenges that confront people who work in small groups and committees. Power & Politics 23 Power
Is the potential or ability to influence decisions and control resources . It is the leader’s stock-in-trade, the way that leaders extend their influence to others. It is somewhat different from authority, because authority is delegated by higher management. Power, on other hand, is earned and gained by leaders on the basis of their personalities, activities, and the situations in which they operate. 24 Sources of Power (Position Power) Power Granted by the Organization (Personal Power) Stemming from the Individual (Resource Power) Power from Providing Resources 27 Power Granted by the Organization (Position Power) [pic] Figure 6: Types of Power 8 Power Stemming from the Individual (Personal Power) [pic] 29 Power from Providing Resources [pic] 30 Practical Lessons from Research about different category Expert and referent power had a generally positive effect Reward and legitimate power had a slightly positive effect Coercive power had a slightly negative effect 31 Organizational Politics Organizational politics are the activities managers engage in to increase their power and use it to achieve their goals. Political strategies: specific tactics used to increase power and use it effectively. Politics can be negative, but also is a positive force allowing needed change. Everyone throughout the firm engages in politics Political activity allows a manager to gain support for an idea. 33 Political Strategies for Increasing Power – Strategies for Increasing Power Control Uncertainty: managers who can reduce uncertainty for the firm increase power. Be Irreplaceable: develop valuable special knowledge or skills. Be in a Central Position: managers have crucial control over the firm’s activities. They increase their power and can influence others. Generate Resources: managers who can hire skilled people or find financing. Build Alliances: develop mutually beneficial relations with others inside and outside the organization. 34 Domain of Organizational Politics 35 Organizational politics ntentional acts of influence to enhance or protect the self-interests of individuals or groups 37 Frequently Used Political Tactics Building a network of useful contacts Using ‘key players’ to support initiatives Making friends with power brokers Bending the rules to fit the situation Self-promotion Creating a favorable image Praising others (ingratiation) Attacking or blaming others 38 Effective Use of Politics 1 Ethical Behaviors Develop power contacts Manage your impression Control vital information Keep informed Be courteous, pleasant, and positive Ask satisfied customer to contact your manager Avoid political blunders Use flattery sincerely 11 Unethical Behaviors Engage in backstabbing Embrace-or-demolish
Set a person up for failure Conclusion Good Interpersonal behavior practice in a organization is good practice and important one for attaining highest level organization target. Everyone should aim to know the source of conflict and relevant strategy. However employee should be careful on handling power and organizational politics. Sectional description aids to understand about interpersonal behavior properly. Appendices i. Erin Anderson & Sandy D. Jap. “The dark side of close relationships”, Sloan Management Review, Spring 2005, P75 ii. Rob Cross, Jeanne Liedtka and Leigh Weiss, A practical guide of social networks”, Harvard Business review, March 2005, P 130.