Linguistic And Cognitive Science Of Panoma College English Language Essay

Harmonizing to Department of Linguistic and Cognitive Science of Panoma College, phonetics and phonemics are two subdivisions of linguistics that deal chiefly with the construction of human linguistic communication sounds.

Phoneticss trades with physical manifestations of address sounds and on theories of address production and perceptual experience. It focuses on the realisation of contrast- how these basic units are realized in precise physical footings, their acoustic belongingss and how these acoustic effects are produced by the human vocal piece of land. All phonetics are interrelated, since human articulatory and audile mechanisms correspond to each other and are mediated by wavelength, pitch, and the other physical belongingss of sound. Systems of phonic authorship are aimed at the accurate written text of any sequence of speech sounds ; the best known is the International Phonetic Alphabet ( The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. , 2007 ) . In phonetics, narrow written text specifies as many characteristics of a sound as can be symbolized, while wide written text specifies merely as many characteristics of a sound as are necessary to separate it from other sounds.

On the other manus, phonemics refers to the survey of how such sounds are combined in peculiar linguistic communications and of how they are used to convey significance ( The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. , 2007 ) . It addresses the issues such as the nature of basic units that distinguish words in linguistic communications and how they can be combined. For illustration, in English there is a difference between voiced and unvoiced sounds such as “ stake ” and “ vet ” . The alphabets in forepart of each word both create minimum differences where it can separate words and gives different significances excessively. They differ merely in one sound. In phonemics, address sounds are analyzed into phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can alter the significance of a word. A phoneme may hold several allophones, related sounds that are distinguishable but do non alter the significance of a word when they are interchanged.


From both of the articles it can be concluded that first linguistic communication give so much impact to the 2nd linguistic communication particularly in pronunciation ; whether there are common or different elements between the linguistic communications. The common elements may ease in larning 2nd linguistic communication while the differences may be give troubles.

In footings of the figure of phonemes ; Portuguese and Nipponese linguistic communication have less figure of vowels than English linguistic communication. Because of that there are troubles in the 2nd linguistic communication scholar ( SLL ) to articulate some vowel as they did non expose or unfamiliar with the peculiar vowel. For illustration in Portuguese there is no exact sound as shwa.

Intonation, beat and emphasis are besides the factors in pronunciation of 2nd linguistic communication words. The more common modulation, beat and emphasis of a linguistic communication, the easier for the SLL to get by or sounds like the native talker and frailty versa. For illustration the Nipponese speak monotonously even when they speak in English. It shows the different between native and 2nd linguistic communication talker.

Following is nasality. Nasality in a linguistic communication besides influence on how the talkers pronounce or utter other words. For case, in Lusitanian linguistic communication they tend to nasalise some vowel. Because of that it influences them by nasalising /a/ and /o/ when speech production in English.

Consequently, as a 2nd linguistic communication scholar, first thing foremost we have to larn and cognize all the phonemes of the linguistic communication. Second, we have to place the common or differences in the linguistic communication. Because of that we can utilize the information as a usher in order to get 2nd linguistic communication.

Following, we have to cognize the mode of articulation of peculiar phonemes. It will steer us in order to articulate right of the 2nd linguistic communication with right place of lips and lingua. Last but non least, pattern makes perfect. By pattern, it will beef up our cognition on what and how to articulate the words right.

In decision, it is of import for SLL to cognize good about the 2nd linguistic communication in order to acquire the right pronunciation. It is of import to express the right pronunciation for each word to avoid misconstruing during conversations. Once the word is pronounce wrongly, conversation will interrupt down and to do it worst, people will look down upon us


In order to make a research, research workers should pick a suited subject for the research and so are we. We decided to make a research on the incorrect pronunciation of phonemes in English of a Malay talker. After make up one’s minding on what to work on for the research, the procedure of seeking samples literature reappraisals Begins and it doubtless requires difficult work and patient in order to happen reappraisals that closely related with the subject. To happen the exact literature reappraisal which comes up with our subject is wholly hard.

On the other manus, few verse forms were found easy during appraising the literature reviews. Some of the verse forms were saved to be taking later for the sample to read. Website such as and poesy foundation offered assorted poesy that had made us experience like salvaging every verse form from the site. However, the determination had made and the verse form that the sample will be reading is taken from the “ Chicken Soup for the Teenage Soul ” novel by Jack Canfield, Mark Victor Hansen and Deborah Reber. The verse form was foremost transcribed to be compared with the sample pronunciation.

Days gone and a new hebdomad begins ; an assignment was made between the sample and the research workers. The locale was at the sample ‘s house at Kem Batu Lima, Jalan Ipoh. The sample is Siti Nursyahmin, aged 17 old ages old. The sample made the recording session easier as she gave full cooperation and understood the direction given.

She is now schooling at Sekolah Menegah Batu Lima and will be sitting for SPM. The miss was brought up in an mean household and her academic public presentation is intermediate degree. Her English is moderate and she frequently gets fulfilling classs for the topic.

Merely after the recording session finished, the tape was being played over and over once more in order to happen the mispronounced words uttered by Siti Nursyahmin. The following undertaking after the recording is transcribing what of all time the sample had uttered. Comparison between the first written texts was made with the 2nd written text.

Finally, a decision was drawn based on the consequence of the comparing. Reasons for the mispronunciation and suggestions were besides included in order for the sample to better her pronunciation.

Determination AND ANALYSIS

Our sample is a adolescent miss of 17 old ages old. She is still analyzing in signifier 5 at Sekolah Menengah Batu Lima, Kuala Lumpur. It is found out that she is an intermediate English reader as her reading of the verse form provided has so many errors in footings of the pronunciation and besides to understand the significance of the English words. Still, there is a figure of mispronounce phonemes but still can be accepted and apprehensible by us as Malaysian.

There are 11 phonemes that had been wrongly pronounce by the sample that are

With 19 % of it are consonants and 81 % are vowels. The most phoneme that wrongly pronounce by the sample is with 42 % . Then followed by with 19 % , with 7 % and so on. The remainder of wrongly pronounce phonemes with 4 % each.

The phonemes ever wrongly pronounce with the sounds.For illustration, the word drifting pronounces as.While the sound pronounces every bit. For case, “ hangout ” pronounces as. The phoneme and ever pronounce as. For illustration “ they ” become.The sound at the dorsum of the word ever pronounce every bit such as the word “ lies ” .

From our surveies of her background, we conclude that her background helps her to be an intermediate English reader. Her parents work and have to utilize English in working environment. Her female parent involves with the computing machine industry whereas her male parent is an officer.

It is mentioned earlier that she is an intermediate talker of English since she takes a batch of excess English category with 15 hours per hebdomad. That shows that she must hold exposed to English linguistic communication a batch. She besides reads, hear and watch English stuffs and besides has her ain front-runner of English stuffs may one of the ground that enhance her speech production and reading accomplishments. However, she is non a good English talker either. She understands English texts but she barely converse utilizing English. This indicates that she is missing of pattern in talking utilizing English in her day-to-day conversation.


It is found out that sound ever mispronounce as because the norm of the first linguistic communication which is Malay linguistic communication, there is rare of sound. That is why the miss frequently mispronounces words that contain sound. For illustration, pronounced as.

The incorrect pronounce of the phonemes besides possibly because of the spelling. The miss tends to articulate the sound based on the spelling. For illustration, pronounce as. The spelling contains alphabet a so the miss uttered the /a/ as.

It is said that the miss pronounce the phoneme /z/ as /s/ . For illustration, the word lies. The ground of this error may because she is missing exposure in English since she seldom reads and listens to English texts.

Another job that had been detected from the recording is the word control. The miss pronounces it as. This is common error among Malay talkers. It is because of the Malay community used to articulate words in English with Malay speech pattern. Another illustration is the word “ connect ” . Most people pronounce it as alternatively of “ “ .

It is discovered that the sample is non a weak English reader and talker. For illustration, she largely pronounces words right, and if there is a error in expressing a word, she did non reiterate the same error for the same word. For case, the word “ the ” . The word “ the ” sometimes pronounce as and sometimes.

She may cognize the right pronunciation of “ the ” but she sometimes unconsciously mispronounce it.

Therefore, the miss should get down talking with equals utilizing English in order to better her pronunciation. Informal ESL conversation groups can supply helpful chances to discourse subjects of common involvement in a comfy scene.

Mass media can assist in some ways. Television, wireless, newspapers, and magazines can give exposure to English and information on subjects that can be discussed with other people. When listens and reads to English texts, this will automatically better pronunciation and vocabularies.

Besides, Formal ESL categories are available at many colleges and universities to assist non-native talkers improve their bid of English. These plans provide a assortment of classs such as grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, authorship, and conversation at a assortment of degrees. Some besides offer “ English for particular intents ” categories, which focus on English as used in specific subject-matter countries such as concern, scientific discipline, or technology.

There is so much ways for single to better English. The most of import thing is his or her inaugural and finding in larning English. Though quandaries might happen sometimes but with difficult work and daring to take hazards, one has high per centum in wining the undertaking given. The same goes with larning English. When there ‘s a will, there ‘s a manner.

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