Many Linguists Believe Motivation Is Important English Language Essay

Integrative motive is holding the desire to belong in the civilization of the mark linguistic communication. This scholar wants to incorporate with native talkers of the mark L2 linguistic communication. An illustration of this is an person who moves to a different state and wants to larn the linguistic communication to populate at that place.

Instrumental motive is larning the linguistic communication to acquire a occupation or to go through an test. In this type of motive, the L2 scholar does non necessitate to incorporate with the native talkers. An illustration of instrumental motive is a Chinese pupil taking English categories to go through the CET trial.

Resultative motive is when larning the mark linguistic communication itself becomes the motive because the scholar is holding success while larning. An illustration of this is an person who scores good on an English trial, and so decides to take more English categories because that individual did so good the first clip.

Intrinsic motive is being motivated by the sheer wonder of larning something new. An illustration of this is an person who can talk, compose, and listen to English at a really high degree, but ne’er took any English lessons or ne’er spoke with any native talkers.

B )

Many linguists believe motive is of import to success. ( Harmer, 2007:98 ; Brown, 1987, p. 114 ; Yule, 2010: 192 ; Keblawi, 2006: 1 ) Motivation is really complex. ( Ellis, 1997 ) It can be influenced by many things, such as, academic experience, societal context of direction, positive attitudes, and positive attitudes linked with effectual schemes, attitudes of their equals, instructors, parents, required linguistic communication survey, and position of a linguistic communication in a society. ( Hornberger, 1996: 4 ) Motivation can sometimes hold the opposite consequence on the scholar, such as in Resultative motive ; the scholar could go less or more motive to go on. ( Ellis, 1997: 75 ) This could go on if the scholar gets negative feedback from equals because that person is talking in the L2 linguistic communication. For these grounds, motive does plays an of import function in larning linguistic communication, but it might non be the exclusive key forecaster. The most of import factor of motive might be the strength degree at which the scholar is motivated. ( Snow, Pa-dilla, & A ; Campbell in Hornberger, 1996: 12 ) Intensity degree is the sum of attempt invested in larning a linguistic communication. ( Keblawi, 2006: 2 ) Since there are many different types of motive, and many factors that besides contribute to motive, there might non be any one type of motive that is better than another type, but every bit long as the scholar has high strength degree, success might go on. Even with high motivational strength, successful acquisition might non take topographic point without the correct larning environment. ( Richards, J.C and Long, M.H, 2009 ) The right acquisition environment means good instructors with right larning schemes, positive parents, helpful equals, and a helpful society. Motivational strength and the right acquisition environment might be the two most of import things in larning a linguistic communication.

Harmonizing to Cook, Richards, Ellis and Long, other factors that might play an of import function are losing their civilization or individuality, anxiousness, aptitude, age, extravert or introvert, sex differences, intelligence, cognitive manner, and empathy. ( Cook, 2008: chapter 8 ; Richards, J.C and Long, M.H, 2009 ) Losing their individuality or civilization is when the scholar speaks in the L2 linguistic communication, and starts to non move like themselves any longer. ( Richards, J.C and Long, M.H, 2009 ) This might do the scholar to non desire to larn a different linguistic communication. Anxiety can be caused by other pupils doing merriment of the L2 scholar because the single speaks in a different manner. Language aptitude is holding a bent for something. ( Cook, 2008 ; Ellis, 1997 ) This could take the scholar to hold resultative motive for larning a linguistic communication. ( Ellis, 1997 ) Age could play an of import function because of the critical period hypothesis. ( Ellis, 1997: 68 ) This hypothesis states that you have a much better opportunity to larn a linguistic communication if you start at a immature age. ( Ellis, 1997: 68 ) Extroverts tend to hold better speech production accomplishments, and introverts tend to hold better composing accomplishments. ( Cook, 2008 ) Girls tend to be better linguistic communication scholars than male childs, possibly because misss are more motivated. The more intelligence you are, the better opportunity you have to larn something. ( Cook, 2008 ) “ Having the same cognitive manner as the instructor, the student will hold a more positive acquisition experience. ” ( Cognitive manner: WEB ) Having empathy could do the linguistic communication scholar to care more about the linguistic communication, therefore learn more. This is why losing their civilization or individuality, anxiousness, aptitude, age, extravert or introvert, sex differences, intelligence, cognitive manner, and empathy are other factors that play an of import function in larning a linguistic communication.

C )

To this twenty-four hours, many linguists can non hold on which theories are best to utilize when depicting motive. Three theories that might be the most of import are self finding, end, and ascription theory. ( Keblawi, 2006 )

“ In, the ego finding theory, instead than concentrating on how people ( e.g. instructors in the

schoolroom ) can actuate others ; the focal point should be on how people can make the conditions within which others can actuate themselves ” ( Deci, Connell, & A ; Ryan in Keblawi, 2006 ) . In future instructions, the instructor might be able to utilize this theory by concentrating on what they tell pupils when they give them feedback. An illustration would be composing utile, meaningful positive words on an essay that pupils submit to the instructor, and give pupils positive support when they try to make something, like answer a inquiry in category. This might make resultative and/or intrinsic motive in the scholar.

Student should be more motivated to larn a linguistic communication if they see the linguistic communication as merriment in itself, instead than giving pupils awards for acquiring right replies ; so instructors should utilize positive feedback to do pupils more motivated. ( Arteaga, 2006 ; Dornyei, 2001 ) .

Keblawi explains that the end theory gives a scholar more way, helps the scholar attempt to carry through the end more, provides the scholar with more energy, and “ ends affect action indirectly by taking to the rousing, find, and/or usage of undertaking relevant cognition and schemes ” ( Locke & A ; Latham in Keblawi, 2006 ) In future instructions, the instructor might integrate this theory into the schoolroom by utilizing task-base acquisition. Task-based acquisition has a cardinal end where the pupils would make this cardinal end by finishing smaller subtasks ; the pupils ends that are merely beyond their ability degree because this might take to more motive. The schoolroom should be set up with ends that are short term with subtasks that are manageable. ( Schunk in Arteaga, 2006 ) This might do pupils to hold more intrinsic motive.

The ascription theory provinces that past successes or failures determine the scholar ‘s motive for the hereafter. ( Dornyei, 2001 ) If scholars think they do n’t hold the ability, so their motive is likely to diminish. If they think that their failure is from non seeking or caring, so seeking harder should increase motive. ( Keblawi, 2006 ) In future instructions, the instructor can utilize this theory by doing certain to talk at a degree in which the pupils can understand. This will non give them the since of deficiency of ability, but give them a since of indolence if they do non finish their work. This might give the scholar more motive to work harder.

Arteaga, J. ( 2006 ) A Model to Understanding Motivation in the TESOL Field. Universidad de Narino, Colombia 147-159.

Brown, D. ( 1987 ) Principles of linguistic communication acquisition and instruction. 2ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.

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Cook, V. ( 2008 ) Second Language Learning and Language Teaching. 4th erectile dysfunction. London: Arnold.

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Deci, E. L. , Connell, J. E. , & A ; Ryan, R. M. ( 1989 ) . Self-government in a work organisation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74 ( 4 ) , 580-590.

Dornyei, Z. ( 2001 ) . Teaching and researching motive. Harlow, England: Longman.

Ellis, R. ( 1997 ) Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Harmer, J. ( 2007 ) The patterns of English Language Teaching. Fourth Edition. Harlow: Longman.

Hornberger, N ; Mckay, S. ( 1996 ) Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Keblawi, F. ( 2006 ) A Critical Appraisal of Language Learning Motivation Theories. Al-Qasemi Academy.

Locke, E. & A ; Latham, J. ( 2002 ) . Constructing a practically utile theory of end scene and undertaking motive: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57 ( 90 ) , 705-717.

Richards, J.C and Long, M.H. ( 2009 ) Sociolinguistics and Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Schunk, D. H. ( 1991b ) . Self-efficacy and academic motive. Educational Psychologist, 26, 233-262.

Christmas, G. ( 2010 ) The Study of Language. 4th erectile dysfunction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

A )

Topographic point of articulation is located in the vocal piece of land. It is where the sound is produced. An illustration of this is the P consonant sound is produced at the low lip and upper lip ; where as, the F consonant sound is produced at lower lip and upper dentition.

Manner of articulation is how the sound is produced utilizing address variety meats, such as, the lips. The grade of stenosis determines the sound by contracting the vocal piece of land. An illustration is the P consonant sound is produced by shuting off all the air flow. This is called an unwritten halt. When released, the sound comes as a explosion via air flow, and it should be pronounced utilizing the lips ; this is a called bilabial stop consonant.

Epenthesis is adding excess sounds into a word when stating that word. When adding the excess sounds into the word, it might do it easier to state the word because the flow of the word is non stopped. An illustration of this is stating the word hamster, but adding an excess consonant P into word doing it hampster.

Simplification is the procedure where letters are taken out of the word, therefore doing it easier for the talker to pronounce. Simplification is really common in kids, such as, bottle becomes bobo.

B )

Articulation of consonants and production of vowels might assist by learning pupils how to right talk English words. ( Yule, 2010 ; Roach, 2009 ; Cook, 2008 ) In my ain context, Chinese university pupils have a difficult clip with articulation of the unvoiced alveo-palentals [ E? ] and [ E§ ] , such as the “ sh ” and “ ch ” sounds. Harmonizing to Cheng Fangzhi, Chinese pupils besides have a difficult clip with “ /v/ in really because it is frequently pronounced as /w/ ; /o/ in think as /s/ ; /tS/ in inexpensive like the Chinese “ chi ” and /dZ/ in justice like Chinese “ Jemaah Islamiyah ” . “ ( 1998:2 ) This might be because these sounds might non happen in their female parent lingua and if non, should be difficult to articulate. ( Maniruzzaman ; Balfe ) Students could larn about these differences in sounds by demoing them the places of address variety meats. ( Roach, 2009 ) An illustration of making this, the instructor could utilize mold, and demo the scholars an life with sound for the address organs that are hard to see by patterning. Second, pupils could be shown the mode of articulation. ( Roach, 2009 ) An illustration, pupils could pattern talking the individual phoneme by utilizing the soundless method. Third, learning the differences in pronunciation of the sounds by utilizing ‘minimal braces ‘ along with choral boring. ( Balfe ) Minimal braces are words that are merely different in one sound, such as, store and chop. Choral boring is where the instructor says a word and the pupils repeat it. To assist pupils farther understand how to distinguish the pronunciations, possibly games such as vocals and lingua tornados could be used.

Teaching really elaborate descriptions of consonants and vowels might non be a good thought because pupils that can explicate the unvoiced palato-alveolar affricative: articulated with the lingua behind the alveolar ridge, and the forepart of the lingua is domed at the home base, air goes through the oral cavity, merely along the centre of the lingua instead than the sides by utilizing the lungs and stop, as Helen Fraser provinces, “ giving scholars a phonic description of the mark sound is frequently non helpful, even if it is done accurately. ” ( Helen Fraser ) Triphthong might non be a good thought to learn because the vowel motion is bantam, and the center of the three vowel sound is difficult to distinguish between triphthongs and some of the diphthongs and long vowels ; it is questionable whether a triphthong contains one or two syllables. ( Roach, 2009: 31 ) It might non be a good thought to learn pupils the descriptions of consonants and vowels utilizing the International Phonetic Association Chart, even though English words pronunciation and spelling do n’t ever fit up, and to maintain this job from go oning, people might utilize the phonic alphabet. ( Yule, 2010: 26 ) This is because Cook says, “ instruction or rectifying a individual phoneme may non hold much consequence on the pupils ‘ pronunciation, or may even hold the incorrect consequence. “ ( Cook, 2008:81 )

C )

It might be best to learn phonotactics to intermediate pupils. Intermediate degree pupils will already hold a basic base construction of how the English linguistic communication plants and might be cognizant of their ain pronunciation jobs. Teaching scholars, at this degree, phonotactics might assist because they will be able to understand different types of consonant bunchs that affect their pronunciation. ( Roach, 2009:74 ) It might be appropriate stuff for intermediate pupils because phonotactics of larger oncoming consonant bunchs is non difficult to explicate. ( Yule, 2010 ) Phonotactics could be taught by giving pupils a press release with the basic syllable constructions, such as CCVC, VCC, VCC, CVC, V, CV, and CVC. ( Yule, 2010 ) Rules could be give to pupils, such as, “ the first consonant must ever be /s/ , followed by one of the voiceless Michigan ( /p/ , /t/ , /k/ ) and a liquid or semivowel ( /l/ , /r/ , /w/ ) . “ ( Yule, 2010: 42 ) After pupils become cognizant of syllable constructions, instructors could give work sheets with minimum sets. “ This type of exercising affecting minimum sets besides allows us to see that there are definite forms in the types of sound combinations permitted in a linguistic communication. ” ( Yule, 2010:48 )

Coarticulation is made up of two parts: assimilation and elision. Coarticulation happens in normal mundane talk and should non be seen as uncorrected or hapless address ; without utilizing coarticulation, talking would sound unreal. ( Yule, 2010 ) Coarticulation might best be taught to pupils that have an advanced degree of the English linguistic communication. This may be a good thought because in order to understand coarticulation, one may necessitate an first-class speech production, understanding and cognition of the English linguistic communication because if you do n’t hold an first-class appreciation of English, the scholar might non understand assimilation because assimilation is used to simplify talking English by doing it quicker, easier and more efficient. ( Yule, 2010 ) The same might be applied to elisions because it ‘s the procedure of non talking some parts of a word. ( Yule, 2010 ) Coarticulation could be taught to pupils by doing pupils cognizant that this exists in the English linguistic communication. ( Kasuya, 1999 ) The pupil could be shown a sentence, and so shown how a native talker might state it. This could besides be done by demoing pupils English vocals or Television shows. Last, instructors might hold pupils read fast to pattern utilizing coarticulation in natural speech production. ( Kasuya, 1999 )

In my ain context, Chinese pupils use both epenthesis and simplification. ( Hansen, 2001 ) This could be explained to pupils by giving them illustrations in their ain linguistic communication and explicating that this besides happens in the English linguistic communication, such as L1 transportation. L1 transportation is using cognition from the native linguistic communication in larning the L2 linguistic communication. Then a work sheet could be given to pupils with illustrations of this go oning in English.

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Fangzhi, C. The Teaching of Pronunciation to Chinese Students of English. 1998.

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Fraser, H. Presented at ALAA Conference, Perth, 1999 Senior Lecturer in Linguistics, University of New England, Armidale, NSW.

Hansen, J. Lingusitic Constraints on the Acquistion of English Syllabe Codas by Native Speakers of Mandarin Chinese. Oxford University Press 2001

Kasuya, Michiko.Teaching Features of the Stream of Speech in Nipponese Classrooms. University of Birmingham. 1999

Maniruzzaman, M. Teaching Efl Pronunciation: Why, What and How. Department of English, Jahangirnagar University: 2008

Roach, P. ( 2009 ) English Phonetics and Phonology. 4th erectile dysfunction. Cambridge: Cambridge.

Christmas, G ( 2010 ) The Study of Language. 4th erectile dysfunction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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