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THESIS GUIDE 2011-2012 Requirements and Guidelines for the Preparation of Master’s Theses and Doctoral Dissertations Thesis Office 115 Kern Building University Park, PA 16802 phone: 814/865-5448 fax: 814/863-4627 e-mail: [email protected] edu http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html INTRODUCTION The primary purpose of a thesis or dissertation is to train the student in the processes of scholarly research and writing under the direction of members of the Graduate Faculty.

After the student has graduated and the work is published, it serves as a contribution to human knowledge, useful to other scholars and perhaps even to a more general audience. Therefore, the Graduate School, the University Libraries, and the Graduate Faculty of Penn State have established format standards that theses and dissertations must meet before receiving final approval as fulfillment of graduate requirements. This publication sets forth those standards. Some of these requirements are purely technical; others have been established to ensure that certain vital information is presented in an orderly, uniform manner.

The requirements in this publication apply to all Penn State theses and dissertations. (The general term “thesis” may be used in this text to represent both. ) They are, however, designed to allow for maximum flexibility in minor matters, which vary among academic disciplines (e. g. , reference forms). Thus, while you will need to comply with the specifications given here, you will probably also need to consult a specialized manual of scholarly style in your field or the style sheet of a leading journal.

Be careful if using another thesis as a model for your own; remember that this guide is revised from time to time, and you must meet current requirements. You have a fair amount of discretion with regard to style, but you must be consistent in format throughout. The work should be written in clear, grammatically correct English, with words spelled and divided correctly and punctuation standard and appropriate. The Role of the Thesis Office The Thesis Office (a division of Graduate Enrollment Services) is the branch of the Graduate School responsible for certifying that theses nd dissertations have been prepared in accordance with the regulations in this guide. When a thesis is submitted to the Thesis Office, it must meet the requirements set forth here. The text should be proofread and free of grammatical errors and typos. However, the Thesis Office reviews the document for format and compliance to Graduate School requirements only. Responsibility for the Thesis The author bears ultimate responsibility for meeting all of the Graduate School requirements. He or she must pay the thesis fee, activate the intent to graduate, meet deadlines for review and final submission, and obtain faculty signatures.

The best advice is to start early and make certain that the requirements outlined in this guide are fully met. It is extremely important that the author carefully review and proofread the thesis or dissertation before final submission. After final approval by the Thesis Office, changes are not permitted. 1 SUBMISSION AND REQUIREMENTS Electronic Submission Electronic submission of the final dissertation (eTD) became a requirement for all doctoral candidates at Penn State starting in fall semester 2006 and for master’s candidates in fall semester 2008.

Both the format review and final copy must now be submitted on line. For information on eTD preparation and submission, go to (http://www. etd. psu. edu/). The author, when submitting an eTD, must choose one of three options for release of the document. Option 1 is open access (release of the entire work for access worldwide). Option 2 is access by those with Penn State Access IDs only for a period of two years (not to be used for theses containing patentable information). Option 3 is complete restriction for a period of two years for patent and/or proprietary purposes only.

This option requires that the author file an invention disclosure form with the Intellectual Property Office before submission of the final thesis. With Options 2 and 3, the work will be released automatically for access worldwide at the end of the two-year period unless a written request is made for a one-year extension. This request must be submitted to the Thesis Office by the author at least 30 days prior to the end of the restriction. For additional information on these options, visit the eTD Web site. The “official” copy of an eTD is the electronic file, and this is the copy that will be on file with University Libraries.

Keep in mind that electronic submission does not prevent the author from producing hard copies for the committee, department, or for personal use. The eTD is available to anyone who wishes to access it on the Web (unless the author chooses one of the options that will restrict availability for two years). This open access distribution makes the work more widely available than a bound copy on a library shelf. One final note: For all theses and dissertations, the Doctoral Approval Page and Master’s Approval Page should be used for signatures instead of the signatory page (use of the signatory page has been discontinued).

All forms are available online and in this guide. Signatures are required from the thesis advisor, committee chair (doctoral only), committee members and department head or graduate program chair, as well as by the thesis author, in order for the Thesis Office to grant final approval. IMPORTANT NOTICE: ALL THESES AND DISSERTATIONS MUST BE SUBMITTED IN ELECTRONIC FORMAT (eTD) 2 How to Submit a Doctoral Dissertation Become familiar with the format requirements by reading the Thesis Guide carefully (http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html).

Activate the intent to graduate on eLion during the semester in which you plan to graduate. Go to http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html for deadline. Upload a draft of your dissertation for format review (Word or pdf file) to the eTD Web site (http://www. etda. libraries. psu. edu/index_maint. html) by the specified deadline. Corrections and detailed instructions will be returned to you by e-mail within two weeks. Defend the dissertation and make any changes required by the committee. This can be done either before or after the format review, as long as deadlines are met.

Receive approval from the committee in the form of signatures on the Doctoral Approval Page. Review the dissertation one final time to be sure that no further changes are needed. It will not be possible to make corrections after final approval by the Thesis Office. Convert the file into a pdf for eTD submission. If you cannot do this, contact the Thesis Office for assistance. Go to the eTD Web site (http://www. etda. libraries. psu. edu/index_maint. html) and upload the final eTD; submit supporting materials to the Thesis Office (Note: It doesn’t matter if you upload first or submit the materials first).

Supporting materials are: signed Doctoral Approval Page, ProQuest/UMI Agreement, Survey of Earned Doctorates, and $95 fee (the fee can be paid at http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html). Await notification of eTD approval by e-mail. If changes are required, you will be notified. Your eTD will be accessible on the eTD Web site after immediately graduation unless you have restricted access. If bound copies are needed, contact any Multimedia & Print Center on campus (http://www. multimediaprint. psu. edu/) or you may use an off-campus source.

All copies are the author’s responsibility. The Graduate School does not provide copies. 3 How to Submit a Master’s Thesis Become familiar with the format requirements by reading the Thesis Guide carefully (http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html). Activate the intent to graduate on eLion during the semester in which you plan to graduate. Go to http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html for deadline. Upload a draft of your thesis for format review (Word of pdf file) to the eTD Web site (http://www. etda. libraries. psu. edu/index_maint. html) by the specified deadline.

Corrections and detailed instructions will be returned to you by e-mail within two weeks. Make any changes required by advisor and readers. Receive approval in the form of signatures on the Master’s Approval Page. Review the thesis one final time to be sure that no further changes are needed. It will not be possible to make corrections after final approval by the Thesis Office. Convert the file to a pdf for eTD submission. If you cannot do this, contact the Thesis Office for assistance. Go to the eTD Web site (http://www. etda. libraries. psu. edu/index_maint. html) and upload the final eTD.

Submit supporting materials to the Thesis Office (Note: It doesn’t matter if you upload first or submit the materials first). Supporting materials are: signed Master’s Approval Page and $25 fee (the fee can be paid at http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html). Await notification of thesis approval by e-mail. If changes are required, you will be notified. Your eTD will be accessible on the eTD Web site immediately after graduation unless you have restricted access. If bound copies are needed, contact any Multimedia & Print Center on campus (http://www. multimediaprint. psu. du/) or you may use an off-campus source. All copies are the author’s responsibility. The Graduate School does not provide copies. 4 Deadlines and Format Review Every thesis and dissertation at Penn State must be reviewed and approved by the Thesis Office (a division of Graduate Enrollment Services). There are no exceptions. However, master’s papers and projects are not reviewed by the Thesis Office. If you are unsure of the requirements for your degree, please check with your department. Thesis deadlines (calendar) for each semester can be found on the Graduate School’s Web site at http://www. radsch. psu. edu/calendar/gradcal. html. It is the responsibility of the thesis author to be aware of and to meet deadlines for submission. Failure to meet the specified deadlines will result in the removal of your name from the graduation list. It is not necessary to submit for format review a second time if graduation is postponed to a later semester. The length of time required for review of the thesis or dissertation varies according to the number of documents awaiting review at any given time. If you submit early in the semester, you will most likely get it back in less than a week.

If you wait until the final deadline, it may take longer. In either case, you will be notified by e-mail when the review is completed. Intent to Graduate You must activate the intent to graduate on eLion during the semester in which you plan to graduate. This will put your name on the graduation list so that a diploma is printed for you, etc. If you fail to meet the other deadlines (e. g. , submission of the thesis for format review), your intent to graduate will be removed. It does not carry over to the next semester. Fees A processing fee is assessed by the Graduate School for every thesis and dissertation.

In the case of a master’s thesis, the fee is $25; the fee for a doctoral dissertation is $95. Thesis fees are paid at http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html. Final Submission, Approval, and Letter of Certification When the final thesis is uploaded, it is examined once more to make certain that the required revisions have been made and all the pages are present. If everything is in order, the document will be approved and the author will be notified of the approval. The eTD will be available online immediately after the degree conferral date (unless restriction is requested).

Without exception, changes cannot be made to the thesis or dissertation after approval by the Thesis Office, so it is important to proofread carefully before final submission. If you require documentation stating that you have met the requirements for the degree before graduation, you may apply to Graduate Enrollment Services in 114 Kern Building (814/8651795) for a Letter of Certification. You should apply for this letter at least two weeks before you need it. The letter will be provided only after approval of your final thesis. 5

TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS Type Specifications Most important in typing a thesis or dissertation is consistency of format and adherence to the specific instructions given in this guide. The text of an eTD may be single-, double- or oneand-a-half-spaced. Use a standard typeface of 10-, 11-, or 12-point size. Limit the use of italic (script) print to foreign words, book and journal titles, and special emphasis. If you wish, you may use larger size type for the title of the thesis and for chapter headings, as long as it is not larger than 18point.

Boldface type may also be used on the title page and for headings, as well as in the text, for special symbols or for emphasis. Reduced type may be used within tables, figures, and appendices, but, in part because of microfilming requirements, it should be at least 9-point in size and must be completely legible. It is permissible to use color in the document, but keep in mind that the microfilm version will show black-and-white only. Begin each chapter on a new page. Do the same with each element of the front matter (list of tables, acknowledgments, etc. ), the reference section, and each appendix.

Try to avoid typing a heading near the bottom of a page unless there is room for at least two lines of text following the heading. Instead, you should simply leave a little extra space on that page and begin the heading on the next page. If you wish to use a “display” page (a page that shows only the chapter title) at the beginning of chapters or appendices, be sure to do so consistently and to count the display page when numbering the pages. Margins A . 75” or 1” margin on all sides is acceptable, but keep in mind that a wider left margin (e. g. , 1. 5”) may be more appropriate for binding purposes.

Page Numbers Every page in the document, including those with tables and figures, must be counted. Use lower case Roman numerals for the front matter and Arabic numbers for the text. The text (or body) of the thesis must begin on page 1. Do not number a page with “a” or “b” or skip numbers; do not embellish page numbers with punctuation (dashes, periods, etc. ); and do not type the word “page” before the page number. Running headers are not permitted. A one-page vita is required as the last page of a doctoral dissertation, and this page should not be numbered (it is not required for a master’s thesis).

The title page does not show a page number, although it is actually page i. The committee page is page ii, and the Abstract begins page iii. Page numbers may be placed in the upper right-hand corner, lower right-hand corner, or centered at the top or bottom of the page. Page numbers should not be placed on the left side of the page. Allow a reasonable distance between the page number and any text; in no instance may the page number overlap the text. 6 The Master’s Approval Page and the Doctoral Approval Page are not included in the actual thesis or dissertation. Instead, they are kept on file in the Thesis Office.

The committee page, however, will list the names and titles of all who signed off on the eTD. Help with Word Processing Information Technology Services (ITS) offers a variety of services targeted to thesis authors, including workshops on eTD preparation. PsuThesi and PSTT (Penn State Thesis Template) are programs that have been designed to conform to Thesis Office guidelines. They contain styles, macros, toolbars, and menus to facilitate the thesis writing process and include layouts for Penn State doctoral dissertations and master’s theses and University Scholar’s papers. Consult http://css. its. su. edu/theses/ or ITS staff for additional information. Documentation of Sources in the Text Source citations are required in the text whenever you use a direct quotation, paraphrase another author’s words, or include specific information that is not common knowledge (and is not the result of your own research reported in the thesis). Systems of source citation fall generally into three categories: (1) parenthetical author-date-page documentation; (2) citation by number, keyed to a numbered reference list; and (3) footnotes or endnotes. Select one of these systems and use it throughout the thesis.

A thesis using one of the first two systems could also include footnotes presenting non-source information or comments. References in the text must correspond exactly to the listing of sources at the end of the thesis. Be certain that all items are included in the bibliography or reference list, authors’ names are spelled consistently and correctly, and dates are the same in both the text and the reference list. FRONT MATTER The term “front matter” refers to all the pages in front of the main text of the thesis. Front matter pages are numbered with lower case Roman numerals.

These pages are: —title page (unnumbered) —committee page (page ii) —abstract (begins on page iii) —table of contents —lists of figures, abbreviations, maps, tables or multimedia items (each a separate list) —preface (optional) —acknowledgments (optional) —epigraph, frontispiece, or dedication (optional; do not include in Table of Contents) The abstract is required in all theses and begins on page iii. The table of contents is also required. Acknowledgments are optional and should be at the end of the front matter unless an epigraph, frontispiece, or dedication is added.

An introduction may be chapter 1 or it may precede chapter 1, but it must be numbered as part of the text, not as part of the front matter. 7 Title Page The title page must appear exactly as shown in the example in Appendix A of this guide. Type the title of the thesis using capital letters throughout. If it occupies more than one line, double space between lines. Use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, and other non-alphabetical symbols in the title of the thesis. Master’s candidates should use “Thesis,” and doctoral candidates should use “Dissertation” on the title page.

Use your legal name as it appears on your student record in the Registrar’s Office. Your name must appear in exactly the same form each time it is used in the thesis. On the copyright line, use the word “Copyright” or the symbol © (not both), followed by the year and your name. (Note: You own the copyright on your work whether you choose to include this notice or not. ) On the date line, indicate the month and year of degree conferral, not the date of the defense or the date you submit your thesis. Degrees are conferred only in May, August, and December.

Approval Page and Committee Page The official copy of the thesis or dissertation does not contain signatures of committee members. A signed approval page is retained by the Graduate School (see examples in Appendix A). The signatures on the approval page indicate that the thesis is approved as a complete and final work requiring no further alteration. This page is required for approval of the document by the Thesis Office. The final copy of the thesis or dissertation must include a committee page that lists the names and titles of those faculty members who have approved the work (see example in Appendix A).

The names on this page must match exactly those on the approval page. This page does not include signatures. The committee page is page ii and appears immediately before the Abstract. In addition to the committee members and adviser, the approval page must be signed by either the department head or program chair of the student’s major program. If one of the signatories has a dual role (e. g. , adviser and head of the department), list both roles under the professorial title. Do not list the same person more than once on the approval page or committee page.

If the sharing of roles leaves you with less than the required number of signatures, an additional reader must be added. A minimum of three signatures is required for a master’s thesis, including the thesis adviser and department head or program chair. For a doctoral dissertation, at least two-thirds of the committee must sign, including the dissertation adviser and chair of the committee. In addition, the department head or program chair must sign, even if he/she is not a member of the committee. The adviser must be designated.

If two or more individuals served as advisers, list each as “Dissertation Co-Adviser. ” A doctoral dissertation must also identify the chair of the committee (if two or more, list each as “Co-Chair of Committee”). There should be no chair indicated on a master’s thesis. 8 All signatories on a doctoral dissertation must be members of Penn State’s Graduate Faculty, except in special cases approved by the Graduate Enrollment Office. A person who receives special approval but does not attend the oral defense is designated as a Special Signatory. If the person does attend the defense, the term used is Special Member.

On a master’s thesis, the designation would always be Special Signatory. Be sure that all signatories are identified by their correct professorial titles. Check with the department for current information. Do not use such designations as “Ph. D. ” or “Dr. ” on the approval page or committee page. Administrative titles should not be included, with the exception of the head of the major department or the chair of the graduate major program. Only one administrative title should be used, as only one person is signing on behalf of the major department.

If a signatory is not available to sign at the appropriate time, a proxy signature is allowed so that the thesis will qualify for final submission. The department or program head may sign the name of the absent signatory and initial it beneath, thus indicating knowledge of the approval. No specific color of ink is required for signatures. Consult Thesis Office staff if you have any concerns about the approval page or if you need clarification of the regulations stated above. Abstract Every thesis must contain an abstract.

An abstract is a concise summary of the thesis, intended to inform prospective readers about its content. It usually includes a brief description of the research, the procedures or methods, and the results or conclusions. An abstract should not include internal headings, parenthetical citations of items listed in the reference section, diagrams, or other illustrations. The abstract follows the committee page and has the heading ABSTRACT at the top. It always begins on page iii. There is no restriction on the length of the abstract in the thesis, but a separate abstract required for the

ProQuest/UMI Agreement form is limited to 350 words (doctoral only). Table of Contents The table of contents is essentially a topic outline of the thesis. It is compiled by listing the headings in the thesis. You may choose to include first-level headings, first- and second-levels, or all levels. Keep in mind that there usually is no index in a thesis, and thus a fairly detailed table of contents can serve as a useful guide for the reader. The table of contents must appear immediately after the abstract and should not list the abstract, the table of contents itself, the frontispiece, the epigraph, or the vita.

It should include everything else that appears after the table of contents, including the list of figures, list of tables, etc. (See example in Appendix A of this guide. ) Be sure that the headings listed in the table of contents match word-for-word the headings in the text. Double check to be sure that correct page numbers are shown. In listing appendices, indicate the title of each appendix. If using display pages, the number of the display page should appear in the table of contents. 9 List of Figures, List of Tables, etc.

Include a list of figures (illustrations) and a list of tables if you have one or more items in these categories. Use a separate page for each list. Show the caption and page number of every figure and table in the thesis. Also include lists for abbreviations, nomenclature, maps, etc. Preface A preface usually is not necessary and is called for only when the genesis of the work needs to be explained or the author’s contribution to a multiple-authored work needs to be noted. If there are separate sections for preface and acknowledgments, the preface comes first.

Acknowledgments An acknowledgments page is required only if the author has received permission to use copyrighted material or must acknowledge grant sources. Otherwise, it is optional. If included, it is used to express the author’s professional and personal indebtedness. Epigraph or Frontispiece Some authors include a quotation (epigraph) or illustration (frontispiece) as the last page of the front matter. These should not be listed in the table of contents. The source of an epigraph is indicated below the quotation but need not be listed in the bibliography.

BACK MATTER The back matter (or end matter) of the thesis may include some or all of the following items: —bibliography or references (may be in back matter or at the end of each chapter) —appendices (may come either before or after references) —endnotes or notes (if any, they may be in back matter or at the end of each chapter) —vita (required in doctoral dissertation, always as the last page and unnumbered) Bibliography or References A thesis must include a bibliography or reference section listing all works which are referred to in the text, and in some cases other works also consulted in the course of research and writing.

This section may either precede or follow the appendices (if any), or may appear at the end of each chapter. Usually a single section is more convenient and useful for both author and reader. The forms used for listing sources in the bibliography/reference section are detailed and complicated, and they vary considerably among academic disciplines. For this reason, you will need to follow a scholarly style manual in your field or perhaps a recent issue of a leading journal as a guide in compiling this section of the thesis.

Appendices Material that is pertinent but is somewhat tangential or very detailed (raw data, procedural explanations, etc. ) may be placed in an appendix. Appendices should be designated A, B, C (not 1, 2, 3 or I, II, III). If there is only one appendix, call it simply Appendix, not Appendix A. Titles of appendices must be listed in the table of contents. Appendix pages must be numbered consecutively with the text of the thesis (do not number the pages A-1, A-2, etc. ). 10 Vita Required only in doctoral dissertations, the vita must be the last page of the document.

It must not have a page number and must not be listed in the Table of Contents. The word Vita and the author’s name should appear at the top. A standard outline style or a prose form may be used. In no case may the vita be more than one page in length. Examples of vitas can be seen at http://www. etda. libraries. psu. edu/ETD-db/ETD-search/browse. TABLES AND FIGURES A table is a columnar arrangement of information, often numbers, organized to save space and convey relationships at a glance. A rule of thumb to use in deciding whether given materials are tables or figures is that tables can be typed, but figures must be drawn.

A figure is a graphic illustration such as a chart, graph, diagram, map, or photograph. Captions and Numbering Each table and each figure in the text must have a number and caption. Number them consecutively throughout, beginning with 1, or by chapter using a decimal system. Placement of Tables and Figures It is best to place a table or figure immediately after the first mention of it in the text—on the same page if there is room, or on the following page. Alternatively, tables and/or figures may be grouped together at the end of each chapter. Tables or figures of peripheral importance to the text may be placed in an appendix.

Tables and figures must be referred to in the text by number, not by a phrase such as “the following table. ” Sources If a figure or table is taken from another source, indicate the source at the bottom, either at the end of the caption or in a note beginning “Source:… ” Source notes are not numbered, even if there are other numbered notes. If a figure or table is copied from its source, be sure it is large enough to be readable. OVERSIZED MATERIALS If you are having trouble fitting a table or figure within the margins, even after relaxing each margin by . 5 inch, consult the following options and select the method you prefer. Landscape Pages Place a table or figure sideways (landscape style) on the page by rotating it 90 degrees counterclockwise from its normal position. Rotate the caption or heading also, so that all parts can be conveniently read together. The page number may be rotated with the figure if the author chooses. 11 Separate Caption Page Use the entire page for the table or figure and place the caption on a separate page preceding it. Type the caption in the same direction (landscape or portrait). Reduced Type Size Reduce the font size of the table or figure.

The size should be no smaller than 9-point. COPYRIGHT, AUTHORSHIP, AND PROQUEST/UMI Copyright Copyright is legal protection of intellectual property—in this case, your thesis or dissertation. This protection, in accordance with the U. S. Copyright Act of 1976, begins automatically as soon as a work is created. It is up to you to decide if you wish to maintain or register your copyright; Penn State has no requirement that you do either. Copyright ownership means that you have the exclusive right to print, reprint, copy, sell, and prepare derivative works based on your work.

Copyright law protects an author against infringement of these rights. There are, however, limitations on your exclusive right: 1. Others may excerpt portions of your thesis for scholarly work or research without obtaining your permission, if the borrowing is “fair use. ” Of course, they must credit you as the source. Anything beyond “fair use” requires permission. 2. In the case of a doctoral dissertation, ProQuest/UMI has the right to sell copies of the dissertation in and from microfilm or electronic format. 3. Penn State has the right to make single copies of the work for nonprofit purposes.

You may insert a copyright notice on the title page as shown in the example in Appendix A of this guide. However, this is not required. Keep in mind, though, that it signals to readers that you acknowledge your legal rights and that you are the copyright owner. You may also choose to register your claim to copyright by filling in the appropriate section of the ProQuest/UMI Doctoral Agreement and paying the fee or by writing to the Copyright Office, Library of Congress, Washington, DC 20559, and requesting a TX application form.

This is a legal formality that makes a public record of your copyright and provides additional protections if another party violates your copyright. It is not a requirement. If you have developed a separately marketable item, you may want to complete this procedure. All doctoral dissertations have an abstract available for worldwide access, but the student can decide how widely the body of the work will be available (see page 2). This should be considered carefully, taking into consideration publishing, proprietary issues, and issues associated with public disclosure.

Public access to abstracts and theses is a form of public disclosure. Any enabling public disclosure of patentable inventions has an immediate and irreversible effect on both U. S. and foreign patent protection including the possible loss of certain patent rights. For more information, contact Penn State’s Intellectual Property Office. For more information on copyright ownership, request the publication “Copyright Law and the Doctoral Dissertation: Guidelines to Your Legal Rights and Responsibilities” available at 12 http://www. proquest. com/en-US/products/dissertations/copyright/Preface. html or consult the U.

S. Copyright Office Web site at http://lcweb. loc. gov/copyright/. Microfilming and ProQuest/UMI All dissertations at Penn State are microfilmed and made available for sale by ProQuest/UMI Dissertation Publishing. Penn State maintains this arrangement because it believes that knowledge should be disseminated to the public rather than restricted. Information Regarding the ProQuest/UMI Publishing Agreement As a public research university, Penn State has an obligation to ensure that information arising from the research and scholarship of its faculty and students is made available to the public.

The doctoral dissertation, as an examination document, is a primary source for such information and has historically been made available in hard copy format through placement in the University Libraries and through mechanisms such as inter-library loan. With the advent of electronic document systems, dissertations can now be placed in the public domain and made available for worldwide access through the University Libraries digital collections. All dissertations must be submitted electronically in order to facilitate and support their availability to the public.

If it is necessary or advisable to temporarily restrict access to the eTD (allowable for a period of two years), generally based upon a request from the Intellectual Property Office in consultation with the student and advisor, the student may do so by choosing one of two restricted release options indicated on the Doctoral Approval Page: Penn State Only (the eTD is available only to those with active Penn State Access Accounts for a period of two years) or Restricted (the eTD is available to no one for a period of two years).

The Restricted option is used exclusively for dissertations with patent issues. After two years, the eTD is released (Open Access) unless the author requests an extension through the Thesis Office. All doctoral theses at Penn State are submitted for microfilming to ProQuest/UMI Dissertation Publishing, which is the offsite repository of the Library of Congress for dissertations and theses produced in accredited, graduate-degree granting U. S. institutions.

According to ProQuest/UMI, each dissertation is professionally microfilmed and two copies are archived in perpetuity and digital copies are backed up to magnetic tape. Penn State has maintained this arrangement for over 50 years for preservation purposes, because it wishes to enhance wide accessibility of information and believes that knowledge should be disseminated to the public rather than restricted. ProQuest/UMI Dissertation Publishing also makes available for sale copies of the full work, with royalties (10%) that accrue to $10. 0 or more in any year payable to the author. More recently, ProQuest/UMI Publishing has added options for open access (at additional cost), as well as release restriction options related to their publishing services. Since doctoral theses at Penn State are ultimately placed in open access through the University Libraries, any release restrictions needed are imposed prior to submission of the eTD to ProQuest/UMI.

The eTD will not be made available to ProQuest/UMI until it has been placed in open access through the University Libraries, and selection of any ProQuest/UMI option other than Traditional Publishing would be redundant and incur unnecessary costs. 13 When preparing the ProQuest/UMI Agreement, please select Traditional Publishing; also select Yes (I want my work to be available as soon as it is published) on page 4. This will comply with Penn State requirements (the fee for traditional publishing is included in the $95 fee that you pay to Penn State).

You need submit only pages 4 and 5 to the Thesis Office. Copyright registration (pages 6) and bound copies (page 7) are optional. ProQuest publishes dissertation abstracts in its monthly publication Dissertation Abstracts International. Abstracts are available online to users of the computer database information systems Dialog®, OCLC, and STN®. Dissertation titles are also cited in indexes and subject catalogs. Master’s Theses in the University Libraries Penn State master’s theses are available online at the eTD site and through the CAT, but are not published by ProQuest.

If you wish to publish your master’s thesis abstract with ProQuest’s Master’s Abstract program, you may write for information to Manuscripts Department, ProQuest, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, or call 1-800-521-0600. Materials Copyrighted by Others You do not need permission to use works in the public domain (works on which a copyright never existed or on which copyright has expired), but you must acknowledge such works and provide an appropriate citation. To determine if a work is in the public domain, go to the following Website: http://www. copyright. cornell. du/resources/publicdomain. cfm. If you use copyrighted works, refer to section 107 of U. S. Copyright law, otherwise known as the fair use doctrine, to determine if the amount and type of work used requires you to obtain permission. Below is the applicable language: The fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in copies or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright.

In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include — (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. All four factors must be considered when conducting a fair use analysis.

The Fair Use Checklist is an excellent tool in making a fair use determination: available at http://copyright. columbia. edu/fair-use-checklist. Again, you must acknowledge the source of the copyrighted material. If the use does not qualify as a fair use, you may not include the material without written permission of the copyright holder. ProQuest will also examine your use of copyrighted work in your dissertation. If extensive use 14 of copyrighted material is found, ProQuest will expect to find a letter from the copyright holder granting permission.

If not, ProQuest will write to you and request such a letter. Unless you obtain permission to film and sell the material, ProQuest will delete the material in question when filming copies for sale to the public. Obviously, fair use is both a privilege and a source of confusion. For additional information, you may contact the ProQuest/UMI Copyright Unit at 1-800-521-0600, ext. 3887 or visit their Web site at http://il. proquest. com/brand/umi. shtml. Letters of Permission If your borrowing exceeds fair use, you must secure written permission and submit a copy with your dissertation.

When requesting letters of permission, be sure the grantor is aware that the work will be published through ProQuest’s dissertation program. You are solely responsible if you violate the copyright law; neither Penn State nor ProQuest will be held liable. Previously Published Work Work by the thesis author which is published prior to thesis submission (or is shortly expected to be published) may be accepted as part of the thesis, provided the committee approves the work and the published material was written specifically to fulfill thesis requirements.

If you submit previously published copyrighted work and you are not the copyright holder, a letter of permission from the copyright holder must accompany the thesis. In no case may work used for a previous degree be submitted. First Author Requirement Your department may permit you to submit multiple-authored work as thesis material if you are first author of the work. Your contributions must be clearly and fully indicated in a preface to the thesis. Preprints and Reprints Electronic preprints and reprints are acceptable for inclusion in the thesis if they meet type size, margin, and legibility requirements.

Material that does not quite meet the usual type size and margin requirements may sometimes be placed in an appendix. Classified Material You may not use any information that is restricted or cannot be disseminated to the public in your thesis or dissertation, because one of the primary intents of the thesis effort is to communicate the results of research to the scholarly community. In cases involving innovative or patentable material, access to the electronic document may be restricted for two years.

OTHER REQUIREMENTS AND SPECIAL CASES Use of Human or Animal Subjects, Biohazardous Materials, or Radioisotopes in Research Any use of human subjects, animals, biohazardous materials, or radioisotopes for research purposes must be reviewed and approved by the Office for Research Protections before the research is conducted. This approval cannot be obtained retroactively and cannot be granted by advisers or doctoral committees. This requirement is part of the University’s policy on ethics in research.

It provides legal assurance for the commitment that the University has made to the 15 federal government regarding protection of human and animal subjects. Violation of these policies is a breach of the trust placed in researchers by the scholarly community and society. In the event that the research is performed without prior approval: (1) it will not be possible to have the work published; (2) it is possible that the thesis or dissertation will not be approved by the Graduate School; and (3) under certain circumstances, conferral of the graduate degree may be compromised.

If you have questions regarding this requirement or how to obtain the necessary approvals, please contact the Office for Research Protections, 212 Kern Building, University Park, PA 16802 (phone: 814-865-1775; e-mail: [email protected] edu ). Thesis in a Foreign Language With the approval of the student’s department and committee, a thesis or dissertation may be written in a foreign language. English translations of the title page and abstract are required and must be placed before corresponding pages in the foreign language.

These are not numbered or counted in the pagination of the thesis. Journal or Alternative Format In academic areas where research is published in the form of journal articles, the author may wish to have the format of the thesis or dissertation approximate that of a manuscript to be submitted for journal publication. With minor exceptions, this purpose can generally be accomplished within the bounds of the requirements set forth in this guide. The main body of the thesis, for example, may be relatively brief, with such sections as the review of literature placed in an appendix.

Tables and figures whose importance to the text is tangential may also be handled as appendix material, or the thesis may consist of chapters that are essentially separate journal articles. 16 APPENDIX A SAMPLE PAGES Doctoral Title Page Master’s Title Page Doctoral Committee Page Master’s Committee page Table of Contents 17 SAMPLE OF DOCTORAL TITLE PAGE The Pennsylvania State University The Graduate School College of Engineering A DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF MULTI-FLOW CONDENSER WITH FLAT EXTRUDED TUBES A Dissertation in Mechanical Engineering by John J. Doe © 2010 John J.

Doe Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy May 2010 18 SAMPLE OF MASTER’S TITLE PAGE The Pennsylvania State University The Graduate School College of Engineering A DESIGN METHODOLOGY OF MULTI-FLOW CONDENSER WITH FLAT EXTRUDED TUBES A Thesis in Mechanical Engineering by John J. Doe © 2010 John J. Doe Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science May 2010 19 SAMPLE OF DOCTORAL COMMITTEE PAGE The dissertation of John J. Doe was reviewed and approved* by the following: Charles L.

Merkle Professor of Mechanical Engineering Dissertation Adviser Chair of Committee Stefan T. Thynell Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering Kenneth K. Kuo Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering Jeffrey L. Kohler Associate Professor of Mining Engineering Richard C. Benson Professor of Mechanical Engineering Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering *Signatures are on file in the Graduate School. 20 SAMPLE OF MASTER’S COMMITTEE PAGE The thesis of John J. Doe was reviewed and approved* by the following: Charles L. Merkle Professor of Mechanical Engineering Thesis Adviser

Stefan T. Thynell Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering Kenneth K. Kuo Distinguished Professor of Mechanical Engineering Jeffrey L. Kohler Associate Professor of Mining Engineering Richard C. Benson Professor of Mechanical Engineering Head of the Department of Mechanical Engineering *Signatures are on file in the Graduate School. 21 SAMPLE OF TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Tables…………………………………………………………………………………… v List of Figures…………………………………………………………………………………. vi Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………………………. ix Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION……… ………………………………………………………….. 1 The Role of the Thesis Of…………………………………………………………. 1 Responsibility for the Thesis………………………………………………………… 1 Electronic Submission………………………………………………………………… 2 Chapter 2. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Print and Photocopy Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Typing Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Appendix A: Sample Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Appendix B: Forms and Deadlines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………30 22 APPENDIX B FORMS AND DEADLINES Doctoral Approval Page Master’s Approval Page Links to ProQuest/UMI Agreement and Survey of Earned Doctorates

Thesis Office Calendar 23 DOCTORAL APPROVAL PAGE Name of Student ______________________________________________ PSU ID ________________ Email address(s)____________________________________________________________ ______________ I hereby certify that I have obtained the necessary permission for copyrighted material included in my dissertation and choose that the document be placed in the eTD archives with the following status: ___ 1. OPEN ACCESS — Allows worldwide access to the entire work beginning immediately after degree conferral. ___ 2.

PENN STATE ONLY — Access restricted to Penn State users only for a period of two years. Allows access to the entire work by those having active Penn State Access Accounts beginning immediately after degree conferral. After two years, status will change to Open Access. NOT TO BE USED FOR DISSERTATIONS CONTAINING PATENTABLE INFORMATION. ____ 3. RESTRICTED — Restricts entire work for a period of two years for patent and/or proprietary purposes. After two years, status will change to Open Access. THIS OPTION IS ONLY FOR DISSERTATIONS CONTAINING PATENTABLE INFORMATION.

INVENTION DISCLOSURE MUST BE FILED WITH THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OFFICE PRIOR TO SUBMISSION OF THE FINAL DISSERTATION. ID form confirmed by T. O. staff_____________ __________________________________________________ Signature of Student _________________________________ Date FACULTY APPROVAL We accept and approve the dissertation of the student named above and agree to distribution as indicated. Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ _____________ Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ _____________ Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Department Head or Chair of Graduate Program Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ ______________ 24

MASTER’S APPROVAL PAGE Name of Student__________________________________________ PSU ID ____________________ Email address(s)____________________________________________________________ ______________ I hereby certify that I have obtained the necessary permission for copyrighted material included in my thesis and choose that the document be placed in the eTD archives with the following status: ___ 1. OPEN ACCESS — Allows worldwide access to the entire work beginning immediately after degree conferral. ___ 2. PENN STATE ONLY — Access restricted to Penn State users only for a period of two years.

Allows access to the entire work by those having active Penn State Access Accounts beginning immediately after degree conferral. After two years, status will change to Open Access. NOT TO BE USED FOR THESES CONTAINING PATENTABLE INFORMATION. ____ 3. RESTRICTED — Restricts entire work for a period of two years for patent and/or proprietary purposes. After two years, status will change to Open Access. THIS OPTION IS ONLY FOR THESES CONTAINING PATENTABLE INFORMATION. INVENTION DISCLOSURE MUST BE FILED WITH THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OFFICE PRIOR TO SUBMISSION OF THE FINAL THESIS.

ID form confirmed by T. O. staff________________ __________________________________________________ Signature of Student ________________________________ Date FACULTY APPROVAL (A minimum of three signatures is required, including dept. head or graduate program chair signature. ) We accept and approve the thesis of the student named above and agree to distribution as indicated. Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ _____________ Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ ______________ Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ _____________ Department Head or Chair of Graduate Program Signature _____________________________________________________ Date______________________ Print name here ____________________________________________________________ ______________ 25 ProQuest/UMI AGREEMENT The ProQuest/UMI Agreement can be found on line at http://forms. gradsch. psu. edu/thesis/proquest_umi_agreement. pdf All doctoral candidates must complete pages 4 and 5 and return these pages to the Thesis Office for processing. DO NOT send directly to ProQuest.

Penn State requires that all doctoral candidates check Traditional Publishing and Yes under SELECT PUBLISHING OPTIONS. Please include a copy of your title page and abstract with this form. If you wish to register your copyright through ProQuest, you may do so by signing the portion of the form titled Copyright Registration Form and attaching a check (payable to ProQuest) for $55. Please note that this step is optional. You own the copyright on your dissertation even if you do not choose to register it through ProQuest.

If you wish to order copies through ProQuest (page 7; also optional), keep in mind that copies are made from the microfilm and will not arrive until approximately 10 months after your graduation (if you have not chosen to restrict access). In the case of restricted access, ProQuest will not be able to produce your copies until the 2-year restriction is lifted. For information about ordering copies through the campus copy center, go to http://www. multimediaprint. psu. edu/ (this process takes approximately three weeks). SURVEY OF EARNED DOCTORATES The Survey of Earned Doctorates can be found online at http://forms. radsch. psu. edu/thesis/SED. pdf Please complete the Survey on line. Send a copy of the completion certificate to the Thesis Office (this form should be completed by PhD candidates only; D. Ed. candidates and master’s candidates need not complete this form). 26 Thesis Office 115 Kern Building University Park, PA 16802 phone: 814/865-5448 fax: 814/863-4627 e-mail: [email protected] edu Web site: http://www. gradsch. psu. edu/current/thesis. html Thesis Office Calendar — Summer and Fall 2011, Spring and Summer 2012 The following deadlines are for theses and dissertations only.

Students writing master’s papers should contact their departments for deadlines. Deadlines by Semester Activate intent to graduate (eLion) Submit doctoral dissertation for format review Submit master’s thesis for format review Pass doctoral defense* SU2011 6/17 FA2011 9/5 SP2012 1/23 SU2012 6/15 6/10 10/3 2/20 6/8 6/13 6/24 10/5 10/10 2/22 3/5 6/11 6/22 Submit final thesis or dissertation and supporting materials 7/18 11/21 4/9 7/16 ____________________________________________________________ ________________ *Questions about the doctoral defense should be directed to Graduate Enrollment Services (814-865-1795).

Contact department for information about master’s defense. Commencement Date Time Location 8/13 2:30 pm BJC 12/17 4:00 pm Eisenhower Auditorium 5/6 TBA BJC 8/11 TBA BJC 27 This publication is available in alternative media on request. The Pennsylvania State University is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to programs, facilities, admission, and employment without regard to personal characteristics not related to ability, performance, or qualifications as determined by University policy or by state or federal authorities.

The Pennsylvania State University does not discriminate against any person because of age, ancestry, color, disability or handicap, national origin, race, religious creed, sex, sexual orientation, or veteran status. Direct all inquiries regarding the nondiscrimination policy to the Affirmative Action Director, The Pennsylvania State University, 201 Willard Building, University Park, PA 16802-2801; tel (814) 865-4700/V, (814) 863-1150/TTY. U. Ed. GRD11-04 28

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