Phoneme Is The Smallest Unit English Language Essay

Phoneme is the smallest unit and intending full sound characteristic in the sound system of linguistic communication. The most basic elements in the sound system of a linguistic communication are called phonemes. Phonemes are the minimum ( smallest ) meaningful elements in the sound system of linguistic communication. For illustration /p/ , /b/ , /t/ , / @ / is called phonemes. In any linguistic communication, there is a definite figure of phonemes. In English, for illustration, there are 44 phonemes grouped into 20 vowels and 24 consonants. If there is a minor alteration in the sound of a phoneme, the sound is called allophone. For example./t/ is a phoneme ; th/ is its allophone. Some modern-day linguists has defined the phoneme is minimal package of relevant sounds. English has two types of phoneme: –

Normally emphasis is known as grade of force. In English linguistic communication some words are stressed and some are unstressed. Harmonizing to Joanne Kenworthy, Teaching English pronunciation ( 1987:27 ) emphasis is important in English pronunciation. Stress serves to tag map of words in spoken English. In normal address, all nouns, pronouns, chief verbs, adjectival and adverbs are stressed. It is justly said by the modern-day linguists that it is easy to mastered in English linguistic communication but much hard to get the hang in emphasis and modulation. There are are two degree of emphasis: –

a. Primary emphasis

B. Secondary emphasis

2.7.7 Syllables:

Phonemes are organized into syllables in a quite definite and systematic manner. Each syllable must hold one or more consonants before the vowel. For illustration, there are three syllables in the word ‘unkindness ‘ un-kind-ness. In each, there is a vowel sound. The maximal figure of consonants which can look before a vowel in a syllable in English linguistic communication is three, while the maximal figure of consonants that appear after the vowel is four. There are rather intricate limitations on the combination of vowels and consonants that each linguistic communication permits. Of all the possible combinations of English sounds, merely a little publicity are admitted as following with the forms of English address construction.

2.7.8 Discourse.

Following to syllable in the phonological construction of any linguistic communication is nutrient, and pess combine to do tone units in a discourse. Discourse means big meaningful units such as sentences, paragraphs. Thus a philologue is concerned with pulling up a comprehensive phoneme stock list of a linguistic communication, its categorization into vowels, consonants, diphthongs, trip lashs and allophones.

2.7.9 Branchs of Phonology

With in phonemics two subdivisions of survey are normally recognized, segmental and supra-segmental. The minimal unit in segmental phonemics is phoneme, whereas, the minimal unit in supra-segmental phonemics is syllable. Segmental phonemics analyses address into distinct sections such as phonemes, while supra-segmental phonemics analyses those characteristics which extend over more than one section such as emphasis, beat and modulation. When plants are used in affiliated address, certain alterations take topographic point in their sounds such as assimilation ( one sound mixes with the other ) elision ( go forthing out a sound0 neutralisation ( weakening of sounds ) , affair ( associating of sounds ) and occasion ( boundary between two sounds ) they are studied in supra-segmental phonemics.

2.7. 10 Difference between Phoneticss and Phonology

Phoneticss and Phonology are two Fieldss within Linguistics which is the scientific survey of assorted facets of Language. The two Fieldss focus on the same phenomenon and complement each other in the comprehensive probe of the address sounds of any linguistic communication. Phonology is merely one of the several facets of linguistic communication. It is related to other facets such as phonetics, morphology, sentence structure, semantics and pragmatics. Given below is an illustration that shows the topographic point of phonemics in an interacting hierarchy of ( lower to higher ) degrees in linguistics. Simply phonic of all the linguistic communication is same where as phonemics of English is separate, Arabic is separate and so on. The major difference between phonic and phonemics is generalization and specialness.

a. Pragmatic ( linguistic communication in communicating )

B. Semanticss ( survey of significance )

c. Syntax ( survey of sentence constructions )

d. Morphology ( survey of word construction )

e. Phonology ( survey of agreements of sounds )

f. Phonetics ( survey of production of sounds )

g. Phoneticss ( survey of production sound )

2.8.1 METHODS AND APPROACHES OF TEACHING OF ENGLISH

Harmonizing to Asher and James ( 1982 ) , methods are the combination of

Techniques that are used in the instruction system, and are practiced by the instructors in

the schoolroom whereas attacks are the linguistic communication learning doctrines that can be

Interpreted and applied in assortment of different ways in the schoolroom. Different

Teaching methods demand different lingual accomplishments of the instructor. A instructor who lacks the linguistic communication proficiency can non utilize any of the learning methods with success. A mild-natured instructor can leave more to his pupils as compared to a difficult rigid. Following are some of the more popular and outstanding 2nd linguistic communication learning methods of the last half century: –

2.8.2 The Direct Method

In this method the instruction is done wholly in the mark linguistic communication. The scholar is non

allowed to utilize his or her female parent lingua. Grammar regulations are avoided and there is

Emphasis on good pronunciation.

2.8.3 The Grammar-translation Method

Learning is mostly by interlingual rendition to and from the mark linguistic communication. Grammar regulations

are to be memorized and long lists of vocabulary learned by bosom. There is small or

no accent placed on developing unwritten ability.

2.8.4 The Audio-lingual Method

The theory behind this method is that larning a linguistic communication means geting wonts.

There is much pattern of duologues of every state of affairs. New linguistic communication is foremost heard

and extensively drilled before being seen in its written signifier.

2.8.5 The Structural Approach

This method sees linguistic communication as a composite of grammatical regulations, which are to be learned one at a clip in a set order. So for illustration the verb “ to be ” is introduced and practiced before the present uninterrupted tense which uses “ to be ” as an aide.

2.8.6 Suggestopedia

The theory underlying this method is that a linguistic communication can be acquired merely when the scholar is receptive and has no mental blocks. By assorted methods it is suggested to the pupil that the linguistic communication is easy – and in this manner the mental blocks to larning are removed.

2.8.7 Entire Physical Response

TPR plants by holding the scholar respond to simple bids such as “ Stand up ” , “ Close your book ” , “ Travel to the window and open it. ” The method stresses the importance of aural comprehension.

2.8.8 Communicative Language Teaching

The focal point of this method is to enable the scholar to pass on efficaciously and suitably in the assorted state of affairss he / she would be likely to happen herself/ him in. The content of CLT classs are maps such as inviting, proposing, kicking or impressions such as the look of clip, measure, location.

2.8.9 The Silent Way

The purpose of the instructor in this method is to state every bit small as possible in order to enable the scholar to be in control of what he wants to state. No usage is made of the female parent lingua.

2.8.10 Community Language Learning

In this method efforts are made to construct strong personal links between the instructor and pupil so that there are no blocks to larning. There is much talk in the female parent lingua, which is translated by the instructor for repeat by the pupil.

2.8.11 Submergence

Language pupils are immersed in the English linguistic communication for the whole of the school twenty-four hours and expected to larn math, scientific discipline, humanistic disciplines etc. through the medium of the mark linguistic communication, English.

2.8.12 Task-based Language Learning

The focal point of the instruction is on the completion of a undertaking, which in itself is interesting to the scholars. Learners use the linguistic communication they already have to finish the undertaking and there is small rectification of mistakes.

2.8.13 The Natural Approach

This attack, propounded by Professor S. Krashen, stresses the similarities between larning the first and 2nd linguistic communications. There is no rectification of errors. Learning takes topographic point by the pupils being exposed to linguistic communication that is either comprehendible or made comprehendible to them.

2.8.14 The Lexical Approach

This attack is based on a computing machine analysis of linguistic communication, which identifies the most common ( and therefore most utile ) words in the linguistic communication and their assorted utilizations. The course of study teaches these words loosely in the order of their frequence, and great accent is placed on the reliable usage of these words.

2.8.15 The Substitution Method

Haq ( 1995 ) narrated that the Substitution Method aims at taking a construction or phrase and utilizing it in a theoretical account sentence. Therefore, the sentence is practiced once more and once more till it is good mastered. The construction is graded harmonizing to the abilities of the pupils. When form or construction is mastered ; the job of vocabulary edifice is accomplished.

2.8.16 The Bilingual Method

Harmonizing to Shafqat as cited in Naeem ( 2002 ) , ‘Selection ‘ , ‘Gradation ‘ , ‘Presentation ‘ and ‘Repetition ‘ are the four central rules of all the linguistic communication learning methodological analysiss. The Bilingual Method is based upon the undermentioned rules:

a. controlled and systematic usage of the female parent lingua by the instructor.

B. Early debut of writing/reading during the class of linguistic communication acquisition.

c. Integration of ‘writing ‘ , and ‘speaking ‘ accomplishments.

d. Advantages of the Bilingual Method

In this method the usage of female parent lingua is non recommended precisely like in the Grammar Translation Method. However, in this method female parent lingua is:

a Used to explicate the significances of new words or sentences etc.

B Not used word for word interlingual rendition.

c. Used during early phases merely.

d. Emphasis is non laid on making state of affairss as in the Direct Method.

e. Rigorous pattern is undertaken in sentences forms.

f. Translation is done by the instructor non by the pupils to explicate the affair.

Language Teaching IN PAKISTAN

In Pakistani Educational establishments merely two linguistic communication capablenesss are being trained. Oral shows capablenesss are non being developed at the secondary phase British nomenclature preparation. The really Ist ground is that Punjab written text usher at secondary phase have included stuff of composition and analyzing capablenesss merely which can non run into the error of other dental capablenesss. The 2nd factors are that the teachers are non trained with modern techniques and techniques. , the teachers combine themselves to educate the composition and analyzing capablenesss merely. Their important dressed ore on is to complete the plan and to fix the pupils for the forth-coming appraisals merely. Whereas the really critical elements of British nomenclature i.e hearing and discussing are wholly been ignored. Due to which Pakistani pupils are sing jobs in verbal British peculiarly in force per unit area, tuning, and other supra segmental characteristics of British nomenclature. It has been decided at appropriate phase and countrywide program of surveies for developing British as 2nd nomenclature from Ist phase. However it could non be applied in the whole of the state so far due to some factors. In the country of Islamabad in Federal Government Educational establishments every bit good as in Private Public schools it is being trained from category Ist and other Areas it is taught from class 6th. Some efforts are being created to to make it as necessary subject from the Ist class phase. Equally for as secondary phase is concerned it is a necessary subject and it has weightage similar to the Urdu nomenclature. In analyzing plan, annual rating papers transporting 75 represents in SSC Aspect I and SSC portion 2 paperss. This research papers would besides have the decision of important ends of preparation of British nomenclature harmonizing to the important ends of National Curriculum 2002 being in manner in the instruction system: –

2.9.2 DEFINITION OF TEXTBOOK

Textbook is incorporating inside informations of a subject used in the educational scene by scholars and teachers in which images are used. Buckingham ( 1958 ) in Tarigan ( 1993:13 ) declares that “ A publication is book which normally used by teacher to endorse up the preparation analyzing process in university and colleges “ .Hall Pursuit ( 1915 ) in Tarigan ( 1993:11 ) declares that publication is “ a conventional constituents of believed that is arranged For the educational intents ” . Lange ( 1940 ) in Tarigan ( 1993:11 ) declares that publication is “ a conventional usher for each division of engineering and it is separated into two type: the primary publication and the extra Textbook ” . While Bread ( 1935 ) in Tarigan ( 1993:11 ) declares “ publication is a Book used in college, it is organized absolutely and it is ready by the professional in his country. It is besides finished with appropriate and appropriate device of learning ” . The writer confirms with the declaration mentioned by Bread that publication should be finished with the appropriate and appropriate equipment of preparation and besides should be organized absolutely by the professional in its country to be used in college. So, it can assistance the preparation analyzing process to acquire the ends of the perusal that is high excellent of analyzing consequences.

2.9.3 Criteria of Text Design

Greene and Small ( 1971 ) in Tarigan ( 1993:20-21 ) have created the

Way to form the publication with 10 demands. Excellent publication have following the Qualities: –

a. The publication must be fascinated and attention-getting toward the cubic decimeter earners. So, they will be enthusiastic about utilizing ushers.

B. The publication must be able to promote the scholars.

c. The publication must be exemplifying.

d. The publication should see the linguistic communication component. So, it will be

Suitable with the scholars ‘ capableness.

e. The publication must be relevant to the other division of engineering.

f. The publication must trip the single action of the scholars.

g. The publication must be obvious in published to forestall the childs to be puzzled in utilizing publication.

h. The publication must hold the obvious position because it will be the Learners ‘ position.

I. The publication must be able to supply the stableness and highlighted on the Competency of the scholars.

The publication must be able to see to the fluctuations of the individual.

2.9.4 The other standards which can be found

a. Publication should travel with to scholars ‘ demands. They should travel with the is designed and aims of the analyzing plan. Aims and aims can bespeak scholars ‘ demands with respects to both nomenclature content and communicative capablenesss. It is really of import that ushers should carry through scholars ‘ success and take them frontward every bit successfully as possible towards their aims. Consequently the content of the content should travel with to what scholars need to understand with respects to terminology merchandises, capablenesss, and communicative techniques.

b. Textbooks should bespeak the utilizations ( present or hereafter ) which scholars will do of the nomenclature. Choose ushers which help to supply scholars to utilize nomenclature successfully for their specifications. The most appropriate ushers for the scholars will bespeak every bit decently as possible the nomenclature content, vocabulary capablenesss, and manners of nomenclature usage that are needed. By interesting scholars ‘ involvement and complicated their intelligence, ushers can offer much of the pleasance which will promote hem to go more separate in their perusal and in their usage of British nomenclature. This can be done by such as exciting, exciting topics and by actuating scholars to believe for themselves around these topics and speak about them with others.

c. Textbooks should take history of childs ‘ demands as scholars and should carry through their perusal processs, without dogmatically magnificent a house method. Textbooks help the undergraduate to understand in a overplus of possibilities. They find the merchandises to be found ( grammar, characteristics, capablenesss, etc ) interrupt them down into governable designs and series them in a manner which is designed to take from the acquainted to the different and from easier to more hard merchandises with respects to ‘ learn- ability ‘ . Few would make n’t hold that some kind of principled pick and buying, even if based on user-friendly specifications, is necessary. The scheme to understand is implemented by a text, should non so much encourage analyzing designs as fulfill childs ‘ demand by enabling them to utilize designs of analyzing which matches them, where is possible actuating the usage of a scope of designs so as to offer scholars some pick in the manner they understand. An exciting text, vibrant and good provided with assortment of capable and action can be a extremely effectual factor in constructing up the inspiration of the scholars and frequently of teachers excessively.

Plan.

Plan and instruction and acquisition are decently related. They can non be divided each other. It is hard the plan to develop and larning in modern epoch is non followed by the life style of course of study because there will be no actions without any course of study. Program contains everything that should be the aid of the preparation and acquisition. The presentation of the term “ course of study ” has been different in different times. Some popular apprehension is duplicated below: While Cruz, Stanley and Shoreline ( 1957 ) describes the course of study as “ course of study

is a series of concealed brushs designed in university self-denial in squad discovering and acting. ” Taba ( 1962 ) indicated that “ a course of study is the information of is designed and aims of a certain pick or model of stuff. It besides indicates certain manners of analyzing or preparation which are either the specifications of set aims or that of the content model. It besides contains an assessment plan to research the consequences. The course of study is, after all, a agency of be aftering the striplings to execute their effectual portion in the community. Saylor and Alexander ( 1954 ) considered the course of study as the “ sum sum of university enterprises to impact the perusal, whether in the educational scene, on the gemstone or out of school ” . Most of the professionals normally view the curricular phenomena from one of the undermentioned three point of views i.e. course of study as point, course of study as connexions, or course of study as purpose. Program is AIDSs, etc. considered as the chief beginning for teachers to calculate out the manner, how to educate, what content to take, the clip allowance and besides trade with analyzing evicts. Beauchamp ( in Sukmadinata, 2001:5 ) declares that “ a course of study is an itemized documents which may incorporate many substances, but by and large it is a program papers which may incorporate many ingredients, but fundamentally it is a program for the instruction of students during their registration in given school. David Pratt ( 1980 ) in Nurgiyantoro ( 1988: 5 ) provinces that course of study is ; a set of organisation of formal instruction or the chief exercisings ” . Then he makes the deduction of the course of study explicitly as follows: –

a. Curriculum is a program or an purpose. It may on the form of a program but it is hawed in the written signifier

b. Curriculum is non an activity, but it is a program of activity

c. Curriculum contains all of the topic affairs what should be developed for the pupils, rating to construe, the acquisition results, the stuff and the instruments of instruction that are used, and the instructor ‘s quality

d. Curriculum involves the purpose of the formal instruction. Curriculum denies the instruction without planning and the activity without acquisition.

e. Curriculum is a set of the instruction ‘s organisation. Curriculum is a system.

f. Education and the exercisings are aimed to avoid the misinterpretation

Parallel with the advancement of epoch and the society ‘s demand, a traditional idea of course of study began to be left because it is emphasized on the instructor as the director or it is called Teacher Centered Curriculum.

2.9.6 Student Centered Curriculum.

In globalisation epoch like presents, it is changed from Teacher Centered Curriculum becomes the Student Centered Curriculum. Smith, Stanley, and Shores ( 1957 ) in Sukmadinata ( 2001:163 ) province that the rules of the development course of study are as follows:

a. The course of study will better merely as the professional competency of Teacher improved.

B. The competency of instructors will be improved merely as the instructors become involved personally in the jobs of the course of study alteration.

c. The instructors portion in determining the ends to be attained in selecting, shaping, and work outing the jobs to be encountered, and in judgment and measuring the consequences, their engagement will be most about assured.

2.9.7 The Components of Curriculum

Curriculum as a planned plan has the chief constituents, such

as: the end, the content, the organisation and the scheme Surahmad

( 1977 ) in Nurgiyantoro ( 1998:9 )

a. Goal

Curriculum is a plan aimed to accomplish a certain end of

instruction. In every course of study of school, it is ever included the ends

of instruction that to be achieved by the school. The ends are:

( 1 ) . The whole ends that want be achieved in every school. It involves the facet of cognition, accomplishment, attitude, value that are hoped the scholars have those facets. It is general end of course of study.

( 2 ) . The ends that want be achieved in every subdivision of survey. The

Learners are hoped holding those facets after they learn every

subdivision of survey in schoolroom. It means that the ends viewed from the larning results. If the scholars have a good consequence, it means that they win in accomplishing the end of the course of study.

B. Content

The content of course of study plan is all the course of studies given to the earners in learning larning procedure in order to accomplish the general end of course of study.

c. Organization

It is a construction of curriculum plan and it contains model of the instruction plans that will be taught to the scholars. It is divided into two: horizontal ‘s construction and perpendicular ‘ construction. The horizontal ‘s construction is related to the organisational affair of course of study in set uping the instruction stuffs. The perpendicular ‘s construction of course of study is related to the execution of course of study in school.

d. Scheme

It can be viewed in the manner of execution the instruction, Evaluation, counsel and guidance, set uping the whole activities of School, taking the appropriate instruction method, instruments and the instruction.

2.10.1 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN

Harmonizing to Jumani ( 1999 ) , in Pakistan the course of study is ready at national degree harmonizing to Act No. Ten of 1976. It is an act to let of govt support of course of study ushers and service of demands to exert and analyzing ( The course of study of English subject, at school is being qualified with the aid of ushers launched harmonizing to course of study, recommended by Nationwide Program Panel. The difference in course of study started at all degrees in Pakistan in delayed sixtiess. From class I to X, local professionals developed the English course of study while understanding and recommendations were besides taken from the course of study developed chiefly in globally states. The course of study development is an ongoing process and a facet of actions of the Program Aspect of the Associate of state of affairs for Knowledge. Any cost knowing on analysing the techniques of research, course of study and ushers is met from the frequent monetary value scope. In Pakistan the course of study alteration was performed on ad-hoc platform and was ne’er based on research, research and appraisal. During the five old ages applications and in inside informations recommendations it was developed to make up necessary research maps. Organizations to exert and analyzing and research, exerting companies, TTCs, BISEs and launched published written text information forums have performed operator in this respect ( Rehman, 2004 ) .The chief technique in respects to curriculum and ushers is targeted at qualitative Improvement to exert and analyzing. Program development is seen as the hub of the Educational process and you will and astonishing to exert and analyzing is largely identified by the course of study content. The curriculum side has the liability of altering all the course of study and ushers for the Sessionss from KG to 12 such as non-degree programmes. It besides indicates the authorities in the ingredients every bit good as of national recommendations with respect to curriculum development and information development.

2.10.2 CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS IN PAKISTAN

It has been identified at appropriate degree and national technique of research for exerting English as 2nd nomenclature from Ist degree. However it could non be used in the whole of the state so far due to some facets. In the country of Islamabad in Government Educational companies every bit good as in Personal Group schools it is being qualified from category Ist and other Locations it is taught from class 6th. Some attempts are being developed to to do it as necessary subject from the Ist class degree. Equally for as excess degree is involved it is a necessary subject and it has weightage merely like the urdu nomenclature. In analysing plan, yearly assessment records holding 75 symbolizes in SSC Factor I and SSC aspect 2 inside informations. This research records would besides work the sum-up of of import aims of exerting of English nomenclature harmonizing to the of import aims of Nationwide Program 2002 being in design in the exercise and analyzing system: –

In pursuit of Nation broad Knowledge Plan ( 1998-2010 ) , the Program Aspect of the Federal Associate of state of affairs for Knowledge has started a process of course of study alteration to heighten the amazing to exercising and analyzing through course of study alteration and information development ( Preface, Nationwide Program inside informations 2000 and 2002 ) . was offered in Pakistani inside informations. National Curriculum for English Language Grade I-XII 2006 was introduced holding competence and incorporate accomplishments benchmarks.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

3.1 RESEARCH METHOD

This chapter deals with the type of survey, beginning of informations, method of Collection of the information, and technique of analysing the information.

3.2 Type of the Study

In this research, the research worker uses a descriptive qualitative research.Bogdan and Tayler ( 1975 ) in Moleong ( 1991:3 ) province that qualitative research is a research which produces the descriptive informations in the signifier of written or unwritten Wordss from detecting people and behaviour. In other word, a qualitative research is a type of research which does n’t include any computation of numerical or statistical informations. Therefore, the informations concerned appear in words instead than in Numberss. The methodological analysis used in the research is qualitative.

3.3 Beginning of Data

The informations are taken from the content stuffs of the text edition for the secondary degree prescribed by the Punjab textbook board. It is based on recommendations of National course of study for English grade I-XII 2006 and Competencies, Standards and Benchmarks for Grade IX and X in the National Curriculum ( 2006 ) . The research worker personally visited National Curriculum wing, Ministry of Education Islamabad for aggregation of original transcript of National course of study English linguistic communication Grades I-XII 2006, which is required for documental informations of the research. 2x Textbooks i.e Book-I and Book-II was besides arranged by the research worker for research papers.

3.4 Data Collection

In this survey, the research worker uses documental to roll up the information. The paperss are the content of text editions that will be taken from the Book I and Book II at secondary degree published by Punjab Textbook Board. has selected foremost four unit i.e 1-4 from Book I which appended at Annexure ‘A ‘ . and first four units from Book II which are appended at Annexure ‘B “ . The research worker uses the comparing analysis in which the he tries to analyse the contents of Textbook and compared the stuffs contained in the text edition suggested by Competences, Standards and Benchmarks for Grade IX and X in the National Curriculum ( 2006 ) and National Curriculum for English Language Grade I-XII 2006 designed by the Curriculum wing, Government of Pakistan Ministry of Education Islamabad.

3.5 Data Analyzing Techniques

There are two types of research ; qualitative and quantitative Research. This research uses descriptive research which describes the consistence of the content stuffs of text edition with the Curriculum 2006, that is why the research worker describes it without giving any computation or statistic Procedure.

Chapter IV

4.1 PART -1 CONTENT ANALYSIS

4.1.1 Contented Analysis of General Theme and Skills weightage of whole Current Textbooks of English Language

Book -I Class IX

a. Moral and spiritual 40 %

B. Culture of Pakistan and Social affairs of Pakistani Society 10 %

c. Geographical and nature affairs – Nothing

d. Modern scientific discipline and industries 5 %

e. Agro and commercialism affairs -Nil

f. National issues -10 %

g. Sports

h. Population 5 %

J. National Heros 5 %

k. General and common affairs 25 %

Book -II Class X

a. Religious / Moral 30 %

B. Social and Cultural Life of Pakistan Society 5 %

c. Nature & A ; Geography 10 %

d. Science and Industry 0 %

e. Agriculture and Commerce 0 %

f. Games and Sports 5 %

g. Population & A ; Environmental 10 %

h. Plants and Animals of Pakistan 5 %

J. Social Issues 5 %

k. Assorted 30 %

-Lexical points

-Active and inactive voice

-Direct and indirect narrative

-Singular and plural

-Correct signifier of Idiomatic phrases

Skills weightage Book-I Class IX

Reading skill 30 %

Choose the correct reply

Tick True/ False

Punctuation

Correction of sentences

Match the column

Tick the correct

Read and make full in the space

Writing Skill 25 %

Answer Question

Punctuation

Correction of Sentences

Sentence Writing

Passivization

Fill in the spaces

Direct and indirect address

Paragraph authorship

Letter composing

Essay authorship

Grammar 25 %

a. Semantic

Tenses

Changing of verb

d. . Making of verb

Listening 10 %

a. Presentation of pupils

B. Group Discussion Interviews

Talking / Oral Communication 10 %

Vowels, consonant and syllable

b. Pronunciation

Skill ‘s weightage Book II Class X

Reading skill 35 %

Choose the correct reply

Tick True/ False

Punctuation

Correction of sentences

Match the column

Tick the correct

g. .Read and fill in the space

Writing Skill 25 %

Answer Question

Punctuation

Correction of Sentences

Sentence Writing

Passivization

Semantic

Fill in the spaces

Direct and indirect address

Paragraph authorship

Letter composing

Essay authorship

Grammar 25 %

Semantic

Tenses

Changing of verb

Making of assorted sentences

Listening 5 %

Presentation of pupils

Group Discussion of assorted subject

Interviews

Talking / Oral Communication 5 %

Vowels, consonant and syllable

Pronunciation

Contentss Analysis ‘s of the Four selected units at Grade 9 English Language Textbook

Unit -1 Hazrat Asma

Exercise of Lesson Activities

1. Oral Activity Answer/Questions

2. Stress and Intonation Finding of emphasis words in given paragraph

3. Syllables Recognition of

Syllables of assorted

words

4. Pronunciation Pronunciation of words with the aid of dictionary

5. Comprehension Reading accomplishments and

Answer/questions

6. Cataphoric and Anaphoric Recognition of mentions

mentions from given sentences

7. Semantic Vocabulary acquisition

Consultation of

Dictionary

8. Lexical points Learning exercising of

nouns and prepositions

9. Writing accomplishments Written work on the lesson

10. Oral Communications accomplishments Useful phrase for recognizing

Introduction utilizing recognizing

Unit -2 The of all time Changing Environment of computing machines

Exercise of Lesson Activities

1. Comprehension Answers /questions

2. Semantic Vocabulary acquisition

3. Pronunciation Consonants, vowels

and Dipthongs 4. Lexical points Modal verbs, punctuation Writing ellipses sentences

5. Writing accomplishments Essay authorship, sum-up of

the lessons

Unit of measurement -3 Media and Its Impact

Exercise of Lesson

Activities

1. Comprehension Answers /questions

2. Semantic Vocabulary acquisition

3.. Lexical points Nouns, Pronouns, voice Tenses and punctuation

4. Writing accomplishments E, mail authorship

Essay authorship

5.. Oral Communications accomplishments Interviews

Answers/questions

Unit -4 Nauroz

Exercise of Lesson Activities

1. Comprehension Answers /questions

2. Semantic Vocabulary acquisition

3.. Grammar Adjectives, conditional

sentences, right signifier of the verb.

4. Writing accomplishments Sentences composing

Essay Hagiographas

5.. Oral Communications accomplishments Interviews

Answers/questions

Agree disagree

Contentss Analysis ‘s of the Four selected units at Grade 10 English Language Textbook

Unit -1 Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) as an Educationist

Exercise of Lesson Activities

1. Comprehension Answers /questions

Multiple pick and

True false

2. Punctuation Punctuation of

given paragraph

3. Writing accomplishments Sentence authorship

4. Reading accomplishments Answers inquiries

Unit -2 Festivals of Pakistan

Exercise of Lesson Activities

1. Comprehension Answers /questions

Multiple pick and

True false

2. Grammar/Writing accomplishments Past Tense

Sentences composing

3. Reading accomplishments Match the colmun

4. Grammar Active voice and passive

voice

Unit -3 The difference between a Brain and a Computer

Exercise of Lesson Activities

1. Comprehension Answers /questions

Multiple pick and

True false

2. Grammar/Writing accomplishments Past Tense

Sentences composing

2. Reading accomplishments Match the column

Answers inquiries

Fill in the space

4. Writing accomplishments Use the words into

Sentences

5. Grammar Direct/indirect address

Unit -4 The Blessings of God

Exercise of Lesson Activities

1. Comprehension Answers/Questions

2. Vowels and consonants a. vowels aeiou b. Consonants from B to z

except aeiou

3. Syllables One syllable

Two syllable

Three syllable

4.2.1 PART-ii RECOMMENDED MODEL/PATTERN BY NATIONAL CURRICULUM 2006

Competences, Standards and Benchmarks for Grade IX and X given in the National Curriculum ( 2006 )

Competence 1: Reading and Thinking Skills

Standard 1: All pupils will seek for, discover and understand

a assortment of text types through undertakings which require multiple reading

and believing schemes for comprehension, eloquence and enjoyment.

BM 1 Analyze forms of text organisation, and map of

Assorted devices used within and beyond a paragraph in a text.

BM 2 Analyze complex procedures, processs, events, issues and

Assorted position points, using reading comprehension and thought schemes.

BM 3 Analyze information from a ocular cue to demo complex procedures processs, comparings, contrasts, and cause and consequence relationships.

BM 4 Gather, analyze, evaluates and synthesizes information to utilize for a assortment of intents including a research undertaking utilizing assorted AIDSs and survey accomplishments.

Standard 2: All pupils will read and analyse literary text to seek information, thoughts, enjoyment ; and to associate their ain experiences to those of common humanity as depicted in literature.

BM 1 Analyze short narratives, verse forms and essays ; do connexions between literary texts and their ain lives.

Competence 2: Writing Skills

Standard 1: All pupils will bring forth with developing eloquence and truth, academic, transactional and originative authorship, which is focused, purposeful and shows an penetration into the authorship procedure.

BM 1 Analyze a assortment of written discourse to utilize in their ain composings, techniques for effectual text organisation, development and writer ‘s techniques that influence reader.

BM 2 Write a assortment of expository, persuasive, analytical essays,

BM 3 Write expository, persuasive, analytical essays and personal narrations for different intents and audiences.

narrations to bring forth a assortment of academic and originative texts for assorted audiences.

BM 4 Plan and outline their authorship ; revision and edit for assorted organisation forms of sequence, comparing, contrast, categorization, cause and consequence, logical flow of thoughts through flexible and clear signal and mention words, point of position, back uping grounds, overall consequence, appropriate punctuation and vocabulary.

Competence 3: Oral Communication Skills

Standard 1: All pupils will utilize appropriate societal and academic conventions of spoken discourse for effectual unwritten communicating with

Persons and in groups, in both informal and formal scenes.

BM1 Use extended lingual advocates to pass on suitably for assorted maps and co-functions of advice, hopes, frights, questions, in extended societal environment.

BM2 Demonstrate through formal negotiations, group unwritten presentations, informal interviews, the societal and academic conventions and kineticss to pass on information/ideas.

Competence 4: Formal and Lexical Aspects of Language

Standard 1: Pronunciation: All pupils will understand and joint widely acceptable pronunciation, emphasis and modulation forms of the English linguistic communication for improved communicating.

BM1 Pronounce ( tolerably ) new words, and utilize appropriate emphasis and modulation form in sustained address to pass on efficaciously.

Standard 2: Vocabulary: All pupils will heighten vocabulary for effectual communicating.

BM1 Analyze different sorts of texts to place how lexical points are used to convey different significances ; utilize lexical points in context and with right spellings ; utilize lexical points to demo different significances in their ain address and authorship.

Standard 3: Grammar and construction: All pupils will understand

Grammatical maps and utilize the rules of grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure for developing truth in their spoken and written communicating.

BM1 Recognize grammatical maps and constructs of tense and Aspects, selected transitional devices and average verbs, and utilize them in their address and authorship.

BM2 Recognize and utilize punctuation including usage of commas in phrases, complex clauses and sentences.

BM3 Analyze sentence types and construction, acknowledge and use the constructs and map of coordination and subordination in drawn-out authorship undertakings.

Competence 5: Appropriate Ethical and Social Development

Standard 1: All pupils will develop ethical and societal properties and values relevant in a multicultural, civilised society.

BM1 Recognize and pattern values and properties such as tolerance, humanitarianism, forbearance, equity, justness, honestness, empathy, etc. , relevant for peaceable coexistence between persons, groups and states.

BM2 Develop and portray through actions, a sense of importance of single worth ; at the same time valuing diverseness and equality among people.

BM3 Understand and measure modern-day societal, economic and scientific developments/issues so as to take part in the planetary society as cognizant and intelligent persons.

Ministry of Education ( Curriculum Wing ) ( March 2006 ) , National Curriculum of English Language for Class ‘s I-XII, Government of Pakistan, and Islamabad.

Recommended Subjects and Themes for Classes IX and X by National Curriculum 2006

1. The scrutiny course of study of English is skill-based. These accomplishments can be applied to any subject so the recommended subjects of National Curriculum English ( Compulsory ) have non been assigned to any peculiar type of Communication or phase of the class. They can, hence, be introduced by he teacher whenever and wherever appropriate.

2 The undermentioned subjects are recommended in the NCD for Classes IX & A ; Tens:

a. Tolerance

B. Simplicity

c. Justice

d. Handling of trust

e. Self-discipline

f. Respecting ego and others

g. Learning to populate together in drawn-out society ; inter-culturally and at

National degree

h. Understanding national cultural diverseness

I. Topographic points of historical/cultural importance and of involvement around the universe

J. Practicing nationalism

k. Appreciation and saving of Nature

l. Understanding/practicing gender equality

m. Festivals and cultural events around the universe

n. Role theoretical accounts picturing unity, professionalism

O. Effectss of atmospheric pollution ; noise pollution

p. Impact of population growing on environment, wellness and nutrition

Q. Traveling through Pakistan ; agencies and manners

r. Technology in mundane life

s. Understanding careers/occupations

t. Equal chance for male childs and misss

U. Understanding worth of different professions

v. Role and impact of media

w. Locating aid in an exigency

ten. First assistance

Y. Avoiding accidents

z. Civic duties

aa. Importance of community life

BB. Practice and publicity of physical and mental wellbeing

milliliter. Acknowledging offense

Doctor of Divinity. Learning to state no

EE. Recognition of jobs related to drugs, baccy, alcohols

ff. Updating life accomplishments

gg. Covering with alteration

hh. Understanding motive

SKILLS AND STUDENTS LEARNING OUTCOMES

Part -1 ( IX )

1. Listening and Talking

Listening and talking in instructional, descriptive and narrative communicative contexts.Candidates should be able to:

a. Acknowledge how emphasis and modulation contribute to intending e.g.

Courtesies and some wit ; interpret and give unwritten waies and instructions and place indispensable and finer points of inside informations ;

B. Recognize and use colloquial schemes such as

Acknowledgement, breaks, enquiry, answer, understanding and

Disagreement ;

c. Recognize direct inquiries, often used

Commands and non-verbal signals in familiar context.

d. Identify the subject of treatment, subject, chief thought and moral after

listening to a conversation.

e. Recapitulate the chief points of a conversation.

f. Reproduce heard information in colloquial signifier

g. Respond to inquiries sing topographic points and things in unwritten descriptions ; h. acknowledge temper and personality traits from conversation

J. Follow a consecutive history of an incident or event

k. Relate a written narrative from memory

l. Deduce the significance of `words from the context.

m. Identify talker ‘s point of position, intent and attitude

n. Exhibit values and properties such as, tolerance, humanitarianism, forbearance,

equity, justness, honestness, empathy, self-respect, equality, diverseness etc. , for

better engagement in the planetary society.

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