Problems In Comprehending Text For Translators English Language Essay

Translation surveies have been developed. There are many new interlingual rendition surveies produced every twelvemonth. Nowadays, a primary probe in interlingual rendition surveies is focused on the result-oriented surveies, which is largely in a signifier of incompatible analysis of beginning text and mark text. This sort of interlingual rendition surveies are focused on the analysis of the transportation from Source Language into Target Language. In English Department State University of Jakarta, most of the theses of interlingual rendition surveies are concentrating on product-oriented surveies. These sorts of surveies have failings. Nababan ( 2005 ) pointed out that the findings of these surveies are by and large merely based on the reading of the merchandise. That such an reading tends to be bad and hence does non supply deep and thorough apprehension of the interlingual rendition as a procedure of determination devising from the transcriber to bring forth an accurate and clear interlingual rendition.

Different theoretical accounts of interlingual rendition have focused on some facet of the procedure of the interlingual rendition. In recent epoch, there are some research focuses that attract research workers to go their cardinal issues including think aloud protocols, oculus motion recording, or cognitive procedure that occur during a interlingual rendition procedure. These process-oriented attacks are aimed to happen out how a interlingual rendition is produced. Shreve et Al. explicate the definition of process-oriented attacks as a set of cognitive procedures which is initiated at a clip when a transcriber sits down with a beginning text and is terminated when a concluding version of a mark text is released to a client. ( Shreve et al. , 1993:22 ) . In other words, process-oriented attack is an attack to cognize the procedure of interpreting that started when the transcriber trades with the beginning text and finished when the consequence of the interlingual rendition is produced.

While the product-oriented survey can non supply deep and thorough apprehension of the interlingual rendition as a procedure of determination devising from the transcriber to bring forth an accurate and clear interlingual rendition, the process-oriented survey can supply an apprehension of the procedure when the transcriber interpret a text. One distinguishable illustration is the survey utilizing Think Aloud Protocol. TAP by and large is used to supply verbal information to researcher, as the strategic index from the cognitive procedure of the transcriber.

Based on the process-oriented attacks, the author interested in reading comprehension in the interlingual rendition procedure. Even the reading comprehension procedure is occurred in the interlingual rendition procedure, the transcriber frequently non recognizing it and non cognizant that reading comprehension assist them in interpreting a text. As we know, the procedure of reading purposes at deriving comprehension of a text. But sometimes, transcribers did non read the whole text foremost earlier interpreting a text. A statement came from a theoretician that if a interlingual rendition scheme is a concatenation of composite operations and applied with the interlingual rendition procedure, the reading for comprehension will non required by transcribers and they may take to jump it in their full scheme. Some transcribers may believe like this, because they feel that to read the whole text is blowing their clip and they need to make their occupation faster.

The above statement is on contrary with the fact that, how can a transcriber translate the text without reading the text? The really first measure of a interlingual rendition undertaking is to hold on the significance of the Source text, and hence, the comprehension of the beginning text is needed.

The author put his involvement on the survey of reading comprehension in the interlingual rendition procedure utilizing process-oriented attack since it can offer more elaborate penetration about interlingual rendition procedure and transcriber ‘s head. The author besides conducts this survey since the deficiency of undergraduate theses in English Department State University of Jakarta. The major focal point is still about product-oriented survey. An illustration of old research utilizing process-oriented attack in English Department was conducted by Achmad Tsabit. The rubric of his thesis is “ The Decision Making in Translating Scientific and Legal Text ” . He used Think-Aloud Protocols to carry on his theory.

Another old research was conducted by Gregory M. Shreve et.al. The rubric of his research is “ Is There a Particular Kind of Reading for Translation? An Empirical Probe of Reading in the Translation Process ” . The quantitative steps used in this research are ; the reading clip per clause in seconds per word, Numberss of jobs identified in clauses and figure of times clauses were identified as holding jobs, and correlativity of reading clip with interlingual rendition job designation. He used a sample text entitled “ A Second Yalta? ” by William Safire and presented it in the computing machine screen after he interrupt it into clauses. Three groups were divided and given a different undertaking for each group, in the consequence of this survey, he found that the manner transcriber read a text was more thorough and extent than that of ordinary reader. This survey was conducted utilizing quantitative method.

While in Achmad Tsabit survey, he focused on mental procedure in the interlingual rendition procedure, and in Gregory research, he focused on mensurating the reading in interlingual rendition procedure utilizing quantitative analysis, in this survey ; the author will concentrate on the cognitive procedure in reading and the helpfulness of reading comprehension in the interlingual rendition procedure. And the informations will be processed utilizing qualitative method. The author chooses to utilize study to carry on this survey. The study is used because it is utile to happen out phenomena or wonts in the sampled society. The author decided to carry on this survey utilizing 5 different single transcribers. He chooses single transcribers that have sufficient capablenesss and cognition of interlingual rendition because, to interpret a text, one has to be competent plenty to interpret a text.

Research Question

What procedure occurs when transcribers interpreting a text?

What procedure occurs when transcriber read for a comprehension?

How long does the transcriber demand to grok a text?

What are the jobs identified when a transcriber attempt to grok a text?

Purpose of the Study

This survey is aimed to happen out the procedure that occurs when transcriber interpreting a text, to uncover what procedure that occur when transcriber read to grok a text, to look into the clip needed for a transcriber to grok a text, and to place what jobs occur when a transcriber attempt to grok a text.

Restriction of the Study

This survey is limited to the survey of reading comprehension in the interlingual rendition procedure 5 transcribers in Jakarta that have competency in reading comprehension and interlingual rendition.

Significance of the Study

The survey serves as the mention of the transcriber and the English Department pupil to be more cognizant of the reading comprehension in the interlingual rendition procedure.

Chapter II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Reading Procedure

Harmonizing to Goodman and Burke ( 1931 ) , reading is a job work outing procedure. As readers, we try to detect what the writer means while, at the same clip, we build intending for ourselves. While hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/ … ./reading/ ( retrieved on April, 28th 2010 ) defines Reading as a complex cognitive procedure of decrypting symbols for the purpose of deducing significance ( reading comprehension ) and/or building significance. The definition of reading is besides defined by Hennings as a thought procedure that sets two people in action together – an writer and a reader. ( Hennings, 2002:1 )

A more simple definition of reading was explained by Grabe & A ; Stoller as the ability to read, taking general comprehension that requires the reader to pull information from a text and unite it with information and outlooks that the reader already have. ( Grabe & A ; Stoler, 2001:188 )

From above definitions of reading procedure, it can be referred that reading involves our cognitive procedure to detect the significance of the text and so retrace the significance into reader ‘s ain position. When people read, they try to acquire the significance of the text and so reassign it into their cognitive device and retrace the significance into their ain ‘s position.

2.1.1. The Cognitive Procedure in Reading

Harmonizing to hypertext transfer protocol: //www.thefreedictionary.com/ ( retrieved on April 24th, 2010 ) , a cognitive procedure is the public presentation of some composite cognitive activity ; an operation that affects mental contents, the procedure of thought, the cognitive operation of retrieving ”

Reading involves our cognitive procedure, one expression at the text, one decode the text and procedure it in one ‘s encephalon. Vaniajaran ( 1994 ) made a chart of the synergistic processing theoretical account of reading:

External input ( reading stuff )

Centripetal Registers

Short-run shop ( working memory

Long term shop

Lexical cognition

Semantic cognition

Syntactic cognition

Discourse cognition

Word cognition

aˆ¦..

aˆ¦..

Figure: Synergistic processing theoretical account of reading

The above diagram explains the first procedure of reading is deriving information from the external input, which is the reading stuff. Reader absorbs everything they read so treat it in the centripetal registry or centripetal memory. Harmonizing to hypertext transfer protocol: //library.thinkquest.org/26618/en-5.2.2=sensory_memory.htm ( retrieved on May 1st, 2010 ) Sensory memory retains the brief feeling of a centripetal stimulation after the stimulation itself has ended. For illustration, if person sees an object. When the object has diappeared, it may still be vivid in his/her memory. Then he/she places the information in the short term store/short term memory to be processed. Centripetal memory is the topographic point of our consciousness, and includes our consciousness of the esthesiss, feelings and ideas that are experienced. The short-run memory is besides called working memory. After processed, the information is moved to the long term shop. This is the topographic point when the information is categorized into many cognition such as lexical cognition, semantic cognition, syntactic cognition, discourse cognition, word cognition, etc. if the information has non been recognized yet, it will be transferred once more into working memory.

2.1.2. Reading Methods

Harmonizing to hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/reading_methods/ ( retrieved on April 28th,2010 ) there are several types and methods of reading, with differing rates that can be attained for each, for different sorts of stuff and purposes:1 ) Subvocalized. It combines sight reading and mute reading ( soundless reading ) . Some velocity reading theoreticians claim it can decelerate reading velocity and comprehension, but other surveies argue that it can assist covering with hard text. 2 ) Speed reading. It is a method for increasing reading velocity without cut downing the degree of comprehension. It is closely connected to rush reading. 3 ) PhotoReading. It is a aggregation of velocity reading techniques with an extra technique of photoreading to increase reading velocity and comprehension. 4 ) Proofreading, a reading to happen mistakes. Professional proofreaders can make it at high rates, but proofreading may impact their comprehension. 5 ) Structure-Proposition-Evaluation ( SPE ) method. It is chiefly used for non-fiction plants. One reads composing for three intents: ( 1 ) for the construction of the work, which might be represented by an lineation ; ( 2 ) for the logical propositions made, organized into ironss of illation ; and ( 3 ) for rating of the virtues of the statements and decisions. 6 ) Survey-Question-Read-Recite-Review ( SQ3R ) method. It is frequently taught in public schools, which involves reading toward being able to learn what is read, and would be appropriate for teachers fixing to learn stuff without holding to mention to notes during the talk. 7 ) Multiple Intelligences-based methods, which draw upon the reader ‘s diverse ways of thought and cognizing to enrich his or her grasp of the text. Reading is basically a lingual activity: one can fundamentally grok a text without fall backing to other intelligences, such as the, auditory, or even the logical intelligence. 8 ) Rapid Serial Visual Presentation ( RSVP ) reading. It involves showing the words in a sentence one word at a clip at the same location on the show screen, at a specified eccentricity. RSVP controls for differences in reader oculus motion, and accordingly is frequently used to mensurate reading velocity in experiments.

2.1.3. Reading Comprehension

Harmonizing to Schneider ( 1986 ) , reading involves sucessive acquisition of information from a text. The reader accumulates information into a text representation by incorporating new thoughts from each sentence with spread outing text representation. ( p.314 ) The province of being able to stand for spread outing text information is called reading comprehension.

Other definition is explained in hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/ ( retrieved on April 30th, 2010 ) Reading comprehension is defined as the degree of apprehension of a authorship. While in hypertext transfer protocol: //www.education.com/ … /reading-comprehension-for-meaning/ ( retrieved on April 25th, 2010 ) stated that reading comprehension is a complex cognitive procedure that depends on several factynchronous and automatic ways. It is clear that vocabulary dramas inportant function in understanding everything that has been read. The reader must use reading comprehension schemes to do certain that every individual words they read lucifers their outlooks.

To grok written linguistic communication, we must make more than read it, and more than concept a significance about it. Harmonizing to Wittrock ( 1981:230 ) we have to deduce the constructed significances from the syntactic and semantic features of the linguistic communication that we read. This could be the writer messages, their extensions, and/or illations.

Another beginning, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hhpublishing.com… ./A4.html ( retrieved on April 28th, 2010 ) explains reading schemes in two wide classs, there are actual comprehension and critical comprehension. Actual comprehension trades with the comprehension of the existent words written by the writer. There are four stairss in constructing actual comprehension ; 1 ) choosing the subject sentence of a paragraph, 2 ) placing the chief thought of a text, 3 ) placing the back uping inside informations of a text and, 4 ) finding the significance of words. Whereas critical comprehension accomplishments are covering with the reader ‘s logical thinking to detect the thoughts beyond the text and do decisions about them. The illustration of critical comprehension accomplishments are: 1 ) acknowledging the writer intent, 2 ) placing writer ‘s overall organisational form, 3 ) acknowledging explicit/implicit relationships between words, phrases, and sentences, 4 ) distinguishing between facts and sentiments, 5 ) determination prejudice, 6 ) acknowledging statements, and 7 ) pulling out logical decisions.

While the predating beginning explains reading comprehension in two phases, Mohamad ( hypertext transfer protocol: //iteslj.org/Techniques/Mohamad-TestingReading.html, retrieved on May 23rd, 2010 ) explains reading into three degrees, actual comprehension, interpretative comprehension, and critical comprehension. Actual comprehension is related about what is really stated, it involves the accomplishment to happen information and thoughts that are explicitly stated in the text. Harmonizing to Karlin ( 1971 ) , being able to read for actual significances or stated thoughts is influenced by one ‘s command of word significances in context. The following degree of comprehension, interpretative comprehension is related to what is implied or meant, it involves the accomplishment to read critically and analyse the text carefully. In this degree of comprehension, the reader should be able to Re-arrange the thoughts or subjects discussed in the text, Explain the writer ‘s intent of composing the text, Sum up the chief thought when this is non explicitly stated in the text, Select decisions which can be deduced from the text they have read. The last phase is critical comprehension which is taking what was said ( actual ) and so what was meant by what was said ( interpretative ) and so widen ( use ) the constructs or thoughts beyond the state of affairs. This phase involves the procedure to distinguish between facts and sentiments, acknowledge persuasive statements, and justice the truth of the information given in the text.

2.1.4. Skills in Reading Comprehension

Brown ( 2004: 187-188 ) proposes sevent points each for micro and macro accomplishments of reading. The points in micro accomplishments are as follow: 1 ) the ability to divide among the typical characters and orthographic forms of English, 2 ) the ability to acknowledge the balls of linguistic communication in short-run memory, 3 ) the ability to compose an efficient evaluation to run into the intent, 4 ) the ability to acknowledge a nucleus of words and besides to construe word order forms, 5 ) the ability to acknowledge grammatical word classes, systems, forms, regulations, and eliptical signifiers, 6 ) the ability to acknowledge that a peculiar significance may be expressed in different grammatical signifiers, and 7 ) the ability to acknowledge cohesive devices in the written discourse and their function in signaling the relationship between and among clauses. And the points for macro accomplishments are as follow: 1 ) the ability to acknowledge the rhetorical signifier of written discourse and their significance for reading, 2 ) the ability to acknowledge the communicative maps of written texts, 3 ) the ability to deduce inexplicit context by utilizing background cognition, 4 ) the ability to infrer links and connexions between events, deduce clauses and effects, and observe such dealingss as chief thought, back uping thought, new information, given information, generalisation, and illustration, 5 ) the ability to separate between actual and implied significances, 6 ) the ability to observe culturally specific mentions and construe them in a context of the appropriate cultural scheme, and 7 ) the ability to develop and utilize different sort of reading schemes.

From those micro and macro accomplishments, Brown formulated chief schemes for reading comprehension. The schemes that are largely used in the reading for interlingual rendition are ; 1 ) place the intent in reading a text. 2 ) usage lexical analysis to find significance of the text. 3 ) Think the significance of words. 4 ) Skim the text to acquire the nucleus and the chief thought of the text. 5 ) Scan the text for specific information. 6 ) Use soundless reading technique for rapid processing. 7 ) usage notes, oultines, or charts for apprehension and remembering information. And 8 ) distinguish between actual and implied significance.

2.1.5. Reading Comprehension Problems

Readers frequently find jobs when they are reading a text. these jobs might be caused by some factors. hypertext transfer protocol: //www.tutorvista.com/english/problems-with-reading-comprehension ( retrieved on May 31, 2010 ) finds out that there are several causes of reading comprehension jobs:

1. ) A The individual holding a linguistic communication job.

2. ) A Lack of foundational accomplishments of reading.

3. ) A The reader is unable to decrypt the written word in to his native linguistic communication.

4 ) A A Troubles with word acknowledgment and decryption.

5 ) A A Troubles with eloquence.

6 ) A Poor short-run and/or working memory.

7 ) A A Troubles with unwritten linguistic communication /language which means address and linguistic communication damages, Limited linguistic communication proficiency, Dialect differences.

2.1.6. Reading Rate

A individual largely has different clip to get reading comprehension than other individual, Cuesta College Academic Support ( CCAS ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: //academic.cuesta.edu/aca… ./305.HTM, retrieved on May 23rd, 2010 ) stated that one time a individual find their intent for reading, they adjust their reading rate to suit the type of stuff they are reading. CCAS besides categorized five different reading rates that based on different intent. 1 ) Careful reading, it is used to acquire the content of the text including inside informations and lineation, sum up, paraphrasis, analyze, work out jobs, and memorise. 2 ) Normal reading, it is used to be able to reply a specific inquiry about the text, note inside informations, and work out jobs. 3 ) Rapid reading, it used to reexamine familiar stuff, acquire the chief thought, retrieve information for short clip usage, or read light stuff for pleasance. 4 ) Scanning, it is the method to acquire the overview or prevue of the text. 5 ) Skimming, it is used to seek something peculiar in the text and to acquire a speedy expression of the text.

Readers may utilize different sorts of reading rate in the same text based on their demands. A research done by Taylor et.al. ( 1960 ) found that there is a difference in reading rate for some people. First to six class pupils has usual reading rate of 80 – 185 words per minute words per minute ) , while the seven to twelve class pupils has the reading rate of 195 – 250 words per minute. College pupils and grownup have the normal reading rate around 280 words per minute.

2.2. Survey of Translation

2.2.1. Definition of Translation

Harmonizing to Newmark ( 1981:7 ) , a interlingual rendition is a trade of dwelling in the effort to replace a written message and/or statement in one linguistic communication and/or statement in another linguistic communication. “ Replace ” means to alter the written message from Source Language ( SL ) to Target Language ( TL ) . While Larson ( 1984:6 ) stated that interlingual rendition consist of reassigning the significance of the beginning linguistic communication into the receptor linguistic communication. Harmonizing to her, the best interlingual rendition achieved when a interlingual rendition ( 1 ) uses the normal linguistic communication signifiers of the receptor linguistic communication, ( 2 ) communicates to the receptor linguistic communication speakers the same significance that was understood by the talkers of the beginning linguistic communication every bit much as possible, and ( 3 ) maintains the kineticss of the original beginning linguistic communication text.

Munday besides gave the definition of interlingual rendition, he said that the procedure of interlingual rendition between two different written languages involves the transcriber altering an original written text ( the beginning text ) in the original verbal linguistic communication ( the beginning linguistic communication ) into a written text ( the mark text ) in a different verbal linguistic communication ( the mark linguistic communication ) . ( 2001:4 )

Another definition of interlingual rendition was defined by Catford as the replacing of textual stuff in one linguistic communication ( SL ) by tantamount textual stuff in another linguistic communication ( TL ) ( 1978:20 )

Based on the above theory, it can be inferred that interlingual rendition is a procedure of reassigning the significance from Source Text to Target Text.

2.2.2. Procedure of Translation

Translation is a procedure based on the theory that it is possible to pull out the significance of a text from its signifiers and reproduce that intending with the different signifiers of a 2nd linguistic communication.

Larson ‘s procedure may be showed in the undermentioned diagram:

Diagram 1: Procedure of interlingual rendition by Larson ( 1981: 4 )

The diagram shows that the first procedure of the interlingual rendition is detecting the significance of the beginning linguistic communication. After the significance has been discovered, the following portion is to re-express the significance into Receptor Language.

The above diagram is manner excessively simple. It needs more amplification to do clear how the procedure of interlingual rendition happens. Said in his unpublished thesis argues that Larson ‘s procedure of interlingual rendition should see the survey of vocabulary, grammatical construction, communicating state of affairs and cultural context

Translation

Text to be translated

Beginning Language Receptor Language

Vocabulary

Grammatical Structure

Cultural context

Situational context

Grammatical Structure

Vocabulary

Cultural context

Situational context

Analysis of intending re-expression of significance

Discovery of intending Transfer of intending

Meaning

Figure 2: Said ‘s diagram of the procedure of the interlingual rendition

In above diagram, said elaborates the procedure that happens before the degree of analysis of the significance. After happening the text to be translated, the transcriber has to see the vocabulary, grammatical construction, situational context and cultural context of the SL before traveling to detect the significance and analyze. The significance, so, is transferred into the significance in the TL. After re-expressing the significance, the transcriber has to see the best equality of the vocabulary, grammatical construction, situational context and cultural context in TL.

2.3. Reading in the Translation Process

A interlingual rendition undertaking can non be done without a comprehension of the beginning linguistic communication. Comprehension of a text can non be met without reading the text. Dimitrova pointed out that reading and groking the Source Text is critical for a successful interlingual rendition procedure ( 2005:24 ) .

Larson does non explicate the reading as one procedure of interlingual rendition, but it can be implicitly defined that in a procedure of analyzing and analysing to find the significance, the reading procedure is involved. Larson so pointed out that the text ( SL ) must be understood wholly, and the transcriber should get down by reading the text several times. ( Larson, 1988:53 ) . The illustrations of the fact that reading is needed in the interlingual rendition procedure is that translators do non bring forth their end product outright but they comprehend the information foremost to organize a meaningful unit before they produce a interlingual rendition. ( Marcizo and Bajo, 2004 )

A more expressed theory was explained by Newmark. He said that a transcriber begins his/her the interlingual rendition occupation by reading the original text for two intents: foremost is to understand what the text is about, and 2nd is to analyse it from a transcriber point of position, which is non the same as a linguist ‘s or a literary critics. ( Newmark, 1988:11 )

Reading for comprehension and reading for interlingual rendition is fundamentally the same. While in reading for comprehension, the reader aim is merely to acquire the significance of the text. But, in reading for transcriber, the transcriber is non merely has to acquire the significance and grok the text, but he/she besides has to reassign that intending into Target Language. The transcriber develops reading techniques that are clearly different from a critics and bookman. Schulte explains that reading from a transcriber ‘s point of position represents a uninterrupted procedure of opening up new possibilities of interactions and semantic associations. ( hypertext transfer protocol: translation.utdallas.edu/aˆ¦../reading_essay1.html, retrieved on April 27th 2010 ) .

2. 4. Translation Competence

The term of interlingual rendition competency was defined by Hatim and Mason as cognition necessary to interpret good ( as cited in Faber, 1998:9 ) . However, it is excessively general to specify a interlingual rendition competency as cognition to interpret good. The term cognition needs to be divided into other more specific footings. Another more specific definition of interlingual rendition competency was defined by Bell ( as cited in Faber, 1998:10 ) in footings of five linguistic communication cognition, text-type cognition, beginning linguistic communication cognition, existent universe cognition, and incompatible cognition.

To be a transcriber, interlingual rendition competency is certainly needed. But translation competency is non the lone of import component ; a transcriber must hold dependability excessively. Robinson explains 9 dependability facets needed by a transcriber and divides it into 3 chief parts, dependability with respect to the text, dependability with respect to the client, and dependability with respect to engineering.

Dependability with respect to the text

Attention to detail

The transcriber is punctilious in his/her attending to the contextual and collocational fluctuations of each word and phrase he/she uses.

Sensitivity to the user ‘s demands

The transcriber listens closely to the user ‘s particular instructions sing the type of interlingual rendition desired, understands those instructions rapidly and to the full, and strives to transport them out precisely and flexibly.

Research

The transcriber does non merely “ work about ” words he/she does n’t cognize, by utilizing a obscure phrase that avoids the job or go forthing a inquiry grade where the word would travel, but does careful research, in mention books and cyberspace databases, and through phone calls, facsimiles, and e-mail enquiries.

look intoing

The transcriber checks his/her work closely, and if there is any uncertainty ( as when she translates into a foreign language0 has a interlingual rendition checked by an expert earlier bringing to the client. ( the transcriber besides knows when there is any uncertainty. )

Dependability with respect to the client

Versatility

The transcriber is various plenty to interpret texts outside his/her country of specialisation, out of linguistic communications he/she does n’t experience wholly competent in, in manners he/she has ne’er tired.

Promises

The transcriber knows his/her ain abilities and agenda and working wonts good plenty to do realistic promises to clients or bureaus sing bringing day of the months and times, and so maintain those promises ; or if urgent fortunes make it impossible to run into a deadline, calls the client or bureau and negotiates the clip frame or arrange for person else to complete the occupation.

Friendliness

The transcriber is friendly and helpful on the phone or in individual, is pleasant to talk or be with, has a sense of wit, offers helpful advice, does n’t offer unhelpful advice, and so on.

Confidentiality

The transcriber will non unwrap confidential affairs learner through the procedure of interlingual rendition ( or dialogue ) to 3rd parties.

Dependability with respect to engineering

The transcriber owns a late-model computing machine, a recent version of a major word processing plan, a facsimile machine, and a modem, and knows how to utilize them.

Another account of interlingual rendition competency was defined by Lorscher as the consequence of a developing procedure that is ne’er concluding. It ever grows. The procedure is based on every person accomplishment to interpret.

2.5. Conceptual Model

Based on old literature reappraisals, the author concludes that the reading comprehension is involved in the procedure of interpreting a text from Source Language into Target Language.

it is supported by the theory of reading by Grabe & A ; Stoller as the ability to read, taking general comprehension that requires the reader to pull information from a text and unite it with information and outlooks that the reader already have ( 2001:188 ) . To grok written linguistic communication, we must make more than read it, and more than concept a significance about it. Harmonizing to Wittrock ( 1981:230 ) we have to deduce the constructed significances from the syntactic and semantic features of the linguistic communication that we read. This could be the writer messages, their extensions, and/or illations.

The author will happen out how the transcriber reaches a province of being comprehend with the beginning text. Before that, the author will happen out the comprehension rate of the transcriber. To make this, he will use Bock ‘s method to mensurate the reading rate of the reader, which is by demoing the sentence-splitted text to the reader. the sentence will be put on single slides. If the reader move into the following sentence by altering the slide, so the reading rate will be determined ( 1983:222 ) .

The author will besides happen out the procedure of the interlingual rendition utilizing Larson ‘s theory ( 1981: 4 ) that has been developed by Said in his unpublished thesis. The degree of comprehension proposed by mohamad ( http: //iteslj.org/Techniques/Mohamad-TestingReading.html, retrieved on May 23rd, 2010 ) and Brown ‘s theory of schemes in reading comprehension will be will be the author ‘s base to carry on this survey. Another above theory will besides relevant to back up the analysis of this survey.

Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1. Research Methodology

This research uses qualitative research method because the beginnings of informations are texts. Holloway ( 1997: 43 ) stated that qualitative research consist of words or actions of the participants which the research worker hears and observes. This research is a descriptive analytical survey because the consequences are presented in a description signifier and some statistics. Wilkinson ( 2000: 7 ) stated that “ the ensuing informations ( of qualitative research ) is presented in the signifier of citations or descriptions, though some basic statistics may besides be presented ” . This survey is conducted utilizing study. The study is used because it is utile to happen out phenomena or wonts in the sampled society. The author decided to carry on this survey utilizing 5 different single transcribers. He chooses single transcribers that have sufficient capablenesss and cognition of interlingual rendition because, to interpret a text, one has to be competent plenty to interpret a text.

3.1. Datas Beginnings

The information beginnings of this survey were taken from 5 Different Individual Translators that qualifies the transcriber competency. The topic will be given a text from English intelligence taken from hypertext transfer protocol: //www.timesmagazine.com/ ( retrieved on May 2nd, 2010 ) entitled “ Study: Evidence for an Arctic Climate Feedback Loop ” . The author will interrupt the article into 52 clauses and every clause will be separated in different pages. The author chooses these topics because they have good experiences in interlingual rendition since they have mastered the interlingual rendition competency. Additional beginning of the informations will be in a signifier of questionnaire. The questionnaire is used to back up the chief informations and to correlate between the reading velocity and the reading comprehension in a interlingual rendition procedure. The questionnaire is besides used to calculate out the jobs occurred during the reading in the interlingual rendition procedure.

3.2. Data aggregation processs

These are processs that will be applied to roll up the informations:

The author chooses 5 single Translator

Tre reader provide the transcriber a text entitled “ Gulf Oil Threatens an Underwater ‘Rainforest ‘ ” in which its sentence has been separated in different pages

The author asks those transcribers to read the text sentence by sentence, every clip they change pages into indicate the alteration of a sentence they read.

The author records the clip of the topic to read one sentence.

The author gives the topic a questionnaire.

The author interviews

The author collects the consequence informations

3.3. Datas Analysis

After the author has all the informations needed to be analyzed, he starts to analyse the information.

The author analyze the questionnaires to happen out:

What procedure that occur when transcriber attempt to grok a text.

How the transcriber read a text.

How they can get reading comprehension

How fast they can grok a text

What jobs occur during groking procedure.

The author compares the consequence with the clip entering when the transcriber read a text to calculate out how fast they can achieve reading comprehension.

The author draws a decision.

3.4. Validity and Reliability

The instrument cogency measured in this survey, peculiarly for questionnaire is Contented Validity. Content cogency is Contented Validity is based on the extent to which a measuring reflects the particular intended sphere of content ( Carmines & A ; Zeller in hypertext transfer protocol: //writing.colostate.edu/guides/research/relval/com2b5.cfm, retrieved on May 23rd, 2010 ) . This sort of cogency is chosen to happen out whether each point of questionnaire is able to mensurate what phenomenon happened is the society.

While the dependability of the trial refers to the consistence of the measurement devices used to carry on the research. Because of the limited clip, this research consistence is measured utilizing triangulation method. The informations collected from the questionnaire, so, compared with the consequence of the interview as other mensurating device.

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