Mastering the pronunciation of a foreign linguistic communication is an insuperably hard and complex undertaking. Complete success in this affair depends on legion internal and external factors that all may lend to or impede the acquisition procedure. Therefore, attending should be paid to every individual component of this process so as to avoid possible jobs or fix an efficacious solution to them. The purpose of this research paper is to specify and depict the most relevant aspects of pronunciation instruction and acquisition and to detect effectual ways of incorporating this constituent of linguistic communication with different accomplishments.
The first component of this paper aims at showing the topographic point of pronunciation in learning a foreign linguistic communication, the function of the scholar and the instructor and assorted factors that may impact pronunciation acquisition. The 2nd chapter trades with the importance of phonic written text and ways of presenting it in the secondary school environment. Furthermore, the job of intelligibility and its different dimensions is besides a topic of this subdivision of the thesis. The 3rd chapter is concerned with the significance of proper instruction of suprasegmental characteristics and specificity of connected address and their impact on the quality of every vocalization. The last subdivision of the theoretical portion dainties of methods of integrating pronunciation work into a standard English instruction.
The 5th chapter of this paper is devoted to practical illustration of methods of incorporating pronunciation with other linguistic communication accomplishments. The whole survey is build upon and conducted with assistance of 18 pupils of a secondary school aged 17 to eighteen. The full research is based on observation of scholars covering with pronunciation undertakings that are embedded in other activities. The purpose of this research is to set to the trial the premise that it is possible to learn pronunciation by agencies of roundabout methods.
Pronunciation surely deserves strong attending in modern schoolrooms. This constituent of linguistic communication ought to be treated as an built-in portion of acquisition and learning English as the success of communicating depends to a considerable grade on the quality of pronunciation.
This paper is supposed to verify the undermentioned thesis:
The mot successful pronunciation instruction and acquisition can be achieved in the procedure of get the hanging other lingual accomplishments
Teaching and Learning Pronunciation
In analyzing the procedure of instruction and larning pronunciation, it is of importance to specify what in fact these complex and wide impressions denote. Harmonizing to Brown ( 1994, p.7 ) instruction is “ steering and easing acquisition, enabling the scholar to larn, puting the conditions for larning ” . Later in his book, Brown ( 1994, pp.7-8 ) emphasises the importance of understanding the procedure of acquisition and the scholar as he writes these words straight to the instructor: “ your apprehension of how the scholar learns will find your doctrine of instruction, your learning manner, your attack, methods and schoolroom techniques ” . Whereas the acquisition procedure is described by him as “ geting or acquiring cognition of a topic or a accomplishment by survey, experience or direction ” .[ 1 ]This chapter includes brief overview of assorted facets of the aforesaid procedures in the context of pronunciation direction and the character of this really mutualist partnership.
The topographic point of pronunciation in learning a foreign linguistic communication
It is often experienced by scholars of a foreign linguistic communication that even though they produce their vocalizations harmonizing to grammar regulations and use proper vocabulary, they are non understood due to misspeaking certain words. Despite the fact that most of the scholars attach great importance to pronunciation, it is still widely neglected by instructors. Harmonizing to the figures presented by Nunan ( 1995 ) 62 per centum of Polish scholars of English gave the pronunciation the highest precedence. Komorowska ( 2001 ) points out that the most common ground why scholars are misunderstood while trying to pass on is because of improper modulation and articulation, non grammar errors, as they ne’er interrupt in the information transportation. In other words,
the procedure of achieving good pronunciation is a really many-sided one. Hence, it requires a changeless, systematic attempt which will lend tremendously to developing other accomplishments. Another factor of great significance that has been noticed by Jones and Evans ( 1995, p.245 ) is that realisation of peculiar phonemes and that suprasegmentals work together “ to make a configuration of phonological features that, although complex, is instantly recognizable to native talkers as signalling a specific significance, temper, or attitude towards the hearer or subject ” . It is clear therefore that it is valuable, if non indispensable, to do the scholars aware of the different facets of pronunciation that may ease their linguistic communication acquisition
Historical position on learning pronunciation
The theory refering learning pronunciation to scholars of a 2nd linguistic communication has experienced a figure of changes during the last decennaries. Paralleling the way of linguistic communication learning theory itself, pronunciation instructions have moved from more controlled to instead communicative attack.
Pronunciation instruction started to be considered as of import factor in larning a foreign linguistic communication in 1950 ‘s and 1960 ‘s.The Audio-lingual Method, proposed a assortment of activities that assisted scholars in know aparting different sounds by agencies of legion types of drills such as minimum brace exercising ( Celce – Murcia, 1996 ) .
In 1970 ‘s, direct instruction of pronunciation became non so often practised since linguists debated over scholars ‘ ability to get native-like pronunciation. During this period pronunciation lost its undisputed function as an imperative component in the course of study as grammar and vocabulary were at this clip viewed as more come-at-able and creditable.
Renewed involvement in the function of pronunciation as a manner of heightening the quality of communicating was connected with the rise and accordingly, the laterality of the communicative attack in 1980 ‘s. It was a by and large accepted position that pronunciation is an indispensable constituent of linguistic communication competency and that it plays critical function in Communicative Language Teaching. The accent of pronunciation learning altered from drills and exercisings based on rote larning to activities based on meaningful interaction. ( Seidlhofer, 2001 ) . Segmental issues such as the accurate production of single sounds receded in significance as instructors ‘ and material developers ‘ surroundings realised that preparation linguistic communication scholars in right utilizing of suprasegmental characteristics resulted in fleet betterments in communicating. As Brown ( 2001 ) implies, the current handling with pronunciation contrasts starkly with the early attacks as it gives the highest precedence to emphasize, beat and modulation. Alternatively of learning merely the function articulation within the words, or at best, phrases, the accent is put on a whole watercourse of discourse.
1.3 Purposes of instruction and acquisition pronunciation
Every acquisition procedure develops in the first topographic point from finding the grounds why it has to be performed and what are its aims. Geting pronunciation is no different in this affair. In the yesteryear, the lone purpose of acquisition and learning pronunciation was achieving native-like quality of address, even so it would be possible merely for some scholars. The present tendencies in this country imply that the bulk of the scholars have a practical intent for larning English and will deduce no peculiar benefit from geting really accurate pronunciation ( Kenworthy, 1994 ) .
It is the instructor who ought to look into the purposes of larning a 2nd linguistic communication by his or her pupils and adjust the acquisition standards to their demands. Harmonizing to Gimson ( 2001 ) a foreign scholar who requires an equal public presentation in the linguistic communication for practical intents of mundane communicating will non necessitate to get the hang all the discrepancies and niceties of sounds production. But later in his book besides Gimson ( 2001, p.296 ) states that “ unless a scholar expects to cover with English merely in its written signifier, there is no flight from acquisition of at least the fundamental elements of English pronunciation ” .
The indicants are hence that in any class of a foreign linguistic communication a realistic sum of clip has to be devoted to pattern in its spoken signifier as frequent divergencies in pronunciation may take to communication dislocation.
1.4 Teacher ‘s and Learner ‘s function
In analyzing the process of instruction and larning pronunciation, it is of significance to closely analyze the function of the instructor. One of the most of import maps of the instructor is supplying his or her scholars with chances for pattern, geographic expedition or even experimentation. It is possible by agencies of exercisings devised and adjusted to a specific group of scholars and their penchants.
Another basal undertaking of the teacher while learning pronunciation is developing the scholars in know aparting between the sounds of their female parent lingua and the mark linguistic communication. Teachers ‘ function is to assist pupils hear the specific sounds and so help them in the right production ( Kenworthy, 1994 ) .
Learning pronunciation is a really complex and many-sided operation. Hence, the program for action and specific aims have to be established by the instructor. It is the instructor ‘s duty to make up one’s mind what to concentrate on so that the scholars can bring forth apprehensible address accepted to native talkers ‘ ears. Monitoring advancement and supplying changeless feedback are besides indispensable in that the information refering the public presentation is really frequently the decisive factor in prolonging engagement and motive for acquisition.
It has to be mentioned that in a survey of current and future tendencies and waies of learning pronunciation, Seidlhofer ( 2001 ) found that the recent advantages in engineering have increased the potency for learner self-access and liberty. Such rich assortment of input hence affects instructor ‘s function, with a possible displacement from moving as an source to being teacher or “ speech manager ”[ 2 ]. This necessitates doing disposed picks from all options available and using appropriate methodological analysis responsive to the demands of specific scholars.
Having discussed different facets of the instructor ‘s maps in achieving good pronunciation it is clearly seeable that non merely the instructor but besides the scholar has to set some attempt and engagement in this complex procedure. Harmonizing to Kenworthy ( 1994 ) the chief undertaking of the scholars is to react to the instructor ‘s feedback and instructions and to take the duty for their actions. Even though it is the instructor who indicates the mispronunciations and aids in efficacious ways of eliminating them the scholars have to respond and seek to supervise their ain attempts themselves. Therefore, the nature of instructor ‘s and scholar ‘s function could be concluded by an old Chinese adage, which states:
The instructor can merely open the doors for you,
You have to come in by yourself
1.6 Factors impacting pronunciation acquisition
It is apparent that the success in accomplishing clear and comprehendible pronunciation is influenced by a mixture of components which may help or perplex the procedure of larning. It is imperative to detect possible job countries and to fix an effectual redress for such troubles, therefore the attending should be paid to each and every component impacting the pronunciation command.
1.6.1 The age factor
Language instructors and linguists have ever wished to happen the reply to question whether there is age-related restriction on making native-like pronunciation. Brown ( 1994, p.52 ) , among others, implied that the job of achieving a unflawed sounds production after pubescence sustains the impression of a critical period for linguistic communication acquisition. Brown describes the critical period as “ a biologically determined period of life when linguistic communication can be acquired more easy and beyond which clip linguistic communication is progressively hard to get ” . The position that a critical point for a 2nd linguistic communication acquisition occurs around pubescence, beyond which people seem to be incapable of get the hanging the pronunciation and any other facet of a linguistic communication, has led some to presume, falsely, that the possibility of successful 2nd linguistic communication acquisition is no longer valid. Research by Walsh and Diller[ 3 ]( 1981, p.18 ) suggest that different facets of a 2nd linguistic communication are attained at different periods of life as they stated that “ lower-order procedures such as pronunciation are dependent on early maturing and less adaptative macroneural circuits, which make foreign speech patterns hard to get the better of after childhood. Higher-order linguistic communication maps, such as semantic dealingss, are more dependent on late maturating nervous circuits, which may explicate why college pupils can larn many times the sum of grammar and vocabulary that simple school pupils can larn in a given period ”
As Nunan ( 1991 ) suggested, though the critical period hypothesis has been supported and refuted by several researches, the jobs of geting the phonemics of a 2nd linguistic communication present a formidable challenge to both theory and pattern. Numerous researches conducted by many outstanding scientists[ 4 ]are really challenging, as the consequences of different single probes seem to be contradictory. Therefore, it is beyond the range of this paper to discourse the possible connexion between age and the ability to articulate the words of other linguistic communication.
1.6.2 Innate phonic ability
It is by and large assumed that there are persons that are more adept at larning foreign linguistic communication than the others. This phenomenon is frequently referred as audile favoritism ability or phonic cryptography ability and is easy noticeable when an person is to happen the difference between sounds. The instructor should be cognizant of the fact that in his or her schoolroom it is possible to happen scholars with bad and good innate phonic ability. Therefore, a assortment of activities ought to be used so as to fulfill the demands and penchants of all pupils. Komorowska ( Komorowska, 2001 ) has drawn attending to the fact that while fixing undertakings it has to be remembered that some of the scholars may be audile or visually oriented. Hence, different types of pronunciation undertakings are to be employed in order to accommodate all the demands and abilities.
1.6.3 The female parent lingua
Another factor that contributes to impeding the pronunciation larning advancement is the scholars ‘ first linguistic communication. Students encounter jobs non merely with the peculiar sounds but besides with sounds bunchs, beat and modulation. Cross ( 1992, p.214 ) states that “ this is because they tend to hear and talk English via their female parent lingua set of sounds ” . The same position is shared by Jones ( Jones, 1984 ) who indicated that scholars are prone to utilize their anterior linguistic communication experience and categorise foreign sounds in footings of the phonemic stock list and suprasegmental characteristics of their female parent lingua.
On this footing it may be inferred that scholars from assorted first linguistic communication backgrounds will see different jobs as their sounds platforms vary from one another. It is for this ground that the instructor ought to be cognizant of the phonic and phonological characteristics of the female parent lingua of his or her pupils. The instructor whose pupils ‘ first linguistic communication belongs to Slav household such as Polish will non anticipate to meet jobs with word accentuation whereas the talkers of French or many Indian linguistic communications will make so. By contrasting the features of the two languages the instructor will be able to expect the possible jobs and invent proper drills and other activities ( Gimson, 2001 ) .
1.6.4 The exposure
The sum of exposure to the mark linguistic communication is another conducive factor in the mission of geting apprehensible and accurate pronunciation. A perfect state of affairs for having great measure of contact with the linguistic communication is populating in a foreign state but in most of the instances it is non accomplishable for the scholars. It was Kenworthy ( 1994, p.6 ) who said that “ it is non simply exposure that affairs, but how scholars respond to the chances to listen to and utilize English ” . Her words, though written about ten old ages ago, are still valid and relevant. English has become an international and most widespread linguistic communication in the universe, accordingly it is normally available for all scholars in telecasting, wireless and the Internet. If it is non possible for the pupils to listen to the English in their milieus the instructor should bit by bit do them familiar with its reliable signifier. The teacher ought to utilize recordings from the mass media to enable the scholars to see the assortment of speech patterns, modulation and word linking ( Komorowska, 2001 ) .