This essay will analyze the relationship between nutrient and art by inquiring if nutrient can be thought as an graphics, and if so, the commonalties it portions with other art pieces. To discourse the feasibleness of the aforesaid relationship, this essay will utilize a peculiar illustration, through which different theories will be analysed. However, it is of import to set forth this essay ‘s hypothesis, which agrees that nutrient can be thought as an art piece, a construct which will be discussed subsequently on.
Our illustration concerns the figure of the Catalan cook Ferran Adria , who had the best eating house in the universe, El Bulli, for five old ages, with the added award of three Michelin stars until 2011, when it closed. The ground why this instance has been chosen has to make with the fact that Ferran Adria has been compared as an creative person and his dishes as alone graphicss by different experts in gastronomy.
FOOD AS AN ARTWORK
In order to analyze if this connexion is executable, it is of import to discourse the impression of nutrient and its function in the society, an facet that can be easy linked to the thought of graphics. Different writers have discussed the societal map of nutrient in the society. For case, J. Hegarty ( 2001 ) says that one of the chief differences between animate beings and worlds is the fact that we cook our nutriments, which causes cultural differences among worlds. Furthermore, he besides argues that cooking is something that humans learn and, hence, it is non an unconditioned feature but an thought that can be related to the duality between nature and civilization, discussed by different authoritative anthropologists, such as Claude Levi-Strauss. Since nutrient is one of the facets that differentiate worlds from animate beings and the impression that cookery is an acquired accomplishment, it does belong to the civilization. This is adequate to reason that nutrient has an impact in the society. However, there are other grounds why, such as those discussed by O. Castillo and E. Gonzalez ( 2007 ) , who purport that during the procedure of feeding, human existences are besides looking for other societal elements, as set uping new friendly relationships or partnerships. All these thoughts discussed by these bookmans can be applied in different societies and in specific societal contexts, which will assist to understand the importance of nutrient within it. For case, in the instance of the birthday of a household member, all the household will run into up and have a repast together, usually tiffin or dinner. In this instance, the thought of run intoing up to eat is used as an alibi to garner together all the household. This is merely a peculiar societal context that can be used to represent this connexion between nutrient and its function in the society as a procedure that goes beyond the simple fact of feeding.
So far it can be seen that nutrient has a map in the society, which is a considerable facet in order to associate it with an graphics. As this faculty has shown throughout the term is that art pieces have societal significance and they construction a portion of the society. One illustration could be the Bark Paintings, a type of Australian Aboriginal art, which are a re-representation of the landscape. Chiefly, these form a representation of the external memory remembering hints of the hereditary purpose, which is encoded in the landscape, associating emotional ties with the land and the presence of the ascendants in it. Another illustration could be the basketry by the Yekuana, which is used to construction the society in a peculiar manner ; as Guss says, “ Basketry hence becomes a important index in the general growing and competency of an person, used to chart non merely practical cognition but besides position and individuality ” ( 2006:380 ) . Whit both illustrations it has been shown how art besides has a function in the society act uponing different facets of such.
In the instance of El Bulli, this thought that nutrient goes beyond the simple fact of feeding is besides represented chiefly attributed to two grounds. Firstly it can be thought that because of the high monetary values ( minimal 400a‚¬/person ) the people that decided to travel at that place expected something more than merely the nutrient. Second, the fact that the waiting list was minimal two old ages it is another component that shows that the costumiers looked for something else than merely nutrient but all the experience that goes with it.
Some bookmans have argued that nutrient can non be considered art because of its inherent and basic map: ingestion. Before discoursing this inquiry, it is of import to speak about the construct of aesthetic reactions, which in the words of Hegarty ( 2001 ) , it is related to the thought of beauty, and specifically in the instance of gastronomy:
“ This translates into menu balance and harmoniousness in such countries as coloring material, temperature, gustatory sensation and texture which in some instances can be dictated by the aesthetic demands of the natural stuffs which are used to make a gastronomic work ” ( 2001:12 )
From this quotation mark it can be said that if a specific dish has the features mentioned, so it would be thought as beautiful and hence as art.
This thought of aesthetic reactions is besides discussed by Tefler, who says that the aesthetic qualities can be “ characterised as non-neutral, non-instrumental, holding certain strength and frequently accompanied by opinions for which the judgers claim a sort of objectiveness ” ( 2002:11 ) . In other words, for Tefler an object has an aesthetic reaction if it is appreciated for its ain features, it can affect the spectator and it is non influenced by a personal standard.
In El Bulli ‘s instance of survey the thought of aesthetic reactions is utile because it is one of the features associated with art. Aside from the different sentiments of it, it can be said that the impression of aesthetic reactions is chiefly related with the thought of beauty, and besides to the different features given by Tefler. Sing this illustration, it can be seen that some of the dishes do non look as nutrient at first sight but they can be thought as a portrayal or as an artistic exposure[ 1 ]. Furthermore, if the Hegarty point of position is taken into history, the harmoniousness of Ferran Adria ‘s dishes can be related to the thought of beauty and so to the construct of aesthetic reactions, which is a cardinal construct for the art pieces.
However, some bookmans believe that nutrient can non be thought as art because of its map, such as M.L.Quinet ( 1981 ) , who has the statement that the map of art is to supply an object for aesthetic contemplations and, on the other manus, the nutrient ‘s map is its ingestion, which causes that these two constructs can non be associated. However, she besides states that in some instances nutrient can be considered art every bit long as it has an aesthetic map and it is non expected to be eaten. This thought is relevant to show that what makes this treatment so complex is the chief map of the nutrient. But even if the intents between them are different, it does non hold to be the lone standard to reason that nutrient is non art. The Quinet ‘s thought is helpful because it introduces a cardinal difference between the art ‘s map, an thought discussed subsequently on.
Finally, it is relevant to discourse Tefler ‘s thought that non all objects with aesthetic reactions can be considered graphics, because they do non portion the features of what constitutes an art piece, a point I will endeavor to research following.
An graphics is by Tefler a “ semisynthetic thing, even if the human engagement need consist of no more than seting a natural object in a gallery and giving it a rubric ” ( 2002:12 ) . She differentiates between graphics which can be seen in a classificative or appraising mode. In general footings, an graphics in the classificative sense has to make with how the object is regarded and if it is intended for an aesthetic consideration. On the other manus, an graphics in the appraising manner trades with the thought if the object deserves the virtue of being considered as such. This difference in the significance of an graphics is utile in footings of cognizing that the construct of art can non be thought as a inactive 1 with lone one significance. In respect to nutrient this classification is besides utile, because as Tefler says, nutrient can be thought as art in the sorting manner of graphics, since for many cooks and costumiers some repasts are intended to be considered in an aesthetic consideration, in other words, “ to be savoured, appraised, thought about, discussed ” ( 2002:14 ) . So, the chief point of those repasts is non to supply nutriment but to hold a farther experience. This thought of nutrient as an graphics in a classifying sense can be extremely related with Ferran Adria ‘s work, which requires a batch of idea and analysis before cooking it, and its purpose is to supply an unforgettable experience to the client, which goes beyond the simple fact of feeding.
In relation to this categorization of graphicss it is besides of import to advert the difference between art and trade, which is argued by assorted bookmans. Quinet, who thinks that nutrient can non be considered art in general footings, concludes that “ The culinary humanistic disciplines, one might claim, are so humanistic disciplines, but merely when we use the term ‘art ‘ in the sense of mere ‘craft ‘ ; and this is non the manner in which the term is used in aesthetics ” ( 1981:159 ) . The difference between art and trade is besides analysed by Tefler, who says that it lies in the grade of creativeness, so something is considered art if it is an original creative activity and when the object is a consequence of transporting out instructions so it is contemplated as trade. The relationship between this categorization and nutrient is important, because depending on the degree of creativeness in the procedure of cookery, nutrient could be thought as art or non. Even if in general footings a reception is being followed when cookery, in the instance of El Bulli, the creativeness applied in their dishes is tremendous, because there is a long procedure of analysis behind with the end to make new inventive dishes. One illustration of such could be the dish called Peach paper[ 2 ], which is presented as a missive or besides the liquid olives[ 3 ], which is the consequence of a complex molecular technique created by Ferran Adria named spherification. Hence, the nutrient cooked in El Bulli can be considered an art harmonizing to the sum of creativeness.
In relation to this difference between art and trade it is besides advantageous to advert the categorization between all right and utile humanistic disciplines, argued by Hegarty. The utile humanistic disciplines are those that are useful, such as the design of a edifice or furniture. However, all right humanistic disciplines are defined by seeking “ to associate, to pass on and commune between people in that, the creative person assumes an audience when he/she for illustration, writes a verse form or pigments a image ” ( 2001:8 ) . Food can be related to this last thought of all right art, every bit good as theater, music or dance ( Anson,2006 ) , an thought that can besides be known as minor art.
This essay has discussed the thought that nutrient can be considered as art by utilizing a specific instance of survey, El Bulli. Different statements have been put away to show the being of this connexion between art and nutrient, such as its societal function in the society every bit good as other graphicss.
Refering the instance of survey of this essay, it can be said that El Bulli ‘s dishes can be related to the thought of graphics. One ground is their aesthetic reactions, intending that they are associated with the construct of beauty, doing the trouble to distinguish some of them from portrayals. Another ground is because their map goes beyond the thought of nutriment, since they are expected to supply a farther experience. Furthermore, they have a high grade of creativeness, which makes it possible to correlate them with the thought of art and distinguish them from the impression of trade.
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.elbulli.com/catalogo/commons/generar_img.php? id=879 & A ; PoG=G
Soup of pink Citrus paradisi with estragon and praline salted with black benne ( 2003 )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.elbulli.com/catalogo/commons/generar_img.php? id=987 & A ; PoG=G
Blooming Cucumis sativuss in acetum with mustard seeds and estragon ( 2004 )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.elbulli.com/catalogo/commons/generar_img.php? id=920 & A ; PoG=G
2m of Parmesan spaghetti ( 2003 )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.elbulli.com/catalogo/commons/generar_img.php? id=1207 & A ; PoG=G
Tree passion fruit ( 2005 )
Picture 1.5: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.elbulli.com/catalogo/commons/generar_img.php? id=973 & A ; PoG=G
Neckties of Beta vulgaris with acetum pulverization ( 2004 )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.elbulli.com/catalogo/commons/generar_img.php? id=1098 & A ; PoG=G
Paper of Prunus persica “ Tramontana ” ( 2005 )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.elbulli.com/catalogo/commons/generar_img.php? id=1095 & A ; PoG=G
Spherical green olives- I ( 2005 ) Liquid olives
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.elbulli.com/catalogo/commons/generar_img.php? id=1085 & A ; PoG=G
Bicolour wafers of carrot and Beta vulgaris ( 2004 )