In Greek mythology, Prometheus was the Godhead of world. The goddess Athena taught him architecture, uranology, mathematics, pilotage, medical specialty, and metallurgy, and he in bend taught them to worlds. Zeus, the head of the Grecian Gods, became angry at Prometheus for doing people powerful by learning them all these utile accomplishments. When the Gods chose Prometheus as supreme authority in a difference, he fooled the fleeceable Zeus into picking the worst parts of the sacrificial bull by concealing them under a rich bed of fat. To penalize Prometheus, Zeus withheld fire from work forces. “ Let them eat their flesh altogether, ” he declared. In response, Prometheus, snuck up to Mount Olympus, lit a torch from the Sun, and conceal a firing piece of wood coal in a hollow chaff. He slipped off with it and therefore delivered fire to mankind. Zeus, as retaliation, tried unsuccessfully to flim-flam Prometheus ‘ brother, Epimetheus, into accepting the beautiful but arch Pandora as a gift. Epimetheus, mindful of earlier advice from his brother, refused. Even madder now that his fast one had failed, Zeus had Prometheus chained naked to a pillar in the Caucasic mountains. A griffon-vulture Ate at Prometheus ‘ liver all twenty-four hours long. During the acrimonious cold of the mountain dark, the liver became whole once more. So it went twenty-four hours after twenty-four hours, twelvemonth after twelvemonth. Epimetheus married Pandora in an attempt to liberate his brother. Pandora — every bit devilish as she was beautiful — opened the celebrated box in which Prometheus had shut up all the immoralities that might blight world: Old Age, Labor, Sickness, Insanity, Vice and Passion. Merely old ages subsequently, at the behest of Heracles ( Hercules ) , did Zeus free Prometheus.
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In the mid-seventeenth century, John Milton was a successful poet and political militant. He wrote scathing booklets against corruptness in the Anglican Church and its ties to King Charles. In Milton ‘s twenty-four hours Puritanism meant holding politically extremist positions. And at one point Milton was really jailed for entering them on paper. Eden Lost, every bit much as anything, is a series of statements put away by the characters, which in bend finally expresses Milton ‘s personal truth. It is, in that sense, a Puritanical work. Milton had contemplated the composing of an heroic poem verse form for many old ages. For his capable affair he chose the basicss of Christian divinity. By the clip he began composing Paradise Lost in the late 1650 ‘s, Milton had become blind. He dictated the full work to secretaries. Eden Lost has many of the elements that define epic signifier. It is a long, narrative verse form ; it follows the feats of a hero ( or anti-hero ) ; it involves warfare and the supernatural ; it begins in the thick of the action, with earlier crises in the narrative brought in subsequently by flashback ; and it expresses the ideals and traditions of a people. It has these elements in common with the Aeneid, the Iliad, and the Odyssey. The verse form is in clean poetry, that is, non-rhyming poetry. In a note he added to the 2nd printing, Milton expresses disdain for riming poesy. Eden Lost is composed in the verse signifier of iambic pentameter-the same used by Shakespeare. In this manner, a line is composed of five long, atonic syllables, each followed by a short, accented one. The first edition of Paradise Lost was published in 1667, in 10 chapters or books. In 1674 Milton reorganized the verse form into 12 books, by spliting two of the longer books into four. He besides added an introductory prose “ statement ” sum uping the secret plan of each book, to fix readers for the complex poesy that was to follow. Part of that complexness is due to the many analogies and asides into ancient history and mythology throughout the verse form. The cardinal narrative line is built around a few paragraphs in the beginning of Genesis-the narrative of Adam and Eve. The heroic poem besides uses elements from many other parts of the Bible, peculiarly affecting Satan ‘s function. Concentrating his verse form on the events environing the autumn of Adam and Eve, Milton intended, in his words, to “ warrant the ways of God to work forces, ” by following the cause and consequence for all involved. In the last two books of the heroic poem, Milton includes about a complete sum-up of Genesis. This drawn-out subdivision may look anti-climactic, but Milton ‘s mission was to demo non merely what caused adult male ‘s autumn, but besides the effects upon the universe, both bad and good. A concept cardinal to this narrative is that of the “ felix culpa ” or fortunate autumn. This is the doctrine that the good which finally evolves as a consequence of the fall-God ‘s clemency, the coming of Christ, salvation and salvation-leaves us in a better topographic point, with chance for greater good than would hold been possible without the autumn. For centuries critics have both praised and derided Paradise Lost. A common observation is that, in his portraiture of the ideas and motives of Satan, Milton seems to unwittingly project him as the hero. Nevertheless, the general consensus holds that Paradise Lost remains the greatest heroic poem verse form in the English linguistic communication. In 1671, Milton published Paradise Regained. The rubric suggests some kind of subsequence, but, although a great work in its ain right, Paradise Regained is a really different sort of verse form, shorter and more brooding than action oriented, and hence less popular than the earlier work. It centers around the confrontation between Jesus and Satan in the wilderness.
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“ The Northwest Passage did non be, and so could non be discovered, until Europeans invented it. “ – Ken McGoogan, writer ofA Fatal PassageA ( 2001 )
The Canadian Arctic ( including Hudson Bay ) occupies an country of about one million square stat mis of glaciated field, tundra, islands, sounds, passs, recesss, and transitions, which are frozen and choked with ice floes and battalion ice for much of the twelvemonth. For 400 old ages adventurers sought a navigable transition through its archipelago or across its land. Their story-what historiographers have cumulatively described as a “ pursuit for a northwest transition ” -makes one of the best surveies of human geographic expedition of this planet, full of the features that mark all great narratives: rich characters, play and suspense, a harsh but obliging scene, calamities and victory, and a cryptic yet fulfilling decision and declaration. Much of these adventurers ‘ attempts were appraising and charting activities directed at making a complete, accurate map of the country. At its bosom, so, it is a narrative “ of maps and work forces. “ After Columbus, European governments-but peculiarly the British who had lagged the Spanish and the Portuguese in nautical exploration-were strongly motivated to happen a shorter path to the Orient. In a universe where trade meant everything, failure to “ detect ” and work New Worlds guaranteed being left buttocks. Yet, long after the nonpracticality of voyaging frozen northern Waterss was irrefutably established, the seeking continued-for autonomous pride and for scientific and geographic intents. Toward the terminal of the last century, a 3rd “ stage ” or era began in Northwest Passage history, that of the escapade searchers. Like mounting Mt. Everest and solo-circumnavigating the Earth, pass throughing the Northwest Passage had become, and remains today, a formidable end for those wishing to personally dispute the natural elements-by kayak, by catamaran, as a individual adult female, in a individual season-the fluctuations on the subject seem endless. These “ number ones, ” nevertheless, can non befog or decrease the first number ones, achieved without Gore-Tex or GPS, without, alas, even a good map.A
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