The chief end of this survey was to travel beyond the general consciousness that spelling is a job for Grade 9 at Abdel Rahman Aldhakhel School pupils. Its intent is to place more specifically the sorts of spelling troubles they have.
In add-on, the intent of the survey was to find the most common types of spelling mistakes made by those pupils who were in the 9th classs. In add-on, the intent of the survey is to find the chief troubles that face pupils in spelling. Besides, It attempted to find the causes of the spelling mistakes with those pupils and how could we work out them.
This survey was limited to informations obtained from a spelling trial given to pupils in Abdel- Rahman Aldakhel School C2. There were 45 9th class pupils. They were all male pupils. Their ages were between 15 to 17 old ages old.
The informations were collected from questionnaires given to different instructors. They were six males and four females.
The consequence was that most pupils committed at least one mistake in this trial. The types of mistakes committed by the largest figure of scholars were skip, interpolations, and permutation. Besides, the most type of trouble for pupils was soundless letters. It was a job for 38 pupils of 45 ( 84.4 % ) . Besides, manner of composing sound /z/ and ways of composing sound /s/ were a job for them.
Most of instructors agreed that the spelling mistakes might impact the pupils larning procedure. The research worker tried to happen the best schemes that instructors and parents can follow to better their kids ‘s spelling. Besides, He mentioned the best activities that instructors can utilize in categories to cut down spelling mistakes with those scholars. Besides, the research worker focused on spelling mistakes in order to happen out the common spelling mistakes and the best schemes to get the better of them.
English as a 2nd linguistic communication is an easy linguistic communication to get down acquisition, because it is related to our linguistic communication “ Arabic ” . That means English and Arabic portion some elements. Sometimes the same word ( how to state it ) like Alcohol. However, you will confront some troubles when you learn it. English is different from Arabic in the manner of composing the letters and the manner of articulating. Many pupils make more errors in spelling. That possibly because the spelling of word may non demo the exact pronunciation ( manner of stating ) of it. This is because English words come from many different beginnings. In add-on, sometimes the word is excessively long to maintain it or it is similar to another word. Therefore, that, some pupils mix them. Spelling mistakes are the most common type of error in the written work of English scholars. Spelling is a peculiar job because of the differences in the composing systems of Arabic and English. In add-on, it is because in English the relationship between sounds and composing are non regular. The research worker focused on spelling mistakes in order to happen out the common spelling mistakes and the best schemes to get the better of them.
Statement of the job
The pupils in grade nine at Abdel Rahman Aldakhel School face trouble in spelling. They make many errors in their Hagiographas. They committed many errors in their tests and in their prep therefore that will impact their acquisition procedure. When they write a paragraph or an essay, they feel concern of those spelling errors. So, the research worker did this research to happen the best ways to get the better of those spelling mistakes and to cognize the best schemes that instructors and parents can follow to cut down spelling mistakes with those scholars.
This research is really of import for many grounds. First, it will find the different types of spelling mistakes. Besides, it will find the different sorts of mistakes. Third, it will assist both pupils and instructors to get the better of those spelling mistakes in the hereafter. In add-on, it will assist the instructor to take the best ways to learn spelling for pupils.
Term of Definitions
1- Transfer refers to the consequence of native linguistic communication on the acquisition of 2nd linguistic communication.
2- Overgeneralization is common procedure in native linguistic communication and 2nd linguistic communication in which the pupils extend the usage of a grammatical regulation of lingual point beyond its recognized utilizations.
3- A communicating scheme means to show significances utilizing the words and grammar.
Addition is the add-on of unneeded letters to a word.
2- Omission is the skip of a missive or letters from a word.
3- Substitution is the permutation of a missive or letters for the right letters.
4- Inversion is the arrangement of the right letters in the incorrect order in a word.
5- Miscellaneous is spelling which in no manner resemble the word.
Reappraisal of literature
Spelling defined as the scholar ‘s ability to compose words right from memory. Effective composing depends on effectual spelling. Understanding scholars ‘ spelling troubles can assist instructors back up the development of scholars ‘ authorship.
Good spelling is a end to the pupils in his authorship. The pupil who can non spell has a really hard clip in change overing his thoughts to others. His ideas are broken by inability to spell words. The misspelled words will take the head of the reader off from the significance of the message. So, spelling is necessary for communicating.
Mistakes made by 2nd linguistic communication scholars are classified into two groups, interlingual and interlingual mistakes. First, Interlingual mistakes are those that result from linguistic communication transportation and caused by the scholar ‘s native linguistic communication. Some research workers hypothesized that mistakes in the 2nd linguistic communication are caused by the intervention of the pupil ‘s native linguistic communication. Such mistakes reflect the pupil ‘s inability to divide native linguistic communication and 2nd linguistic communication. Other research workers pointed out that pupils ‘ mistakes in 2nd linguistic communication are caused by several things. These include transportation, overgeneralization and communicating schemes. Transportation refers to the consequence of native linguistic communication on the acquisition of 2nd linguistic communication. In transportation, some forms are borrowed from native linguistic communication. In Overgeneralization, forms may be extended from 2nd linguistic communication by analogy. Overgeneralization is common procedure in native linguistic communication and 2nd linguistic communication in which the pupils extend the usage of a grammatical regulation of lingual point beyond its recognized utilizations, by and large by doing words or constructions follow a more regular form. A communicating scheme means to show significances utilizing the words and grammar, which are already known. Intralingual mistakes are those, which result from faulty acquisition of 2nd linguistic communication, instead than from linguistic communication transportation.
Phenix ( 2001 ) believes that spelling troubles with scholars can be divided into two groups. First, linguistic, which are related to the nature of the linguistic communication. Second, personal, which are related to the different phases of development scholars go through. Phenix ( 2001 ) describes these phases as follows:
First, pre-phonetic, scholars use a mixture of images, marks, forms and letters. Second, semi-phonetic, scholars use missive names to stand for the sounds. Third, phonic phase, scholars use known sounds to compose words and they become cognizant of word boundaries and go forth infinites between words. Fourth, ocular scholars use most letters right, if non in the right order ; they use vowels in every syllable.
Fifth, mature which means that scholars use a full scope of schemes to spell words and they are able to do analogies from known spelling forms ; they are able to acknowledge wrong spellings.
There are many surveies done on spelling mistakes and the different sorts of mistakes and different types of troubles. Snowball did a survey on spelling mistakes and the chief sorts of spelling mistakes. She listed six different sorts of spelling mistakes. She said that it is non plenty to cognize that the pupils have misspelled words but she finds it utile to analyse the different types of mistake pupils are doing and so supply relevancy learning based on that cognition. She listed some common types of spelling mistakes based on his survey and the best schemes to assist them get the better of them. The First sort is spelling by sound merely like exposure, foto. The 2nd sort is non hearing sounds in words like, library, library. Third, confounding about homophones like tow, excessively, to. Fourth, rickety appreciation of postfix and prefix regulations like stopt, stopped. Fifth, deficiency of attending to the order of letters in words like, brid, bird. Finally, cognizing to spell, but non to caring like, for some pupils, the job is non a deficiency of spelling accomplishment but confusion about the importance of spelling right. Teachers should be careful when covering with those sorts of mistakes. She listed some schemes that instructors can follow for overall rectification. First, instructors should inquire them what ideas they are utilizing when they spell. Then, he should utilize their replies as a get downing point to unclutter up confusion. Second, when analysing or rectifying spelling errors, they should maintain in head the appropriate outlooks for the age and experience of the author. Third, they should be certain to indicate out the many good schemes that they observe in pupils spelling. Then, they should promote their pupils by utilizing phrases like these, I like the manner you try unknown words, I see that you know how to spell many high-frequency words, I see that you are larning how to utilize common spelling forms and I notice that you care about your audience and so you have proofread your authorship. ( Snowball, 1997 )
There are four types of spelling mistakes that scholars of English normally make. These are skips and it means go forthing letters out, permutations, which means replacing letters with wrong 1s, heterotaxies, which means change by reversaling the place of letters, and add-ons /insertion, which means including excess letters. ( clements, 1971 )
It is really of import to learn pupils the best schemes to larn words and to look into spelling of words they have written. Teachers and parents are likewise need to integrate instruction schemes for larning words and schemes for learning spelling into all course of study.
Sarah Malburg ( 2009 ) mentioned some schemes that can rear make to better their kids spelling as the followers: Parents can assist in learning spelling to their kids. They should sit with their kids at place for a fixed sum of clip in order to learn or larn spellings of words. In add-on, they can set the common words on different points at place. Children will look at the word daily and they will seek to set up the relationship of words and their usage in day-to-day life. In add-on, they can utilize fell and seek technique for learning word spellings to their kids. They can do the kid expression at the word, say the word, conceal the word with one manus behind the back, so hold them write and state the word and so look into it. Parents can shut the eyes of their kids with their custodies ; state them to visualise a image of the word in their caputs. They can state the kid to follow the letters in the air with eyes closed. Then, they tell the kid to open their eyes and compose the word on the paper. In add-on, they can state the kid to look into the spelling with the word in the book. They besides can learn kids about group words. Parents should promote kids to do associations of words with similar forms e.g. other, brother, mother etc. There are some schemes that can teachers make to better their pupils spelling as the followers. The instructor should learn spelling schemes in the schoolroom. While learning, the instructor should state the word easy and pupils should listen carefully. Then he should compose the word clearly, syllable-by-syllable on the chalkboard. Then, he should compose the similar sounding words on the chalkboard e.g. bead, dead, read, bread etc. The instructor should learn pupils about listening to the order of sounds in a word. In add-on, he should learn pupils about the derivations of different words from the base word e.g. mark, signal, resign etc. this will assist kids in the formation of new words by adding prefixes and postfixs. Teacher should learn dictionary accomplishments to his pupils. He should explicate alphabetical order and utilize different word terminations under the base word e.g. bank, banking etc.
There are six common ways that can teacher follow in learning spelling for scholars and they are called Six Research- Based Techniques. First, careful word choice, you can non trouble a image without the hurting, and you can non learn spelling without words. So, instructors should be careful when taking words and they should hold that the words are suited for their pupils. Second, utilizing a pretest-study-posttest format, administering a pretest is an efficient manner to individualise spelling. In the pretest, each author in schoolroom rapidly and easy demonstrates whether or non he or she knows the words or forms in the hebdomad ‘s unit of survey.
Third, utilize a self-correction technique, follow self-correction technique like, Find a spouse and take the trial, inquire your spouse to read your words and state you if there are any words he does non cognize ( how to state ) . Then, say the words for him, compose the word on a piece of paper. when you complete your list, enchantress functions
Fourth, Teach kids How to analyze unknown words. A system technique for larning the right spelling of words is by utilizing a combination of auditory, ocular, kinaesthetic and haptic processs. You have to follow expression, say, write technique.
Fifth, usage spelling Games: utilizing games in learning pupils is a utile manner because to pull the pupils attending. Many pupils like games and it will be an affectional manner to learn them by utilizing games. Sixth is word screening like, utilizing pocket chart.
In order to cognize the common spelling mistakes and their causes, the research worker chooses spelling mistakes as a subject of my research. Then, he started to roll up the information from different beginnings. First, he observed his categories ( Rate 9/4 and 9/1 ) at Abdel-Rahman Al-Dakhel School. The participants were 45 male childs. The scholars were aged 15-17. The male childs were in two categories of 23 and 22. He observed the pupils while they were composing in category, their authorship in the test and he found some spelling errors. In add-on, he took four workbooks. Then, he searched about the spelling mistakes in their authorship in their workbooks. Following, he analyzed the consequences. I searched in the cyberspace about some information that helped me in analysing the consequences. In add-on, I interviewed some instructors at Abdel-Rahman Al-Dakhel School. I asked them about the common spelling mistakes and the grounds that make pupils spell incorrectly. Finally, I wrote the study.
Datas were collected through spelling trials administered to these scholars. Besides, informations were collected through questioning some English instructors. I choose 10 words.
The scholars in each category were given a transcript of their 10 words to analyze the twenty-four hours before the trial.
This figure shows that most of the instructors agree with that spelling mistakes may impact pupils larning procedure. In add-on, some of them said that they agree with that spelling mistakes affect pupils larning. Some instructors do n’t hold with this point. They said that it does non affect pupils larning.
This figure shows that some instructors were agree with that reading narratives or books help pupils to restrict spelling mistakes. However, some of them were non agree at all with this point. They said that pupils can non restrict spelling mistakes by reading narratives and books merely. They have to follow a program to work out this job and there are some stairss they can follow to cut down spelling mistakes.
This figure shows that all the instructor were agree with that learning manner plays a major function to better pupils ‘ spelling. So, the instructors should concentrate more in their instruction ways to cut down spelling mistakes with pupils or to better spelling with those pupils.
This figure shows that most instructors were agree with this point. They said that bettering pupils ‘ spelling helps them to better their linguistic communication.
Most instructors arguer with this point and they said that it is non plenty to learn them the phonetics to cut down spelling mistakes or to better their spelling. There are some ways that they have to follow to better their spelling.
Most pupils committed at least one mistake in this trial. The types of mistakes committed by the largest figure of scholars were skip, interpolations, and permutation, while mistakes of heterotaxy were present in the work of smaller proportions of scholars. Some pupils did good in the trial and they were seven pupils. Substitution was the most types of mistakes that pupils fell in with 84.4 % . In add-on, Omission was one of the most types of mistakes with 84.4 % . Some pupils committed two errors in one word, ( skip and permutation ) , like bul alternatively of pull. So, as the researches approved that permutation and skip are the most common type of mistakes that Arab scholars make.
This figure shows that the most type of trouble for pupils was soundless letters. It was a job for 38 pupils of 45 ( 84.4 % ) . Most of them wrote nock alternatively of knock because they spell words by sounds merely. In add-on, manner of composing sound /z/ and ways of composing sound /s/ were a large job for them. Some pupils wrote z alternatively of s like noz. There are other errors done by those pupils like composing B alternatively of P and that job because they are non hearing sounds in words. The figure of the pupils who did non do any mistakes and they did non hold troubles were 15.5 % merely.
Through these tabular arraies, the research worker noticed that the pupils faces trouble in spelling and that of class will impact the acquisition procedure.
He tried to cognize the grounds and how can a instructor aid pupils to work out their jobs. He think that the grounds are foremost, the manner of learning because most instructors do n’t care about spelling and they care merely approximately speech production, so the pupils can read the word but they ca n’t spell it. The 2nd ground that some pupils when they learn any new word, they do non seek to spell it and they do n’t pattern to compose or utilize it. The 3rd ground is that most pupils do n’t read English magazines, books or newspapers which are of import to cognize the words and the spelling of them.
The Fourth ground is that most pupils ca n’t distinguish between the C and S, C and K. The 5th ground is that most pupils writes what they hear like composing Z alternatively of s. The last ground that most words in English have soundless syllables like visible radiation, know, bought, listenaˆ¦act.
Recommendations for pupils:
Students should follow a program to work out this job.
Students should utilize the unit list of words to analyze the words carefully.
Students should read books and magazines.
Students should pattern composing the hard words at place many times in order to retrieve the words right.
Students should listen to the words carefully and seek to distinguish between different sounds of letters.
Recommendations for instructors:
– Teachers should
Recommendations for course of study interior decorators:
The research showed that some pupils faced jobs in larning 2nd linguistic communication. They are confronting job in spelling more than verbal accomplishments. The research worker showed the common spelling mistakes and how the instructor can work out them to better pupils. In my sentiment, there should be a particular category that focuses on reading and composing for bettering spelling accomplishments. That will do the instructors care more about spelling. We recommend that Education College should supply instructors with preparation classs in developing schemes to better spelling accomplishments. In decision, larning linguistic communication requires many inputs.