Teaching Context Synthetic And Analytic Syllabuses English Language Essay

When one is sing whether a ‘Type A ‘ or a ‘Type B ‘ course of study is most suited for one ‘s schoolroom environment, there are many considerations such as cultural contexts, scholar types, desired purposes and aims, every bit good as institutional structuring, that one should maintain in head before doing a concluding determination sing one ‘s schoolroom instruction attack.

This essay ‘s primary purposes are to place the many features of either attack, and to put down a compelling organic structure of concluding, in an attempt by the writer, to best determine which of the two course of study types would most pre-eminently serve the involvements of his scholars and the establishment, and which would outdo tantrum into the cultural context of his schoolroom environment.

As we shall see, a ‘Type B Syllabus ‘ provides pupils with better communicational abilities, nevertheless, a “ Type A Syllabus ‘ , on the other manus, provides the instructor more answerability toward the assorted degrees of disposal. This essay aims to find whether the course of study the writer is presently working with conforms to the ‘Type A ‘ or ‘Type B ‘ tradition.

While a ‘Type A ‘ course of study provides pupils with an external cognition of linguistic communication, the ‘Type B ‘ course of study offers an internal consciousness of linguistic communication. Besides, while a ‘Type A ‘ course of study follows a man-made attack, the ‘Type B ‘ course of study follows a more analytic one, with the earlier stand foring a ‘What is to be learnt? ‘ ( content ) and the latter a ‘How is to be learnt? ‘ ( procedure ) civilization. If the purpose is to learn grammar as a topic on its ain so the ‘Type A ‘ attack may turn out utile, but if the purpose is to supply scholars with the ability to pass on in existent clip so a “ Type B ‘ course of study might do for a better pick.

Given the fact that the writer teaches communicating categories, designed to better speech production accomplishments, a “ Type B ‘ attack would be of most usage to the scholars, nevertheless, the cultural contexts/values, environing any EFL schoolroom in Korea, do good to suit a ‘Type A ‘ course of study, therefore a combination of the two would most likely serve all parties of involvement.

2 ‘Type A ‘ Syllabus ( See Chart 1: p.14 )

The writer has ne’er been an advocator of this Reconstructionist man-made course of study type as it is counterproductive for bettering his pupils ‘ communicational eloquence as it fails to learn linguistic communication holistically. It is far excessively concerned with the content of the lessons, and non adequate attending is placed on the procedure of larning itself.

Most course of study that autumn under the umbrella of a ‘Type A ‘ course of study are best represented by a impression of controlled pattern, consecutive showing linguistic communication points ( content ) one at a clip, whereby scholars are expected to construct a gradual apprehension of linguistic communication ( See Willis, 1990:42 ) . Students who learn English through extended grammatical focal point, do good on linguistically based grammar trials, nevertheless, they possess a limited ability to talk and understand the linguistic communication when confronted with existent life state of affairss.

From the writer ‘s experiences, in Hungary and Korea, wherein he tried learning English by using itemized course of study, he concluded that such course of studies proved futile in developing eloquence as it simply provided scholars with external instead than internal grammatical competency. The sort of structural focal point found in a man-made course of study does supply scholars with a moderately good cognition of simplified grammar regulations, nevertheless, for the most portion, it fails in developing fluid speech production accomplishments as this witting signifier of cognition is non readily available.

In the act of authorship, scholars have the clip to use the regulations of grammar, but because verbal communicating takes topographic point in existent clip, there is merely non adequate clip for them to expeditiously use their repertory of grammar regulations to talk discourse.

Michael West asserts that the man-made attacks ( of the fiftiess ) have ‘low surrender value ‘ as scholars achieve small advancement in relation to the sum of clip they invest in acquisition ( see White, 1988:12 ) . Consequently, from this peculiar point of position, a man-made attack can be seen as unsatisfactory in developing fluid talkers of L2.

Given that the writer teaches communication/conversation categories, this course of study type would most probably turn out to be bootless in assisting scholars become fluid talkers. Willis, and Carol, among others, believe that a lexically based course of study is the solution to efficaciously learn linguistic communication ( see Willis, 1990:46 ) .

2.1 The Lexically Based Syllabus

Although the lexical course of study is described by some ( i.e. M. H. Long and G. Crookes of the University of Hawaii ( see mentions ) ) as a man-made course of study, it fails to run into all the features of such a course of study, as man-made attacks by and large utilize simplified non-authentic linguistic communication while the lexical course of study uses reliable linguistic communication which is composed of text that has been generated by natural discourse intended to function a communicative intent, instead than to represent grammatical forms of the mark linguistic communication.

Willis suggests that ‘the most hard thing about linguistic communication is that there is merely so much to larn ‘ ( Willis, 1990:139 ) . Therefore, the most effectual manner to learn linguistic communication is by exposing scholars to the commonest words in the linguistic communication and in making so hedging a ‘low resignation value ‘ .

Willis pointed out that H. E. Palmer and Michael West were the first to suggest a word based course of study in the 1930s and 1950s severally. He farther stated that in 1971 Carol devised an estimation that the most frequent 1,000 words make up 74 % of the English linguistic communication, while the following 1,000 words history for an extra 7 % of the linguistic communication, and a farther 1,000 for merely 4 % ( Willis, 1990:46 ) . The public-service corporation proves to fall drastically after the first 1,000 most common words. Willis advocates the COUBUILD research principal which is based on computerized harmonies of lexis. The COBUILD undertaking devised a similar but somewhat different estimation to that of Carol ‘s, saying that the 700 most frequent words make up 70 % of native talker text, the following 800 accounting for a farther 6 % , whilst the following 1,000 words accounting for merely 4 % of the English linguistic communication text ( Willis, 1990:46 ) . Here excessively the public-service corporation fell aggressively.

By showing the linguistic communication every bit lexical balls which embody both significance and context, a rich organic structure of input could be generated for the scholars for processing and to do a portion of their ain principals so they can construct toward an internal consciousness of the mark linguistic communication as a whole, every bit good as being concerned with the acquisition procedure.

Even though the lexical course of study has features of a holistic attack, it can be described as man-made on the footing of its ranked undertakings, sequenced lexis and the grammatical points which are exemplified by the linguistic communication embracing these lexical points.

This course of study would provide the writer with a sufficient degree of answerability with respect to the establishment ‘s demands and specifications due to the clear prescribed lexical points in the course of study content, therefore supplying a degree of transparence into the construction of the class. Nevertheless, the writer makes small effort to use this course of study type since most research principal are based on native-speaker linguistic communication, therefore doing small effort to run into the Korean linguistic communication scholar ‘s demands. Furthermore, there is small effort by research workers to develop pedagogic principals that could turn out to be more scholar friendly.

It is of import to observe that about 80 % of all English discourse takes topographic point between non-native talkers ( see Carter, 1998:50 ) . Additionally, most Korean scholars will preponderantly utilize English to pass on with non-native English talkers within their part, hence, they need non get native-like accomplishments to pass on expeditiously.

Non-native talker pedagogic principal would break function the involvements of Korean scholars, nevertheless they ‘re unavailable. Furthermore they could assist to authorise Korean English instructors.

The text edition ‘KnowHow ‘ by Oxford University Press, pre-selected by the English section caput at the writer ‘s university, merely uses approximately 40 % of the first 2,000 most common words harmonizing to the computations of one of my co-workers, Sharon Simpson, at Hoseo university, hence the text edition, itself seems to supply small focal point on a word-frequency based course of study.

This could raise the inquiry: Could a fanciful and functional course of study better serve Korean pupils ‘ demands?

2.2 The Notional-Functional Syllabus

Language acquisition, in a sense, is conceptualized by a repertory of impressions and maps in a notional-functional course of study. The Notional course of study is designed to oblige scholars to bring forth pre-designed balls of linguistic communication, which are perceived as vital for transporting out certain undertakings ( see Smith & A ; Mcarthy, 1997:259 ) .

Because pupils are expected to bring forth pre-constructed linguistic communication constructions in the hope of authorising them with the ability to efficaciously cover with any peculiar existent life state of affairs, the writer feels this is merely another agencies of rote larning which leads to the buildup of unnatural linguistic communication in the scholars ‘ L2 repertory. Rote acquisition has chiefly provided the writer ‘s pupils with the ability to mime the coveted sentence formats, while supplying them with limited ability to pass on efficaciously when confronted by existent life state of affairss.

Even though ‘notion ‘ is a portion of its name, this course of study type however fails to cover with the construct of impressions straight, as on the one manus it claims to establish the linguistic communication larning experience on certain conceptualisations of existent life state of affairss, while on the other it still advocates the acquisition of those linguistic communication signifiers which are prescribed by the linguistic communication instructor ( see Willis, 1990:58 ) .

SLA research has offered EFL teachers the penetration that linguistic communication is inefficaciously taught one point at a clip ; be it lexis, grammatical points or linguistic communication balls ( see Willis, 2000:37 ) . Language is holistic therefore elements must be taught within a holistic model, in context, so scholars can invent abstract systems of regulations to assist them better understand the complexness of the English linguistic communication ( See Willis, 2000:30 ) . Willis asserts that linguists seek really difficult to simplify functional grammar into easy comprehendible regulations, nevertheless, the painful truth is that the reliable regulations regulating linguistic communication are so intricate and hard to grok that linguists are unable to explicate them wholly. Willis would set it as such:

aˆ¦the internal grammatical system operated subconsciously by fluid talkers was immensely more complex than was reflected by or could be incorporated into any grammatical course of study – so complex and unaccessible to consciousness in fact, that no grammar yet constructed by linguists was able to account for it to the full ( Willis, 1990:8 ) .

With such an penetration at the disposal of the writer, it should be apparent that an abstract set of regulations, accumulated through changeless alteration of holistic linguistic communication signifiers, would break function his scholars by supplying them with a subconscious apprehension of grammar which can readily be retrieved. In such a manner, scholars could organize a larger image of the linguistic communication which they could in bend understand through abstract rules, instead than looking at linguistic communication in concrete footings. The Notional Functional course of study fails to authorise scholars with such an abstract apprehension of linguistic communication. Rather, it sequences linguistic communication balls scholars are required to bring forth. Correspondingly, Willis makes the undermentioned claim:

aˆ¦When [ the Notional Functional Syllabus ] aˆ¦ is used to learn English for general intents [ it ] aˆ¦ is capable to one unfavorable judgment laid against man-made attacks. They are concerned with specifying and telling what it is that the scholars will be expected to bring forth, instead than with assisting the scholar to construct up a image of the linguistic communication ( Willis, 1990:45 )

Consequently, this course of study type fails to learn linguistic communication holistically. Therefore, the writer distances himself from using this course of study type due to its Present – Practice – Produce learning attack.

However, because of the transparence into the specification and ordination of its content, it would supply a degree of answerability for the writer with respect to his establishment, by supplying information necessary to make full out the compulsory on-line course of study signifier ( See Appendix ; Figures 1 & A ; 2 ) . However, in visible radiation of the claim that this attack allows small divergence from the prescribed signifier, it might non be appropriate in assisting the writer ‘s pupils develop a holistic cognition of the linguistic communication that is readily available.

3 ‘Type B ‘ Syllabus ( See Chart 1: p.14 )

The writer himself prefers the ‘Type B ‘ course of study as it more efficaciously improves his pupils ‘ abilities to pass on fluently by agencies of prolonging his pupils ‘ lingua franca development, nevertheless, as we shall see, it provides him with limited answerability sing his institutional context.

This Progressivist course of study type is best described as an analytic course of study born out of the Communicative attack. It is more concerned with the larning procedure than the content, since it is the existent procedure that facilitates lingua franca development. In other words, it is the manner pupils learn that best determines the sum of input they convert into consumption. Harmonizing to lingua franca theoreticians like Selinker ( 1972 ) and Coder ( 1967 ) , among others, input does non needfully intend consumption, ( See Carter and Nunan, 2001:1 ) . Consequently, the man-made sequencing of linguistic communication points can be viewed as being pointless since what pupils are exposed to may non ever transform to what they retain. At the same clip, recycling linguistic communication points in context, as is frequently done in a ‘Type B course of study ‘ , would assist the scholars readily retrieve utile cognition ( See Willis, EKT: p1 ) . That is to state, scholars could develop an internal system of linguistic communication reinforced through changeless recycling of holistic reliable linguistic communication.

The political orientation of the ‘Type B ‘ attack advocates that eloquence leads to accuracy instead than truth to eloquence ( Willis, 2000:37 ) . This type of a course of study would turn out utile for the writer in developing scholars ‘ communicative accomplishments, nevertheless, it might be peculiarly disputing to warrant with the establishment and the Korean educational organic structures since it provides limited transparence into the structural model of the lessons. This is because linguistic communication points are non sequenced in progress in the signifier of a ‘concrete pre-designed class ‘ , therefore offering merely limited sums of cardinal information for the cyberspace based course of study ( See Appendix ; Figure 1 & A ; 2 ) . The two chief course of study that autumn under the umbrella of a ‘Type-B ‘ course of studies are procedure and the procedural course of study, both being ‘differing merchandises of progressivism ‘ ( White, 1988:25 ) .

3.1 The Procedure Syllabus

As this course of study type makes no effort at pre-designing the linguistic communication class, due to its pupil led nature, it would surely supply small answerability for the writer as a instructor, given the deficiency of transparence into the class construction. Furthermore, as we shall see, most Korean scholars are loath to accommodate a learning manner necessary to suit such a course of study.

Candin and Breen ‘s procedural course of study is yet another task-based attack, with a focal point on the acquisition procedure, built on a non autocratic schoolroom power construction, wherein the instructor and the pupils choose the undertakings through changeless dialogue. Furthermore, it is internal instead than external to the scholar ( See Long and Crookes, p.3 ) . The way of the class is determined by the pupils as the class progresses, instead than being established by the presentation of an stock list of consecutive selected points scholars would finally hold to pattern and bring forth as in the Present-Practice-Produce attack good embedded in any man-made course of study.

Widdowson asserts that in fluid discourse linguistic communication is deferentially regulated by grammar regulations instead than being generated by them ( See Willis, EKT: p.11 ) . Therefore, there should be no direct focal point on linguistic communication signifier unless the scholars decide that they need grammatical elucidation on a peculiar signifier they have already experienced.

Johns sees the scholar as a research worker while the instructor as a coordinator of the schoolroom processes ( see Willis, EKT: p.3 ) . Emphasis here is laid on the procedure instead than on the topic. John ‘s attack threatens most Korean scholars of EFL since it challenges their outlooks of the instructors ‘ functions as an authorization figure ( See Section 5 ) . No uncertainty, the power construction of the establishment in which the linguistic communication acquisition is to take topographic point should be structured to allow instructors to presume different functions, and should be in a cultural context ( See Section 4 ) wherein it is acceptable for pupils to take on a more directing function in their learning experience. This type of pupil function is exceptionally rare in a Korean schoolroom context, therefore the ‘learner led ‘ procedure course of study should turn out to be peculiarly disputing to implement, nevertheless, if such a course of study could be employed successfully, it would be extremely good for scholars in the writer ‘s communicating categories. It would surely necessitate the support of a series of lessons on the L2 civilization, although, the writer has no clip for them as there are merely about 17 instruction hours available in each semester.

The undermentioned quotation mark is one unfavorable judgment of the procedure course of study:

‘published unfavorable judgment of the procedure course of study ( see, e.g. , Kouraogo, 1987: R. V. White, 1988 ) claim that [ it ] aˆ¦ assumes an unrealistically high degree of competency in both instructors and scholars, and implies a redefinition of function relationships and a redistribution of power on authorization in the schoolroom that would be excessively extremist and/or culturally unacceptable in some societies ( Long & A ; Crookes, p.11 ) .

Learners and instructors are both expected to follow certain cultural norms within the schoolroom environment, and it is impractical to anticipate these functions and the allotment of powers to radically alteration between them. Furthermore, scholars ca n’t be expected to cognize what ‘s best for them, and instructors may be incapable of acknowledging when it is most appropriate to apportion control to the scholars.

3.2 The Procedural Syllabus

The Procedural Syllabus, nevertheless, could work good in a Korean instruction context as it makes no demand on the portion of the pupils to presume any prima function as it is the instructor ‘s responsibility to sequence all undertakings harmonizing to trouble.

If scholars in all their other categories, at the writer ‘s university, are to play the portion of the receiving system of pre-selected information, so why should they be expected to presume alternate functions in their English categories? Willis asserts:

One can non anticipate that scholars will really readily follow a form of behavior in the English category which is at discrepancy with the functions they are required to play in their other lessons. ( Willis, 2000:9 )

Because this course of study type would let for the usual Korean teacher-student functions, it may good be a good solution, nevertheless, since there is limited effort made at acquiring the pupils to take portion in unwritten conversation, as the undertakings are preponderantly completed in comparative silence, the writer feels this course of study would turn out to be counterproductive in his communicating categories where the purpose is effectual unwritten communicating.

It was Prabhu and the Bangalore research undertaking squad that developed the task-based procedural course of study, with a cognitive focal point, for a group of grade school pupils in Southern India. The pupils were given problem-solving undertakings that presented them both with an chance and the necessity to utilize the linguistic communication. Prabhu employed 3 task-types in the Bangalore undertaking ; information spread, concluding spread and problem-solving undertakings ( See Carter and Nunan, 2001:5 ) . Prabhu ‘s undertakings were composed in English, concentrating the scholar ‘s attending on the texts. Most Korean scholars are self motivated, so there is small ground to believe this method would neglect overall. Furthermore, since the procedural course of study predetermines the undertakings sequenced by trouble, it would supply a degree of answerability for the writer as a instructor.

Criticism of this course of study has been lodged by Long and Crook on the footing that it has no processs designed for the choice of undertakings based on scholar demands ( see Carter and Nunan, 2001:4 ) . Additionally, Greenwood ( 1985 ) suggests that the procedural course of study enjoys no backup of appraising grounds ( see White, 1988:109 ) .

Chart 1

Type A What is to be learnt?

Type B How is it to be learnt?

-Interventionist

-External to the scholar

-Other Directed

-Determined by authorization

-Teacher as lesson-maker

-Content = What the topic is to the expert

-Content = A gift from the teacher/knower to the scholar

-Objectives defined in progress

-Subject Emphasis

-Assessment by accomplishment or by command

-Doing things to the scholar

-Internal to the scholar

-Inner Directed or self carry throughing

-Negotiated between scholars and instructors

-Learner & A ; teacher as joint determination shapers

-Content = What the topic is to the scholar

-Content = What the scholar brings and wants

-Objectives described afterwards

-Process Emphasis

-Assessment in relation to scholars ‘ standards

-Doing things for or with the scholar

( White, 1988:44 )

4 Cultural Contexts

It is without much competition that cultural values are profoundly imbedded in most educational systems. What is more, Hofstede writes about the “ package of the head ” whereby people are preprogrammed in how to act ( See Irving, 1986 ) . Given that instructors, pupils and other persons in all degrees of authorization, within any educational model, are pre-programmed in the manner they ought to act by their civilization ( s ) , so it should be without any uncertainty that ‘culture ‘ does play a cardinal function in instruction. Although private establishments can take to incarnate the civilization ( s ) of the mark linguistic communication, public establishments are seldom given that degree of flexibleness. Cultures non merely act upon the functions of establishments in educational procedures, they besides manipulate teacher-student relationships.

While in Western civilizations scholars are expected to presume a more autonomous function in the acquisition procedure, with the instructor as the mere coordinator of that procedure, in a more Eastern educational context, the instructor assumes a cardinal autocratic place. This ‘knower figure ‘ therefore needs to be respected as s/he stands good above the pupils in the educational hierarchy. To my experience, the Korean EFL educational system fits this orientation.

5 The Author ‘s Classroom Experience

Bing a portion of the Korean educational system, the writer is expected to do all the determinations for his pupils as he is seen to be in the most knowing place to make so. This type of educational context is designed to suit a man-made attack.

As mentioned earlier, it would be hard for the writer to use a procedure course of study wherein pupils are expected to do class changing determinations since Korean scholars are unaccustomed to make so. The writer himself has negative personal experiences implementing a scholar directed learning attack into the Korean schoolroom context. By and large the writer teaches freshers English Conversation categories that are typically expected to follow the tabular array of contents of a pre-selected class book. However, on a twosome of occasions the writer was given the chance to learn pupils who elected to larn English outside the course of study. Sing that the pupils were all grownups, the writer felt it was a good thought to give the scholars some picks one time the classs had reached a certain point. Both single classs had high attendance early on, nevertheless, the really twenty-four hours after the writer asked pupils to get down doing picks about the way they wanted their classs to come on, the attending dropped by around 80 % in both categories. It is really improbable that this was a happenstance. It ‘s extremely likely that the pupil ‘s regard for the writer as an ‘authority figure ‘ crumbled, hence, they may hold felt a deficiency of religion in his instruction attack.

The writer has since learned that even though Korean pupils are able to do picks on their ain, the available picks offered to them should be limited in figure and importance so as to do the learning way less unpredictable. Korean pupils by and large expect the instructor to put down the corridor of larning in concrete footings.

Hence, the inquiry worth inquiring is ; Would a ‘Type A ‘ or a ‘Type B ‘ course of study work most efficaciously in a Korean linguistic communication schoolroom? ‘

6 Cultural Valuess in the Teaching Context – ‘Type A ‘ or a ‘Type B ‘ course of study?

For the intent of answerability, a concrete course of study demands to move as a public papers leting for any regulating organic structure to transparently scrutinize the educational procedure within any establishment. Consequently, as an employee of a university, the writer is required to make full in an cyberspace based course of study ; infixing the specified contents of sequenced points, category stuffs, purposes and aims of the class into their appropriate slots ( See Appendix, Figure 1 & A ; 2 ) . It is deemed unprofessional to drastically divert from such a course of study.

The pre-selected class book can tolerably run as a course of study within the establishment, and this echoes a man-made attack, nevertheless, the writer himself refuses to see the book ‘s ranked tabular array of contents as the exclusive format of his course of study. Although, the class book needs to be consistently utilized in his category, he employs the book merely for random reading, information spread, concluding spread and hearing activities via the audio content.

The writer believes in meaningful group communicating amongst the scholars, and small focal point is placed on grammar regulations and a great trade of focal point on actuating pupils to take an active function in verbal communicating activities which utilize subjects they find interesting. This, nevertheless, mirrors a more analytic ( procedure oriented ) attack.

Even though the establishment necessitates the online course of study ( See Appendix, Figure 1 & A ; 2 ) to be followed meticulously, the writer, however, perverts from making so as he believes there is small need to pre-specify lesson programs in front of clip. This is because each batch of pupils are different, therefore, necessitating diverse attacks all together.

The writer ‘s establishment itself is set up to back up the ‘Type A ‘ course of study, necessitating instructors to predetermine and enumerate the class even before the first lesson starts. The cultural contexts environing the establishment are designed to back up a man-made attack whereby the instructor is in a place of cognition and authorization. Overall, a ‘Type A ‘ course of study does let for the Korean teacher-student functions to boom, nevertheless the writer prefers the ‘Type B ‘ course of study, as it is merely the best option if the purpose is eloquence instead than explicit cognition of linguistic communication regulations.

As one may anticipate, the establishment and the writer are at odds with one another, given that the establishment supports the execution of a ‘Type A ‘ course of study while the writer does his best to implement the ‘Type B ‘ course of study whenever possible.

Students in the writer ‘s categories are organized into groups of 4-5 wherein they are to prosecute in conversation and job resolution activities with small break by the instructor. The focal point here is on the colloquial procedure. No elucidation of grammar regulations is enforced unless required by the pupils. His pupils are given the chance to choose the subjects they find interesting, nevertheless they are expected to do no major class changing determinations.

Overall, in replying which course of study type the writer utilizes, it would be proper to indicate out that he employs facets of both due to institutional demands. First, there is a man-made quality to his course of study as the public cyberspace based version is defined in concrete footings and because the pre-selected text edition itself offers a slot make fulling grammar focal point which becomes indirectly ingrained into the lessons. Predominantly, the systematic focal point on the course-book is ineluctable within the university ‘s instruction context.

Although, required to strictly follow the pre-designed ‘synthetic ‘ format of the online course of study, the writer does his best to implement the analytic attack, of the ‘Type B ‘ fraction, given that he carries out no intended consecutive focal point on linguistic communication points.

7 Drumhead

Based on the grounds laid out within the organic structure of this essay, it should go instead obvious that any one method is singularly unequal to learn English in Korea. On the one manus, a ‘Type A ‘ course of study is an appropriate lucifer for the Korean cultural context, complementing the teacher-student relationships, but on the other manus, a ‘Type B ‘ course of study enjoys the backup of SLA research and empowers scholars with more readily available linguistic communication cognition that leads to eloquence.

Furthermore, if the focal point is to be on explicit instead than inexplicit cognition of linguistic communication, than a ‘Type A ‘ ( content oriented ) course of study would be the ultimate pick. However, given the fact that the writer teaches chiefly conversation categories, a ‘Type B ‘ ( procedure oriented ) course of study, with a focal point on recycling linguistic communication points to most efficaciously integrate them into the scholar ‘s course of study, would outdo service to better the scholars ‘ communicative abilities. Ultimately, the writer must larn to equilibrate his professional duties with the consciousness that an analytic course of study is a far better option if the purpose of the scholars is the ability to take portion in fluid discourse.

Overall, a ‘Type A ‘ course of study benefits the writer the most, within a Korean cultural context, as it provides him with a coveted degree of answerability by leting for transparence into the class, while as a fillip besides supplying his scholars ‘ with an external cognition of the linguistic communication. However, the execution of a ‘Type B ‘ course of study better accomplishes the communicative purposes of his pupils, although, it can be instead disputing to use due to the Korean scholars ‘ instructor outlooks. It is possibly paramount for the writer to use a mixture of both course of study, in the signifier of a multi course of study, since a proper blend would break fulfill all parties of involvement within the Korean educational system.

Consequently, the writer is compelled to use a combination of both syllabus types, nevertheless, it must be stated that he does prefer to use the ‘Type B ‘ course of study, since it best improves his pupils ‘ communicational competency by manner of raising their internal consciousness of linguistic communication. Even so, he is obligated to implement elements of the ‘Type A ‘ course of study to guarantee the reclamation of his contract for at least one more term.

Mentions

Carter, R ( 1998 ) ‘Orders of world: CANDODE, Communication, and civilization, ELT Journal, Volume 52/1, January 1998, Oxford University Press 1998 [ Online ] Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //eltj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/52/1/43? ck=nck ( Accessed in 2006 )

Carter, R. & A ; Nunan, D. ( ed. ) ( 2001 ) The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Irving K. J. ( 1986 ) ‘Geert Hofstede ‘s Model ‘ in Robert Paterson ‘s Radio Weblog [ Online ] Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //radio.weblogs.com/0107127/stories/2003/01/16/cultureGeertHofstedesModel.html ( Accessed February 25, 2006 )

Long, H. M. & A ; Crookes, G. ( nd. ) ‘Three Approaches to Task-Based Syllabus Design ‘ , University of Hawaii [ Online ] Available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.iei.uiuc.edu/TESOLOnline/texts/longcrookes/ ( Accessed on December 7, 2005 )

Schmitt, N. & A ; McCarthy, M. ( ed. ) ( 1997 ) Vocabulary – Description, Acquisition and Pedagogy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

White, R. V. ( 1988 ) The ELT Curriculum, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers

Willis, D. ( 1990 ) The Lexical Syllabus – A new attack to linguistic communication instruction, London: Collins ELT

Willis, D. ( 2000 ) Syllabus and Materials, The Centre for English Language Studies, University of Birmingham

Willis, D. ( nd ) ‘Syllabus and Pedagogic Corpus ‘ , Forthcoming, ( EKT )

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *