The present paper focuses on the instruction of the listening comprehension presents, particularly in regard to the usage of the new multimedia in learning stuff. The new multimedia, besides called the Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) , enclose a broad scope of tools and numeral merchandises in instruction, bettering the procedures of larning. The intent of this research is three times ; foremost, we will turn out the cardinal position of the hearing accomplishment sing linguistic communication acquisition, and hence its important necessity in foreign linguistic communication course of study. Second, we will set about a reappraisal of current listening comprehension learning methods. To stop our survey, the 3rd portion will try to specify to what spread out learning the hearing accomplishment through the ICT is relevant in 2nd linguistic communication ( SL ) schoolrooms, and what are the pros and cons of such challenge.
In order to assist the reader understand the importance of such survey, we will get down this essay by a brief debut to the history of the instruction methodological analysiss. These varied over clip because of both internal and external elements of the scholars. Teaching methods have ever tended to be in adequateness to the society and hence changed along with the new demands required by both the evolving society and the scholars themselves.
The hearing accomplishment has long been neglected in teaching method. From the seventeenth century until the 1950 ‘s, instruction was so production-based, i.e. that the chief purpose was to learn and develop the authorship and unwritten accomplishments, go forthing the receptive accomplishments out of considerations. The construction and the signifier of the linguistic communication were the lone aspects that mattered and the hearing accomplishment merely served to memorise and reproduce the different vocalizations studied in category.
At the beginning of the twentieth century surveies on linguistic communication acquisition spread widely and marked a turning point in instruction by seting comprehension at the centre of the linguistic communication acquisition procedures.
Part ONE: FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORIES
This first portion of this essay explains how the hearing accomplishment develops in first linguistic communications ( L1 ) and 2nd linguistic communications ( L2 ) , and it besides outlines how L2 acquisition takes topographic points through hearing.
Numerous different surveies and tendencies on linguistic communication acquisition appeared in the beginning of the twentieth century. Burrhus Frederic Skinner, laminitis of the behaviourism applied his construct to the linguistic communication acquisition processes. In his work Verbal Behavior ( 1957 ) , Skinner claims so that a linguistic communication can be acquired by reenforcing a behaviour, either positively or negatively, advancing the former 1. “ Historically, people have been controlled chiefly through negative support ( aˆ¦ ) .A Positive support has been less frequently used, partially because its consequence is somewhat deferred, but it can be every bit effectual as negative support and has many fewer unwanted byproducts.A For illustration, pupils who are punished when they do non analyze may analyze, but they may besides remain off from school ( hooky ) , ( aˆ¦ ) , or pig-headedly do nothing.A Redesigning school systems so that what pupils do is more frequently positively reinforced can do a great difference. ” ( Skinner:1957 )
In reaction to Skinner, Noam Chomsky in his Treaties of Linguistics ( 1957, 1965 ) defends the thought that all babies innately possess a linguistic communication acquisition device ( LAD ) applicable to all linguistic communications in the universe leting kids to larn any of them. Subsequently he specifies that babies bit by bit get their female parent lingua merely by listening to their care-takers. Other “ developmental surveies of address perceptual experience across linguistic communications demonstrate that babies begin with a language-general capacity that provides a agency for know aparting 1000s of possible phonic contrasts in any of the universe ‘s linguistic communications. Over clip, based on the input received from the talkers nearby, each baby sifts the set of contrasts to the 1s most relevant to what is become his or her native linguistic communication. ” ( Rost: 2002 ) This ‘learning-by-selection ‘ impression has besides been assumed by other research workers in psycholinguistics and linguistic communication larning theory such as, among others, Krashen, Ellis, Gagne and Anderson.
Assorted hypotheses emerged from this new consideration of the comprehension accomplishments in L2 acquisition. Krashen and Ellis consider the comprehension as the first measure in L2 acquisition. To them, the comprehension precedes and underlies the production. Krashen provinces so in his Input Hypothesis that “ linguistic communication acquisition does non necessitate extended usage of witting grammatical regulations, and does non necessitate boring drill ( aˆ¦ ) [ but it ] requires meaningful interaction in the mark linguistic communication – natural communicating – in which talkers are concerned non with the signifier of their vocalizations but with the messages they are conveying and understanding. ” ( Krashen: 1985 ) Krashen bespeaks hence that the best methods supply ‘comprehensible input ‘ ( C.I. ) in low apprehensiveness state of affairss, conveying messages of pupils ‘ involvements. He adds that “ These methods do non coerce early production in the 2nd linguistic communication, but allow pupils to bring forth when they are ‘ready ‘ , acknowledging that betterment comes from providing communicative and comprehendible input, and non from coercing and rectifying production. ” ( Krashen: 1985 ) Harmonizing to him, the scholar of L2 moves from his current degree ‘i ‘ to the ‘i+1 ‘ degree by understanding inputs incorporating ‘i+1 ‘ . Krashen ‘s construct met viing hypotheses such as the Skill Building Hypothesis, the Output Plus Correction Hypothesis and Swain ‘s Comprehensive Output Hypothesis. Extremist versions of such theories do non win explicating L2 acquisition phenomena wholly or at all while the C.I. Hypothesis does. It is however interesting to observe that these viing suggestions involve witting larning which does have consequence on larning even though it is limited. The Comprehensive Input Hypothesis might non be sufficient either since some competencies are practiced by witting acquisition and other factors such as the attitudinal factors or the quality of the input received must be taken into history.
Rod Ellis, in his work Comprehension and Acquisition of Grammar in L2 demonstrates that there is no direct nexus between comprehension and acquisition every bit far as grammar is concerned. He agrees that the acquisition of the signifiers of L2 can be derived from the written input but it besides requires witting acquisition of the lingual features of the input. The C.I. helps doing the significance of lexical points apprehensible thanks to the context. In footings of L2 grammar acquisition, Ellis believes that utilizing unreal written inputs will well accrue the scholar ‘s grammar cognition. Ellis puts the comprehension at the footing of L2 acquisition but focuses on written inputs instead than unwritten 1s.
Claire Kramsch besides bases her theory on Krashen ‘s Input Hypothesis concentrating on the societal parametric quantities within the communicative state of affairss. These parametric quantities include the middlemans, the state of affairs of communicating, the use, the grammaticality, the diverse societal contexts every bit good as legion other facets. The topographic point of the significance is no longer cardinal, the context is, and i.e. that Krashen ‘s C.I. is understood on a negotiated context. Understanding is constructing and pull stringsing a context of interaction between the middlemans.
Those surveies among abundant others contributed to radically alter the position of the hearing and reading accomplishments in instruction, switching its minor places to cardinal 1s in SL course of study. Skinner and Chomsky were the first to see redesigning school systems originating the comprehension-based 2nd linguistic communication instruction. Ellis thinks the written input lies at the root of the L2 grammar acquisition while Kramsch considers parametric quantities of interactionsas indispensable in L2 acquisition.
Part 2: Listening SKILL IN SECOND LANGUAGE CLASSROOMS
As stated earlier, learning the receptive dimension is comparatively recent in instruction. Thankss to research on the linguistic communication acquisition and cognitive psychological science, functions were re-distributed puting the scholar at the centre of the acquisition procedure and the instructor as the facilitator of this active procedure. The instructor so must accommodate his/her methods to the scholar ‘s mental procedures to assist him/her get L2.
Thankss to those surveies, educationists have a solid base on which they can construct a course of study axed on receptive abilities.
The chief characteristics of such course of study must esteem the gradual development of scholar ‘s acquisition processes. As in L1 acquisition, the scholar is given clip to internalise L2 ‘form-and-meaning map ‘ . This occurs through the hearing and reading of comprehensive inputs. This comprehension-axed attack besides provides a broad scope of activities that cover all the acquisition manners and demands of the scholar. The topic is subdivided into subjects that suit the scholars ‘ background cognition and involvements so that his/her motive is accrued. Equally far as the hearing accomplishment is concerned, the text choice varies depending on the degree of the scholars but attending is paid to the minimum comprehensibility, the coherency and the redundancy of the information conveyed.
The L2 acquisition sequences efficiency depends on several factors such as the quality of the stuff, the acquisition environment and the economical usage of the clip devoted to L2 acquisition. Ideally, the scholar needs frequent and relevant pattern every bit good as an intensive exposure to the mark linguistic communication but frequently scholars have few hours a hebdomad of SL category and hence, every activity must be as complete and dense as possible to run into those standards. For case, grammatical points are still covered in category but ever in contextualized state of affairss practising the receptive competencies of the scholar.
To put the scholar in a motivation and disputing spirit, the course of study will be task-oriented which means that the scholar will be witting of what he/she is expected to make at the terminal of each larning sequence. Those undertakings coincide with the scholar ‘s demands and involvements every bit good as with real-life state of affairss. Tasks allow the transition from the comprehension to the production accomplishments and can take assorted signifiers in listening for case. So, the results can either be listening and executing actions, listening and executing operations, listening and work outing jobs, listening and sum uping texts, or synergistic hearing and negociating the significance through elucidation inquiries and replies.
The rating of a comprehension-based course of study besides differs from the former production-based methods. Courchene summarizes it as followed “ what is tested is what is taught ” . The production, the public presentation is of import but the whole acquisition procedure is tantamount and hence, ratings take different signifiers. Frequent feedbacks, unwritten corrections or accommodations occur along the acquisition sequences beyond the signifier of formative rating such as prep and are non marked. Formative ratings serve to assist both the instructor and the scholar to name any possible deficiency of apprehension. Marks are given in summational ratings that enclose several learning sequences stuff.
All those facets of a comprehension-based course of study are to be found in most recent text editions such as the “ In Touch 3 ” .
If we now focus on the instruction of the hearing accomplishment in peculiar, we denote that it is portion of every SL category and must be in some manner or another be optimized. Morley suggests different guidelines for developing listening comprehension activities and stuffs.
First, to counterbalance for the deficiency of clip devoted to L2 acquisition, and more exactly to intensive hearing activities, Morley provides techniques to stretch the listening clip with her ‘listening-across-the-day ‘ construct. The purpose is straightforward: widening auditory activities out of school by representing the scholar a ‘self-study hearing library ‘ . By offering a broad pick of sound and picture stuffs and worksheets for ego or pair-study, the scholar can pattern his/her listening ability at place. Other thoughts suggested by Morley are the ‘reach-out community dimension ‘ and the ‘bring-in community dimension ‘ . The former one fundamentally is the development of resources in the native linguistic communication community by ask foring native talkers of L2 to school events or others, and the latter exploits any resources in the mark linguistic communication community.
Equally far as the hearing activities are concerned, Morley emphasizes the necessity to catch the scholar ‘s attending and to maintain him/her active to maximise the effectivity of the auditory exercisings. Once once more, the hearing activities have to be relevant to the scholar ‘s life style, applicable to other categories or facets of life, and task-oriented. Listening activities can besides run into assorted aims such as the ‘listening for perceptual experience ‘ exercisings that drill the scholar ‘s ear, or the ‘listening for comprehension ‘ exercisings or even the ‘listening for merriment ‘ exercisings that allow the scholar to loosen up and bask an unwritten text.
Sing the stuffs used in SL schoolrooms to learn and pattern the hearing accomplishment, Ur collected the chief resources used and summarized its pros and cons in her book Teaching listening comprehension.
The usage of recordings of reliable ad-lib discourses are, harmonizing to her, to be avoid because of the great trouble of understanding an backbreaking linguistic communication without seeing the talker. However, recordings are time-saving for instructors and besides provide many different speech patterns, tempers, voices to the hearer.
Ocular stuffs such as video tapes present the advantages of leting the scholar to see the talker and therefore to assist him/her understand by construing non lingual information, the context. The instructor has besides more control on the gait of the hearing and it by and large has a positive consequence on the scholar ‘s concentration, attending and motive. However, reliable ocular stuffs besides present the inconvenient of the trouble of the linguistic communication and hence, are non accessible to novices.
Personal observations of SL schoolrooms have shown that instructors frequently use short and simplified reliable recordings suggested by text editions for ‘listening for understanding ‘ intents and ocular stuffs for ‘listening for perceptual experience ‘ results.
This last contemplation on the stuffs exploited in SL schoolrooms allows us to present the last portion of this probe on the new multimedia potency applications in instruction.
Part 3: THE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY CHALLENGE
As antecedently stated, learning methods have ever tend to be in adequateness with the society. Nowadays, the form of the universe has been modified by the overpowering multimedia. The UNESCO organisation accurately reviews that “ Information and communicating engineering ( ICT ) has become, within a really short clip, one of the basic edifice blocks of modern society. Many states now regard understanding ICT and get the hanging the basic accomplishments and constructs of ICT as portion of the nucleus of instruction, aboard reading, composing and numeracy ” . Therefore, educational techniques necessitate to be redesigned to suit the twenty-first century and to response to both the society and the scholar ‘s demands.
This revolution of the school systems, incorporating the ICT in schoolrooms started 25 old ages ago with abounding applied linguistics research. Soon, SL instructors enriched their categories with modern stuff such as the recordings, the wireless, telecasting, or the CD-Rom. The usage of these stuffs was so an betterment but remained inactive. Today ‘s challenge is to unite learning with the newest dynamic engineerings such as the Internet, and more exactly the Web 2.0.
A recent study undertaken in 2002 by Daniel Martin, seeker for the ‘Fonds quebecois de la recherche Sur la nature et les engineerings ‘ and the ‘Ministere de l’Education du Quebec ‘ , depicts assorted facets of such challenge. The chief restraints met by SL instructors are either related to proficient or pedagogical facets. The instructor, utilizing computing machines, package and hardware has to larn how these stuffs map and how to repair them. In add-on, the instructor has to develop other schemes to form the schoolroom and the activities, without burying the alteration of pull offing the content of the course of study. Fortunately, Martin besides provides utile tips to counterbalance those inconvenient ; for case, puting the computing machines along the walls go forthing infinite for non-computer activities, expecting computing machine dislocations by fixing ‘alternative undertakings ‘ , or commanding the scholars ‘ development with sub-tasks.
Presents, the Web is no longer inactive ( Web 1.0 ) , it is available to anyone. Anybody has the right and the possibility to interact on the Web. Language larning web sites such as www.anglaisfacile.com or www.britishcounsil.org already proliferate on the Web. Teachers and educationists have therefore the chance to make web sites dedicated to instruction. The positions of such application of the ICT are huge and merit all our attending. Working on-line counts legion advantages for both the instructor and the scholar. The scholar ‘s motive and involvements will likely be boosted by computer-activities that besides allow him/her to come on at his/her ain rate. The instructor will certainly be pleased to do his/her students work the whole hr and will salvage clip fixing the lessons that will be updated in a chink. Equally far as the hearing accomplishment is concerned, we genuinely believe that the Web 2.0 can well ease the scholar ‘s entree to aural stuff by representing Kramsch ‘s suggested ‘self-study listening library ‘ online.
The present paper is certainly non a precise and complete analysis of the instruction of the hearing accomplishment through the ICT. We conducted a three-part probe to analyze the topic. The first portion provides a theoretical background of the acquisition processes in 2nd linguistic communication, underlying the cardinal function of the hearing ability. The 2nd portion of this research effort to reexamine the existent instruction of the hearing accomplishment in SL schoolrooms and course of study. And eventually, the last portion researches the deductions of the ICT depicting really briefly its mutants towards clip and its positions in instruction.