Though vocabulary is one constituent of linguistic communication. It tends to dominate everything. Wordss frequently have a mystical significance. ‘Word ‘ bases for linguistic communication itself. Wordss have a charming power over us. We name our babes after a long hunt for high sounding names. We like grandiloquent words. F.W.Frisby says “ The big figure of words in the English linguistic communication, the wealth of equivalent word, the big figure of sentence forms in common usage present a bewildering job to the untrained head. ” The Oxford English Dictionary contains half a million words, though many of them are proficient and professional words, non utile to the 2nd linguistic communication scholar.
SELECTION AND GRADING OF VOCABULARY
The undermentioned rules were kept in position in choosing and rating the words. These are the same rules for the choice and scaling of constructions. Though all this background work has been done already for the benefit of scholars, it is good for them to cognize the footing of the course of study which they are larning.
Frequency: The words which are most often used in address and authorship are the best words for the students to get foremost.
Structural value: Wordss which help in organizing sentences by associating content words should be taught early on the class. It is known that for every 100 words counted there are 95 structural words that is their importance.
Universality in regard of geographic country: A word in the concluding list must be utile in that peculiar country. E.g. Sager, Fort are really utile in Hyderabad ; Shikara in Kashmir.
Capable Range: If a word can be used in many capable countries and contexts, it is to be preferred to a word with a limited scope. E.g. the words go ; acquire and makes are used in legion contexts.
Productiveness: if a word helps us in doing more words out of it or related to it, it is said to be productive and utile. E.g. Large, enlarge, larger, largest.
Teach ability: Wordss which are easy incontrovertible and docile should hold a high precedence with the instructor.
Simplicity: Wordss which are simple appear before those which are hard in pronunciation, spelling and significance.
For rating the vocabulary of 3000 words the same rules as above may be followed in spliting them category wise over 6 or 7 old ages. Wordss which are utile and docile, simple and concrete should be learned foremost. Difficult, abstract and high sounding words may be postponed to a ulterior phase. In rating structural words, their assorted significances in context have to be taken, the simpler significances foremost, the more hard 1s subsequently.
E.g. In, on should come before over, above, under
On – on the tabular array
NATURE OF WORDS AND WORD GROUPS
The pupil should get a thorough command of the 2000-3000 words, for intents of the four accomplishments of hearing, speech production, reading and composing. We spent our lives enlarging our cognition of words and sharing it with others. Wordss are non for show like decorations and awards, but are for usage, to function certain intents in life. Memorizing the lexicon of cognizing the regulations of grammar by bosom is non mastery. The dictionary gives significances, grammar inside informations with classs and their bomber divisions. What the pupil needs is a grammar of words and their usage in context, and so he will non do errors.
Wordss are hard to get the hang for assorted grounds.
Some words belong to two or more parts of address.
E.g. : ‘since ‘is a preposition, a concurrence and besides an adverb in different contexts.
Some words have two or more significances and stretches of significance.
E.g. : ‘Think ‘ has approximately 8 significances each of which has a different equivalent in the pupil ‘s female parent lingua. A few simple words have significances up to and over 100.
The different significances have to be taught as new words. Spreading them over a period of clip.
E.g. : ‘carry ‘ will you transport this bag for me?
The sound did non transport that far.
The sum is carried frontward.
Our military personnels carried the twenty-four hours.
Some words enter into two or more sentence forms each busying its ain peculiar topographic point in the sentence
E.g. : ‘wish ‘ as a verb
Wish for something
Wish to make something
Wish person to make something
Wish that something would go on
Some words may hold several inflected signifiers and derived functions. Many of them being irregular in signifier and significance.
E.g. : Think-thoughtful. Thoughtfully, unthinkingly, thoughtlessly, wake- awake- waking up
Each word may go portion of a group or a collocation, the significance of which is different from that of the single words. Some of them may each hold two or more significances.
E.g. : at last, give up, allow entirely, carry on, all at one time, throw off, how make you make ; take off
Parlances behave in the same manner and have to be learnt individually
E.g. : at 6s and fantans, make both terminals meet.
Each word may be a constituent of a compound word the significance of which can non be deduced from the units
E.g. : Blackboard, walking stick
No two words in English have precisely the same significance.
There are really few perfect equivalent word
Many are loose equivalent words
E.g. : right and correct ; right manus but non right manus leave, depart ; hit, work stoppage ; get down
There are no exact equivalents ever between two linguistic communications, say English and Telungu.
E.g. : ‘flock ‘ has merely one word equivalent in telung. In English we have a herd of cowss, a pride of king of beastss, a clump of keys.
It follows hence that a vocabulary of 1000 caput words may show 5000 or more “ ” larning ” attempts. Neither a grammar book nor the lexicon helps us here. “ There is a huge chartless district lying between the several spheres of the lexicon shaper and the grammarian ” , a kind of no adult male ‘s land which perplexes the scholar.
Kinds OF WORDS
There are loosely two sorts of words- content words and construction words or map words.
These are words which refer to ( 1 ) things matching to nouns, ( 2 ) actions matching to verbs and ( 3 ) qualities matching to adjectives. These are the “ meat ” of linguistic communication. They have a significance of their ain and reflect our experiences in life. The richer the experiences the more content words one knows.
These are of import for doing sentences. Each one of them is a learning point in course of study. The classs are: all prepositions, ( like, in, on, under, above, to, from etc ) concurrences and subsidiary verbs ( make, did, any, might, will, would, shall, should, can, could ) and other linking words in address and authorship, ( articles-a, an, the ) personal pronouns ( I, you, we, he, them, etc ) and comparative pronouns ( who, which, whom, etc ) structural or demonstrative adjectives like this ( book ) that ( male child ) some ( male childs ) my ( write ) and structural adverbs like, ever, even, once more.
TYPES OF VOCABULARY
We have so far considered the size of a on the job vocabulary of 3000 words for the school leaver. We have seen the nature and class of these words. There is another categorization of vocabulary. Here we go beyond the prescribed course of study. There is the vocabulary we use and the vocabulary we understand. The former are active or productive vocabulary and the later inactive, receptive, or acknowledgment vocabulary.
Active vocabulary is the figure of words which we use in address and authorship, over which we have complete control and command. We follow rigorous economic system of words here and utilize one word with one significance. So synonyms are unneeded here. This is besides called working vocabulary and varies from individual to individual. One adult male ‘s active vocabulary may be another ‘s inactive vocabulary and frailty versa.
Passive vocabulary: when we listen to words used by others, or when we read books we come across many words whose significance we recognize, though mistily ; we can non our ego use those words in our address and authorship because we are non certain of their exact significance. These new words help us to think the significance from the context and take us to acquire the significance from the lexicon.
Expansion OF VOCABULARY
Our inactive vocabulary is ever larger than our active vocabulary, as we grow up and our linguistic communication experience grows, we tend to reassign words from our inactive vocabulary to active vocabulary.
We are ever adding to our stock of words. The early phases of larning are marked by control of vocabulary piece in the ulterior phases there should be greater profusion marked by assortment and flexibleness in the usage of words. Vocabulary enlargement is comparable to human dealingss. To get down with, we have a few friends who are with us all through life. Our active vocabulary is comparable to this little figure of friends. In the 2nd homocentric circle we have familiarities. These are people whom we meet casually in our travels and visits to topographic points. Gradually some of them go our friends. Our inactive vocabulary is comparable to these familiarities. Then there is the 3rd circle, which is the widest, and which contains entire aliens. These are words whose significances we do non cognize at all, E.g. : words from a book of atomic natural philosophies or one on nonnatural doctrine.
The regulation about a happy human life is that more and more aliens get into the interior circle of familiarities and more and more familiarities go our friends. The more friends we have the happier we are. Vocabulary besides expands similarly. As we read books of travel, literature, life and fiction our word power bit by bit increases, some times really quickly so.
WORD FORMATION PROCESS
The procedure how words are formed is rather interesting
Combination: It is a method of word formation in which a new word is formed by fall ining together two free signifiers of morphemes.
Conversion: It is the transportation of a word from one grammatical class to another
Internal loans: It is by borrowing from regional idioms or from the linguistic communication of specialised groups within the address community.
Affixation: The procedure of seting parts of words in the beginning or at the terminal of a word is called “ affixation ”
Anadiplosis: When the portion of a word or the whole of it is repeated, it is called anadiplosis
Suppletion: It is the utmost type of internal alteration in which the full base is changed
Zero Alteration: The spellings of new signifier of the word are the same but there is difference in significance. The procedure by which this alteration takes topographic point is known as nothing alteration.
Enrichment of vocabulary is one of he day-to-day undertakings of the scholar. The legion ways in which words may be expanded are listed here. There are many other ways excessively. A scholar should play with words and enrich their stock of vocabulary.