The General Requirements Of A Thesis English Language Essay

This usher is intended to help the alumnus pupils of Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia ( henceforth shall be referred to as the University ) in the readying of their thesis in footings of format and composing conventions. The pupils are advised to mention closely to this usher and should seek elucidations with the Centre for Graduate Studies ( PPS ) on specific affairs associating to the readying of their thesis.

Language

The thesis should be written either in English or Bahasa Melayu. There should be consistence in the usage of the linguistic communication, particularly the spelling manner ( American or British ) , throughout the thesis. The Roman alphabet should be used unless otherwise required by the subject.

Technical Specifications

Printing should be done on a letter-quality or optical maser pressman. Merely the original word-processed transcript of a thesis or its good and clean photocopies will be accepted. The submitted transcript should be free of stuffs used to rectify errors such as rectifying fluid.

Number of Pages

The figure of pages is dependent on the programme of survey and should non transcend 150 pages for a Masters thesis, and 240 pages for a PhD thesis, excepting tabular arraies, figures and appendices.

Written permission from PPS must be sought before a thesis longer than the prescribed length can be submitted for rating. The pupil should supply strong justifications to back up his/her petition.

Page Layout

The text should be presented in the portrayal layout. The landscape layout may be used for figures and tabular arraies.

Type of Paper

White similar A4 size ( 210 millimeter x 297 millimeter ) paper ( 80 g ) or paper of tantamount quality should be used. The pupil should include an excess clean sheet for the forepart and dorsum of the thesis. Photocopies of the thesis must besides be on similar quality paper.

Font and Font Size

The full text of the thesis, including headers and page Numberss, must be produced with the same fount or font. The font size should be 12-point and should non be scripted or italicised except for scientific names and footings in a different linguistic communication. Bold print may be used for headers. Footnotes and text in the tabular arraies should non be less than 8-point. Some founts appropriate for a thesis include:

Arial

Book Antiqua

Tahoma

Times New Roman

Margins

The left border should be at least 1.625 inch and the right, top and bottom borders at least 1 inch. Margin specifications are meant to ease binding and trimming. All information ( text headers, footers and figures ) , including page Numberss, must be within the text country as demarcated by the flecked lines shown on the first page.

Spacing

The thesis should be typed double-spaced, with four infinites between paragraphs and subdivisions. The followers, nevertheless should be single-spaced.

Citations of three lines or more, indented and set in a block ;

Mentions or bibliography ( except between entries ) ;

Multi-line captions ( tabular arraies, figures ) ;

Appendixs, such as questionnaires, letters ; and

Headings or subheadings.

Pagination

All pages should be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis, including pages incorporating tabular arraies, figures and appendices, either centrally or right flushed either at the top or bottom border. Page Numberss should look by themselves and should non be placed in brackets, hyphenated or accompanied by cosmetic images. Text, tabular arraies and figures should be printed on one side of each sheet merely.

Preliminary pages predating Chapter 1 must be numbered in small letter Roman numbers ( I, two, three etc ) . The Title Page should non be numbered although it is counted as page I. Page 1 is the first page of the Introduction ( Chapter 1 ) but is non numbered.

Adhering

Before doing the needed figure of transcripts and adhering the thesis, guarantee that all University demands for a thesis have been met and necessary signatures have been obtained. Check that all pages are in the right order.

The thesis should be bound with the undermentioned colors.

Degree

Adhering coloring material

Postgraduate Diploma

Green

Masters

Red

Ph.d.

Black

The binding should be of a cloth spinal column binding. The undermentioned demands for the forepart screen should be adhered to.

Thesis spinal column ( Please refer to Appendix A-1 and A-2 for inside informations )

The spinal column should be lettered in gold from the caput to the pes of the thesis spinal column, utilizing a 20-point ( similar to text ) and contain the undermentioned specifics.

Name of pupil ;

Degree for which the survey is submitted ; and

Year of entry.

Front screen ( Please refer to Appendix A-1 and A-2 for inside informations )

The forepart screen should be lettered in gold utilizing 18-point gold block fount ( similar to text ) and contain the specifics listed below.

Title of thesis ;

Name of pupil ;

Degree ;

Name of the university ; and

Year of entry.

Submission of Thesis

A pupil meaning to subject his/her thesis should be following with the undermentioned processs:

Submit to PPS the prescribed ‘Notice for Thesis Submission ‘ ( Notice of purpose to subject a thesis for scrutiny ) signifier ( See Form A ) at least three months before entry.

Submit six ( 6 ) transcripts and soft-bound transcripts of the thesis to PPS for scrutiny together with ‘Thesis Submission for Examination ‘ signifier ( See Form B ) that has been filled and signed.

Submit to PPS within 60 yearss after the successful defense mechanism of his/her thesis, one loose transcript of the corrected thesis and the list of corrections made.

The pupil should so subject the following to PPS after presentment of credence of thesis.

Six ( 6 ) transcripts of the thesis in difficult screen

Six ( 6 ) Cadmiums of the thesis

Chapter 2

THESIS FORMAT

The undermentioned describes what is by and large known as the conventional format for a thesis. A thesis by and large consists of three chief parts: preliminary pages ; text or chief organic structure, normally divided into chapters and subdivisions ; and back uping pages incorporating references/bibliography, appendices and biodata of the pupil. If applicable, a list of publications produced as a consequence of the survey done during the period of campaigning and where the pupil is the first or chief writer should be inserted after the pupil ‘s biodata page. The preliminary portion includes the rubric page, dedication, abstracts in English and Bahasa Melayu, recognitions, blessing sheets, declaration of thesis, tabular array of contents, and lists of tabular arraies, figures and abbreviations.

A typical layout of how the assorted parts of a thesis are arranged is shown in Table 1. The full thesis should be bound in a individual volume. However, in rare instances when appendices are peculiarly long, the thesis may be bound in two volumes. In such instances, the 2nd volume should incorporate the appendices merely and begins with page 1. It should hold a List of Appendices instantly before the appendices are inserted. Mentions, the pupil ‘s biodata and List of Publications should remain within the first volume in the sequence shown earlier.

2.1 Title Page

This page should include the undermentioned information.

Full rubric of thesis ;

Full name of pupil ;

Centre for Graduate Studies ( PPS ) ;

Name of the university ;

Degree for which the thesis is submitted ; and

Month and twelvemonth of entry.

Appendix B shows the layout of this page.

The rubric should depict the content of the thesis accurately and briefly, usually excluding words such as “ An Investigationaˆ¦ ” , “ An Analysisaˆ¦ ” , or “ A Studyaˆ¦ ” which are excess. All these are probes, analyses or surveies of one sort or another.

Table 1. A Typical Layout of a Thesis

No.

Items

Remarks

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Blank Page

Title Page

Dedications ( if any )

Abstraction

Abstrak

Recognitions

Approval Sheets

Declaration of Thesis

Table of Contentss

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of Abbreviations/Notations/

Glossary of Footings

Body of the Thesis

References/Bibliography

Appendixs

Biodata of the Student

List of Publications

Blank Page

Not to be paginated but counted as I.

Please see Section 2.1

Please see Section 2.2

Please see Section 2.2

Please see Section 2.3

Please see Section 2.4

Please see Section 2.5

Please see Section 2.6

Please see Section 2.7

Please see Section 2.8

Please see Section 2.9

Please see Section 2.10

Please see Section 2.11

Please see Section 2.12

Please see Section 2.13

Please see Section 2.14

2.2 Abstraction

The abstract is a digest of the full thesis and should be given the same careful attending as the chief text. It should non include any mentions. Abbreviations or acronyms must be preceded by the full footings at the first usage.

An abstract should be between 300 and 500 words. It includes a brief statement of the job and/or aims of the survey, a concise description of the research method and design, a sum-up of the major findings including their significance, and decisions.

The abstract should be written in both English and Bahasa Melayu. The version to look foremost should be of the same linguistic communication used in composing the thesis. The format of abstract header is shown in Appendices C-1 and C-2.

Even though a thesis may hold been written in English, the abstract in Bahasa Melayu must besides make an acceptable scholarly criterion. Common booby traps such as spelling mistakes, wrong use of prepositions and prefixes ( e.g. “ di ” , “ ke ” ) should be avoided. Scientific footings must be used accurately and systematically.

2.3 Recognitions

Recognitions normally contain written looks of grasp for counsel and aid received from persons and establishments.

2.4 Approval Sheets

Two blessing sheets are required. One sheet will bear the signature of the Dean of PPS attesting the blessing of the thesis by the Thesis Examination Committee. The other will bear the signature of the Deputy Vice Chancellor ( Academic and Internationalisation ) after University Senate has awarded the grade.

Please refer to Appendices D-1 and D-2 for inside informations.

2.5 Declaration of Thesis

The declaration signifier should be written as shown in Appendix E.

2.6 Table of Contentss

The Table of Contents lists in sequence all relevant subdivisions of the thesis with their corresponding page Numberss ( see Appendix F ) .

2.7 List of Tables

The list shows the exact rubrics or captions of all tabular arraies in the text and appendices, together with the get downing page figure of each tabular array, and must be listed in sequence. If the whole thesis contains merely one or two tabular arraies, so a List of Tables may non be necessary.

2.8 List of Figures

Figures include graphs, maps, charts, technology drawings, exposure ( home bases ) , studies, printed images, and any other signifier of illustration that is non a tabular array. The exact rubrics or captions and their corresponding page Numberss must be listed in sequence. Figures, including any in the appendices, should be numbered consecutively throughout the thesis. If the whole thesis contains merely one or two figures, so, as with tabular arraies, the list may be omitted.

2.9 List of Abbreviations/Notations/Glossary of Footings

If abbreviations and acronyms ( e.g. UPNM, MINDEF, STRIDE ) are used in the thesis, they should be explained in a List of Abbreviations, even though the full names are given when the footings are foremost mentioned in the text. This list should be the last point in the preliminary subdivision. It serves as a ready mention to readers non familiar with the abbreviations used in the thesis. Universally recognized scientific symbols ( such as CO2, centimeter, millimeter, kilogram, hour angle ) need non be listed.

2.10 Body of the Thesis

2.10.1 Chapter Layout ( See Appendix G )

Introduction: The introductory chapter introduces the capable affair and job ( s ) under survey, and indicates its importance and cogency. It sets out the hypotheses to be tested and research aims to be attained. In some theses, normally those in mathematics, this subdivision may be combined with the literature reappraisal.

It is of import to retrieve that the research objectives stated in the thesis should fit the findings of the survey. Failing to make would ensue in a finding of fact of ‘Resubmission of Thesis ‘ by the Thesis Examination Committee, and a recommendation to carry on extra surveies so that the declared aims are met.

Literature Reappraisal: This subdivision encompasses a critical and comprehensive reappraisal of the literature related to the subject of thesis. It is meant to move as a base for the experimental and analytical subdivisions of the thesis. Literature selected must be up to day of the month, and be analysed and synthesised logically. It is non a mere sum-up of plants of different writers. The reappraisal should give the effect of each book or pertinent findings of a journal article, should explicate how it relates to the subject and should – and this is of import – show why it is non plenty to reply you research inquiries. For illustration, the survey being reviewed used a Nipponese sample, while you are analyzing the state of affairs in Malaysia.

Textbook stuffs on basic rules or theories should be kept to a lower limit.

Methodology/Materials and Methods: This subdivision varies from thesis to thesis depending on the subject of survey, and may be absent in theoretical thesis. It contains a description and justification of the stuffs, theoretical attacks, experimental designs and methods ( including statistical analysis ) used to accomplish the declared aims of the survey undertaken. In the societal scientific disciplines, a conceptual model will necessitate to be included. In technology and in the pure and applied scientific disciplines, this may include, but is non limited to, description of the methodological analysis, theoretical development, cardinal philosophical foundation, experimental design and standard process description.

The stuffs and methods used in the survey should be described in item and briefly such that it would be possible for the reader to retroflex the experiment that was conducted entirely with the information contained within this subdivision. Mentions must be cited for published protocol or method.

Consequences or Findingss: This subdivision of the thesis may besides be combined with the Discussion subdivision, as is frequently done, because their contents be given to be interrelated. This subdivision may be farther broken down into subdivisions.

The subdivision presents a complete history of the consequences obtained in the survey in the signifier of text, figures, or tabular arraies so that the cardinal information is highlighted. The same set of consequences or informations should non be presented in more than one format ( e.g. either as a tabular array or figure, but non both ) .

When consequences are placed in one chapter, subheadings may be used to demarcate the different facets of the survey.

Discussion: This portion bridges the informations presented or described on the predating subdivision and contains the analyses or readings of the consequences obtained, and the decisions finally drawn. The pupil should discourse these consequences in relation to the hypotheses or aims set out in ‘Introduction ‘ , and how they fit into bing or current organic structure of cognition. The significance and deductions of the chief findings should be made clear.

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations for Future Research: This chapter is an of import one since it gives an overall significance of the survey, and stresses the findings upon which a decision or decisions are drawn in line with the aims set, acknowledges the restrictions, and suggests further research which may be usefully carried out on the subject.

2.10.2 Tables ( See Appendix H )

Make guarantee that each tabular array shown in the thesis, including those in appendices, is referred to in the text.

Tables should be numbered with Arabic numbers throughout the thesis ( including both text and appendices ) . There are two possible totaling strategies: either ( a ) figure the tabular arraies consecutively throughout the thesis e.g. 1, 2, 3 and so on or ( B ) figure them by chapter, e.g. Table 1.1, Table 1.2 and Table 1.3 to bespeak they belong to Chapter 1, Table 2.1, Table 2.2 and Table 2.3 to Chapter 2, and so on.

A tabular array should be on the same page following the first mention to it, or if this is non possible, every bit shortly as possible in the undermentioned pages. When a big tabular array is placed in a landscape orientation, the top of the printed page should be at the thesis binding border.

The tabular array figure, rubric and caption are typed single-spaced and placed above the tabular array. The manner used must be consistent throughout the thesis. Table beginnings and notes should be placed straight below the tabular array. If a tabular array has a beginning, but has been adapted, bespeak by utilizing ‘Adapted from… ‘ alternatively of ‘Source: … ‘ .

2.10.3 Figures

As with tabular arraies, guarantee that each figure in the thesis is referred to in the text. Figures include maps, charts, graphs, diagrams, exposure ( or home bases ) , technology drawings and printed images. They are numbered consecutively or harmonizing to the chapter throughout the thesis, including those in appendices. The figure figure, rubric and caption should be typed single-spaced and placed below the figure utilizing Arabic numerical and small letter, except for proper nouns and the first letters of chief words. Figures should be inserted every bit shortly as possible after their first reference in the text. As with tabular arraies, the manner used must be consistent throughout the thesis.

If a figure occupies an full page, the caption may be typed on the left-hand page ( rearward side space ) confronting the figure. It is counted but non paginated. A figure drawn in the landscape format should hold the top of the figure at the binding border. The figure figure, rubric and caption should be typed parallel to the orientation of the figure. Figures should conform to standard border demands. Engineering drawings should follow the appropriate criterions, with any big size drawings placed as appendices.

2.10.4 Equations

All equations, whether mathematical and chemical, are considered as text and numbered harmonizing to the chapter. If elaborate derivation is needed, it is to be placed in an appendix.

2.10.5 Citations

The pupil is responsible for taking a manner of commendation that is appropriate to the field and utilizing that manner right and systematically. The pupil should confer with his/her supervisors for guidelines.

At the terminal of the thesis, the pupil must provide a list of mentions in alphabetical order by writer, with consistent punctuation.

2.10.6 Header and Footer

The usage of Header and Footer is non allowed.

2.11 References/Bibliography

The References or Bibliography subdivision contains a list of plants cited in the thesis. The pupil should non mention articles that were published from the surveies that he/she conducted during his/her campaigning as mentions.

A thesis has to hold one consistent manner. Samples of normally used mention manners are given in Appendix I.

2.12 Appendixs

Information or information that are excessively elaborate for inclusion in the chief organic structure of the thesis may be included as appendices, and these are placed after the mention list. Appendixs include original informations, drumhead, slide-line or preliminary trials, tabular matters, tabular arraies that contain informations of lesser importance, really drawn-out citations, back uping determinations, signifiers and paperss, computing machine printouts, detailed technology drawings and other pertinent paperss. Appendix stuffs should be grouped by type, e.g. Appendix A: Questionnaire ; Appendix B: Original informations ; Appendix C: Tables of consequences.

Appendixs must be paginated consecutively with the chief text. If there are three or less appendices, their inside informations such as figure and rubrics should be listed as points in the Table of Contents. If there are more than three, so the Table of Contentss should include a List of Appendixs with its page figure. The list itself should come instantly after the List of Figures.

2.13 Biodata of the Student

This subdivision is mandatory. It gives the pupil ‘s biographical information: name, educational background, the grade that is being sought, professional work experience ( if any ) , and any other similar affairs that may involvement the reader.

2.14 List of Publications

All publications ( in diary and proceedings ) that consequences from the survey that was undertaken by a pupil while under supervising and during his/her campaigning, and for which the pupil is the first or chief writer, should be listed clearly and accurately. Make non utilize these publications as mentions.

Should at that place be any other demands other than those mentioned above, a written permission should be obtained from the Dean of PPS.

APPENDIX A-1

Example OF THE SPINE AND FRONT COVER OF A THESIS

Name OF STUDENT NAME OF DEGREE Year

( Uppercase, bold, 20-point gold-colored fount )

60 millimeter

Title OF THESIS

( Uppercase, centred, bold,18-point gold-colored fount )

Name OF STUDENT

( Uppercase, centred, bold, 18-point gold-colored fount )

Name OF DEGREE

( e.g. DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY )

UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA

Year

( Uppercase, centred, bold, 18-point gold-colored fount )

60 millimeter

APPENDIX A-2

Example OF THE SPINE AND FRONT COVER OF A THESIS

AGUSRIL MASTER OF SCIENCE 2010

DESIGN PORTABLE BRIDGE SYSTEM USING COMPOSITE MATERIAL

AGUSRIL

Maestro OF SCIENCE

UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA

Year 2010

APPENDIX B

Title Page

Title OF THESIS

( Uppercase, centred, bold, 12-point fount )

Name OF STUDENT

( Uppercase, centred, bold, 12-point fount )

Thesis submitted to the Centre for Graduate Studies, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, in Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of & lt ; insert the name of grade & gt ;

Month and twelvemonth of entry

APPENDIX C-1

FORMAT OF ABSTRACT

Abstraction

The abstract is a digest of the full thesis and should be given the same careful attending as the chief text. It does non usually include any mention to the literature. Abbreviations or acronyms must be preceded by the full term at the first usage.

An abstract should be between 300-500 words. It includes a brief statement of the job, a concise description of the research method and design, a sum-up of major findings, including their significance or deficiency of it, and decisions.

APPENDIX C-2

FORMAT ABSTRAK

ABSTRAK

Abstrak merupakan ringkasan keseluruhan tesis dan wajib diberi perhatian rapi seperti mana bahagian tesis yang lain. Abstrak tidak mengandungi bahan rujukan. Nama singkatan atau akronim mesti didahului dengan terminologi penuh pertama saltwort Iowa digunakan.

Abstrak harus diolah antara 300-500 perkataan. Ia merangkumi pernyataan permasalahan, penerangan ringkas dan tepat tentang reka bentuk dan perkaedahan penyelidikan, rumusan penemuan utama dan kesimpulan.

APPENDIX D-1

APPROVAL SHEET 1

I certify that an Examination Committee has met on day of the month of viva voce to carry on the concluding scrutiny of name of pupil on his ( or her ) grade thesis entitled ‘Title of thesis ‘ . The commission recommends that the pupil be awarded the ( Name of relevant grade ) .

Members of the Examination Committee were as follows.

Name of Chairperson, PhD

Title ( e.g. Professor/Associate Professor/Ir. ) – omit if non relevant

Name of Faculty

Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia

( Chairman )

Name of Examiner 1, PhD

Title ( e.g. Professor/Associate Professor/Ir. ) – omit if non relevant

Name of Faculty

Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia

( Internal Examiner )

Name of Examiner 2, PhD

Title ( e.g. Professor/Associate Professor/Ir. ) – omit if non relevant

Name of Faculty

Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia

( Internal Examiner )

Name of External, PhD

Title ( e.g. Professor/Associate Professor/Ir. ) – omit if non relevant

Name of Department/Faculty

Name of Organisation ( University/Institute )

( External Examiner )

APPENDIX D-2

APPROVAL SHEET 2

This thesis was submitted to the Senate of Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia and has been accepted as fulfillment of the demand for the grade of type of grade. The members of the Supervisory Committee were as follows.

Name of Chairperson, PhD ( omit ‘PhD ‘ if non relevant )

Title ( e.g. Professor/Associate Professor/Ir. ) – omit if non relevant

Name of Faculty

Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia

( Chairman )

Name of Member 1, PhD ( omit ‘PhD ‘ if non relevant )

Title ( e.g. Professor/Associate Professor/Ir. ) – omit if non relevant

Name of Faculty

Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia

( Member )

Name of Member 2, PhD ( omit ‘PhD ‘ if non relevant )

Title ( e.g. Professor/Associate Professor/Ir. ) – omit if non relevant

Name of Department/Faculty

Name of Organisation ( University/Institute )

( Member )

APPENDIX E

DECLARATION OF THESIS

UNIVERSITI PERTAHANAN NASIONAL MALAYSIA

DECLARATION OF THESIS

Writer ‘s full name: ________________________________________________

Date of birth: ________________________________________________

Title: ________________________________________________

Academic Session: ________________________________________________

I declare that this thesis is classified as:

CONFIDENTIAL ( Contains confidential information under the Official Secret Act 1972 ) *

RESTRICTED ( Contains restricted information as specified by the administration where research was done ) *

Open ACCESS I agree that my thesis to be published as on-line unfastened entree ( full text )

I acknowledged that Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia militias the right as follows.

The thesis is the belongings of Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia.

The library of Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia has the right to do transcripts for the intent of research merely.

The library has the right to do transcripts of the thesis for academic exchange.

SIGNATURE SIGNATURE OF SUPERVISOR

IC/PASSPORT NO. Name OF SUPERVISOR

Date: Date:

Note: * If the thesis is CONFIDENTIAL OR RESTRICTED, delight attach with the missive from the administration with period and grounds for confidentiality and limitation.

APPENDIX F

EXAMPLE TABLE OF CONTENTS

Table OF CONTENTS

Page

Abstraction

two

ABSTRAK

four

Recognitions

seven

Blessing

eight

Declaration

nine

List OF TABLES

ten

List OF FIGURES

twelve

List OF ABBREVIATIONS

thirteen

Chapter

1

Introduction

1

2

LITERATURE REVIEW

5

Subheading 1

5

Sub-subheading 1

7

Sub-subheading 2

10

Subheading 2

15

Subheading 3

21

Sub-subheading 1

22

Sub-subheading 2

25

Sub-subheading 3

31

Subheading 4

33

3

METHODOLOGY/MATERIALS AND METHODS

38

Subheading 1 ( e.g. Materials )

38

Subheading 2 ( Method 1 )

42

Subheading 3 ( Method 2 )

45

Subheading 4 ( Method 3 )

47

Sub-subheading 1

48

Sub-subheading 2

50

Sub-subheading 3

52

Subheading 5 ( Method 4 )

55

Subheading 6 ( Method 5 )

58

Sub-subheading 1

58

Sub-subheading 2

63

4

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

66

Subheading 1

66

Sub-subheading 1

69

Sub-subheading 2

72

Subheading 2

75

Sub-subheading 1

76

Sub-subheading 2

81

Sub-subheading 3

88

Subheading 3

94

Subheading 4

105

5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

111

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