The History Of Myths And Stereotypes English Literature Essay

Myth is the concealed portion of every narrative, the inhumed portion, and the part that is still undiscovered because there are as yet no words to enable us to acquire at that place. Myth is nourished by silence every bit good as by universe.

– Italo Calvino 1

Myths and stereotypes are a fable that may non be true. Both these words are different but deduction is same. It is a typical and traditional primitive narrative which deals with supernatural animals, heroes or ascendants. There are so many fables which are related to our twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours life without any testimony. Therefore, it is a narrative that has become connected with a individual, happening, or establishment. It can be assert that stereotype is a popular religion about specific societal groups or types of persons. Myths are non ever negative sometimes they are positive as good ; it means there is no cogent evidence or record about their being. Everyone is familiar with them due to the description provided by his/her ascendant. These are the effects which were started in ancient clip and still go on in the present scenario without being questioned. There are no surrogates or accounts to turn out them as incorrect. It is really heart-rending to acknowledge the actuality behind all of these mythologies.

These myths are prevailing everyplace such as in society, faith and history. There are so many fables bing in the society, particularly in the thick of adult females. History is full with falsity correlated to adult females ; yet, cipher have the reply for the genuineness of these common people narratives. A figure of stereotypes can melt off through the aid of scientific discipline or world. Therefore, these fables are non ever-existing and ever-lasting. It is good said by James Feibleman that, ” A myth is a faith in which no 1 any longer believes ” 2.

These fabrications are related to thaumaturgies and dream. Both these are furthermore a portion of enigma and supernatural component. We can non explicate that from where the dreams come from. May be it is a massage which appears from another concealed universe. This same bewilderment is with thaumaturgy besides. Joseph Campdell presented his position on it, ” Myths are public dreams, and dreams are private myths ” 3.

The chief intent of this chapter is to hold a treatment on all those myths and stereotypes which are in some manner connected to our life with the particular mention of Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni ‘s plants. We will non merely speak about them, but besides seek to exemplify their genuineness. It can be possible to turn out them immortal by the agencies of world. There are so many false beliefs which do non hold any world or genuineness, but still they are rooted in the society. They have taken topographic point merely for the interest of tradition, that ‘s why we are non able to acquire rid of it.

Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, who is an Indian adult female author, has tried to give us an thought about all those typecast which are related to the lower status of adult female. She largely discusses about the fables which existed in India every bit good as United States. She is an Indian by birth and presently populating in US. She is really much familiar with all the traditions and ancient narratives of her place of birth along with her current topographic point. She besides talked about the folklores which are peculiarly related to adult females. These folklores are non specific to India merely ; even they are besides good rooted in the full universe. From the really first adult females are surrounded with these fabrications and all these thingshave been happeningfrom the really first twenty-four hours since God created this Earth. Harmonizing to ancient narratives, it was believed that,

So, God created adult male in his ain image. And the Godhead God caused a deep slumber to fall upon Adam and he slept ; and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh alternatively thereof ; and the rib which the Godhead God had taken from adult male, he made a adult female, and brought her up to the adult male. And Adam said, “ This is now bone of my castanetss, and flesh of my flesh, she shall be called adult female because she was taken out of adult male ” .4

All these myths and stereotypes which are related to adult female get down right from her birth ; adult female is created out of adult male, though it is she who gives birth to a babe. God himself is a male, is it the ground that he created adult male in his ain image? It is a point to believe, that if God can make adult male separately, than why non he created adult female like the same? Why she is created by the rib of adult male? Did God besides want to demo his dominancy? Well, all these inquiries are still unreciprocated.

On the footing of this historical facets, certain false asserts refering to the societal domination of the male sex have been disseminated. It is frequently putforwards as an eternalproverb that work forces are socially higher because they are of course superior. Male high quality, harmonizing to this metaphor, is non a common fact at a peculiar stage of history, but a natural jurisprudence. It is claimed that work forces are awarded by nature with superior physical and mental qualities.

An equal myth about adult female has been go arounding to keep up this claim. It is place frontward as an every bit ageless axiom that adult females are of course lesser to work forces. And, what is the grounds? They are the female parents! Nature, it is asserted, has criticized the female sex to an inferior place. It is furthermore believed so as to,

Adam names his married woman Eve ; God is male ( ‘created adult male in his ain image ‘ ) . Man is created foremost… it is said that those who name the objects, in fact, have them and those who rule the word regulation the world.5

In effect, is it the ground that male is still governing female? These fabrications are non merely in the creationof universe but gender prejudice is deep rooted in the portion of historical and textual tradition besides. From the really beginning of this universe adult females are ever see as a weaker or 2nd sex. She is ever placed behind the adult male. Woman ‘s individuality and her topographic point in society are still surrounded with so many myths. History is grounds for the inquiry of adult female ‘s being in the society.Aristotle declared that,

The female is female by virtuousness of a certain deficiency of qualities, and added that… … we should look upon the female province, as it were, a malformation, one which occurs in the ordinary class of nature. On history of its failing it rapidly approaches its adulthood an old age since inferior things all reach their terminal more quickly.6

In all rites or traditions adult females have ever been considered below self-respect. They are treated as incompetent, unqualified, powerless, and lame in comparing to adult male. Womans are ever irrespective of faith, race, state every bit good as the period in which they live. These same sensitiveness and sex stereotypes have been seen in the reproduction of human being. It was a myth associated with a adult female that she could merely fertilise or supply the fetus. It is merely adult male who is an active spouse in the reproduction of a babe. In the class of biological science, we can happen the justification for these sorts of statements. Harmonizing to the information of biological science, males and females are from a same species which are differentiated within two types of persons. They both work together for the map of reproduction. In the book one “ Facts and Myths ” of The Second Sex, we can calculate out Aristotle ‘s sentiment:

Aristotle fancied that the fetus arose from the brotherhood of sperm and catamenial blood, adult female supplying merely inactive affair while the male rule contributed force, activity, motion, and life.7

All these averments are interrelated to societal myths ; it is non nature, but category society, which subordinated adult females and lifted up work forces. Men won their societal primacy in attempt against and subjection over the adult females. But, this sexual battle was portion and package of a great societal job. Women ‘s failing is the creative activity of a societal system which created and promoted legion other lower statuss, biass, want, and inequalities. This societal history has been covered at the dorsum of the myth that adult females are of course weaker to work forces.

It is a falsity merely that the life seed is created by the male parent entirely and mother merely carried and nourished it. The theory of Aristotle stayed alive through the middleAges. After that, there were so many minds like Harvey, Hagel, the Danish anatomist Steno, and Dutchman Hartsakar ; who gave their single sentiment sing reproduction system. The well-known philosopher Hagel held that these two sexes were different, the one is active and the other is inactive, and of class the female would be the inactive 1. He said in his Doctrine of Nature, “ … .Thus adult male, in effect of that distinction, is the active rule while adult female is the inactive rule because she remains undeveloped in her integrity ” 8.

Therefore, in the ancient clip adult female was ever regarded as the lower sex. All the manner through biological science this label was wholly clear that adult male is non the lone 1 who has the high quality for the reproduction. It is male and female both for their similar engagement. They are defined chiefly as male and female by the gametes which they produce – sperms and egg severally. But biological science is non plenty to give an reply to the inquiry of adult female ‘s individuality. Even, non merely through biological point of position, but via psychological point of position besides a adult female is ever considered as a weaker sex or other. This society ne’er gave any importance to her determinations. Till the in-between age adult females were non given the freedom to take their ain life. Humanity for adult females was wholly really different. The personality of a adult female has been affected throughout the class of history, someway, that same status is in present scenario besides. There is no true life world except as marked by the cognizant single through activities and in the bosom of a society.

Therefore, the full universe is full of myths that work forces have forged adult females through all their cosmologies, political orientations, faiths, literature, and superstitious notions. Because of these falsities, adult male endeavoured himself frontward as the topic and deemed the adult female as an object. Most philosophersagree that Simone De Beauvoir ‘s The Second Sex is a greatest part to the doctrine of a adult female. She was a author, women’s rightist, and an existential philosopher besides. Her legendary work The Second Sex is called the myth of the “ ageless feminine ” . The chief subject of this book is turn around the thought that adult female has been held in a relationship to long-standing domination to through her demotion to being adult male ‘s “ other ” .

Beauvoir ‘s book is divided into two major subjects. The first book investigates the “ Facts and Myths ” about adult females from the multiple positions including the biological, historical, scientific, mercenary, literary, psychoanalytic, and anthropological. In the 2nd portion, she tried to destruct the essentialism which claims that adult females are born “ feminine ” . This subdivision traces about the instruction of adult female from her childhood to her adolescence. It besides discussed the different state of affairs of adult females ‘s life and struggled to unclutter the misconceptions. She said on the publication of The Second Sex,

It was true that my survey of the myths would be left hanging in mid-air if people did n’t cognize the world those myths were intended to dissemble… ..So I had to seek to delve for the exact truth beneath the surface of their interpretation.9

One of the outstanding characteristics of Capitalism, and of category society in general, is the favoritism of the sexes. It was believed that Men are the Masterss in political, cultural, economic, and rational life ; while adult females play a secondary and even a inactive function. Merely in current old ages, she has come out of kitchens to turn out her being. Womans are a bit different from the nature of work forces, they are emotional, polite and soft hearted but it does non intend that they are non every bit stronger as adult male. This is merely the psychological science of male society that, they ne’er understand the topographic point of a adult female in universe of values. It is really much necessity to give her a dimension of autonomy. In earlier period, she did non possess the power to take between the averment of her transcendency, and she disaffection as an object.Donaldson, a historiographer of adult females, remarked the definition,

Man is a male human being, adult female is a female human being ; have been unsymmetrically distorted ; and it is among the psycho analysts in peculiar that adult male is defined as a human being and adult female as a female – whenever she behaves as a human being she is said to copy the male. 10

It is all about adult male ‘s psychological science who does non accept the truth that these adult females can besides make all the material in better manner. For them she is being created merely for the family work or to pull off things ; determination power is non her sphere. If male and female both are human existences so why they are considered as male or female separately? Woman ‘s individuality is non defined merely by her gender ; her illustration is besides reflected in the organisation of the society. However, work forces deem themselves superior in the human society even though adult male and adult female both should be considered the same. Our history articulates that adult female is the beginning of all follies and errors. All these fables which are correlated with adult females, are still lasting in the society. Our society is dominated by work forces from a long yesteryear, possibly that ‘s the ground for the being of all these folklores. This society does non desire to accept the world even. A batch of fables are still predominating merely because of these full typical and traditional antediluvian narratives which deal with superstitious notion. Beauvoir has conveyed her sentiment on the being of myths that,

A myth ever implies a topic, who undertakings his hope and his frights towards a sky of transcendency. Womans do non put themselves up as capable and hence have erected no virile myth in which their undertakings are reflected ; they have no faith or poesy of their ain: they still dream through the dreams of men.11

In our ancient clip adult females did non hold any freedom to compose or show their positions. We believe in all such beliefs for the ground that our ascendants besides did the same. Just because of these myths adult females are enduring from a long clip. Through scientific discipline or pragmatism it is possible to acquire rid of all these falsity, which are indicating out a inquiry on adult females ‘s individuality. These properties are carried on from our history, and it is non that much easy to alter it. Even that is really trenchant to alter the psychological science of the whole community.

This inequality of the sexes has marked category society from its really origin several thousand old ages ago, and has preserved throughout its chief phases: Capitalism, Chattel bondage, and Feudalism. For this footing, category society is suitably characterized as male-dominated. This domination has been upheld and maintained by the signifier of household, the province, the system of private belongings, and the church.But category society did non ever survive ; it is merely a few thousand old ages old. Work force were non ever the superior sex, for they were non ever the concern, academic and cultural organisers.

Indian-American writer Chitra BanerjeeDivakaruni every bit good concentrates to destruct myths and stereotypes regardingwomen. In her work, she tries to show all those false imposts which indicate adult females towards lower status. Because she was born in India and spent 19 old ages in that same civilization, for this ground, she came to experience all these state of affairss and conditions by her ain. Through all her experiences she wants to turn out in her authorship that, non even in India but in other civilizations besides the adult females ‘s status is thinkable. She provides grounds that how does a adult female acquire off out of her jobs and survives in her life via her characters in the fiction. It is in nature of a adult female to go on to be in each and every circumstance. She involved all these facets skillfully in her plants.

Chitra Banerjee ‘s authorship, both fiction and non-fiction, is frequently rooted in the elaboratenesss of the place. By chew overing her characters on the high-tension wire of household ; she is able to go around the issues that induce her most-identity, trueness, tradition, and independency. Her survey typically takes topographic point within the accused context of the immigrant experience which is created for a authorship manner both narrow in focal point and wide in range.

As a consequence our foremost intend in this paper is to destruct one time and everlastingly all the myths carried on by category society that the adult females are of course or basically inferior, with the particular mention of writer ‘s works.She wants to demo the world at forepart of her readers for that they can judge what is incorrect and what is right. She is non against towards the imposts and traditions. She merely wants to give thought to her readers about the falsity in the society and how a adult female is able to acquire rid out of this through her strength ; she merely wants to reform the society and give strong suit to the female community. She shows her supporters independent, full of positive energy or strength, adoptable, sympathetic, good comrade, gregarioustowards rites and traditions, as an image of “ Shakti ” .

Divakaruni has published verse forms, short-stories, and novels, all of which by and large centre on similar subjects: the battle to accommodate to new imposts of life the when 1 ‘s cultural traditions are in discrepancy with new cultural outlooks ; complexnesss of love stuck between household members, lovers, and partners ; the place of adult females in India and America ; the battle and dissension of adult females during the arrange marriages ; the being of adult females in the society. Her plants are frequently considered to be quasi-autobiographical as most of her narratives are set on adult females ‘s experiences, their interior sentiments, and their great attempts towards their ain life. Therefore, being a adult female she is composing about herself.

This is non factual that, she has ever been interested in adult females ‘s issues and status, and wishful of doing alterations. When she lived in India, she was wholly immersed in the civilization and therefore wholly accepted it. She ne’er thought about adult females ‘s rights or their jobs. If things were hard for adult females, she reasoned that, it was merely the manner of the universe. Nevertheless, thesekinds of accommodations are non an easy undertaking. This thing arouses so many inquiries in her head that, Why should we insulate adult females? , Was it same everyplace? , Is it the lone life of adult females? , Do myths and stereotypes are ever being a portion of her life?

To acquire the reply of these inquiries the writer studied carefully the lives of other Indian adult females of her milieus. She noticed that many of them were still caught in the old system that a adult male has precedency and bid over them. They excuse all their wrongs, and that off from the traditional joint household that kept a alert oculus on things, such adult females were even more vulnerable. Womans have been the topic of bullying, want, favoritism, and unfair intervention in society throughout history. Womans are considered inferior, subjected to assorted ordeals, given secondary position, subjugated to the male and deprived of the basic right of being. The difference is merely in the signifiers that differ from society to society and from clip to clip. They are considered individuals whose responsibility is to move on the advice of males, take attention of them, function them and delight.

Therefore, adult females are given such an ideal function as to populate at the clemency of the hubby and dice at his balefire. The ground behind all these differences is that in the societal strand of many societies males are given a privileged place because they feed the household, they are bread victors, and go on the name of the household. Somehow the writer besides senses the differences between male and female through her experiences and society where she spent her life. She is an independent adult female therefore she can gain about the adult female power and capableness.

By utilizing her personal experiences or practises, she tried to continue the existent figure of a adult female through her supporters. She tries to exemplify the world behind the myths that adult females are merely made to carry through assorted responsibilities.

A wild scope of her novels are included into this frame like: The Mistress of Spices ( 1997 ) , Arranged Marriages ( 1995 ) , Sister of my Heart ( 1999 ) , Vine of Desire ( 2002 ) , The Palace of Illusions ( 2008 ) and Neela: Victory Song ( 2002 ) . Her novels and narratives have prompted some to impeach Divakaruni of staining the Indian community ‘s image and reenforcing stereotypes of the “ laden ” Indian adult female, but Divakaruni says her purpose is to shatter stereotypes:

Some merely write about different things, but my attack is to undertake these sensitive subjects. I hope people who read my books will non believe of the characters as Indians, but feel for them as people.12

Chitra Banerjee thinks approximately adult females as a group in her society and her positions are different from the position of other members in the society. She believes that adult female has a right, or we might even name it a function to play in the society. Their function is to be a important portion of society, different from work forces, but still play a portion.

All civilizations have developed their ain mythology. In Hinduism some heroic poems such as the Manuscriptadvocates a limitation of adult females ‘s rights. If we go through the contents of the Manuscript, we may gain that it was peculiarly rough against adult females and treated them with contempt and intuition. We do non hold any grounds to believe it still the book was followed by all the subdivisions of the society. It was said in Manuscript – The jurisprudence of Manu ( chapter. X- 1- 10 ) refering to adult female that, ” Her male parent protects ( her ) in childhood ; her hubby protects ( her ) in young person, and her boies protect ( her ) in old age ; a adult female is ne’er fit for independency ” 13.

This statement arouses several inquiries on the independency of a adult female and her self-identity. It means that as a kid, a adult female should hold supposed to stay in the detention and attention of her parents. Divakaruni has revealed the same image of society in her fresh Sister of my Heart ( 1999 ) , in which both these sisters Anju and Sudha are treated the same. They both live in the protection of their three female parents ( Pishi, Nalini, Gouri ) .Sudha had accepted all these boundaries, but on the other side Anju who is rebellious by her nature does non desire to accept these restrictions. She ever puts up her questions,

Why must Ramur Ma travel with us every clip we leave the house, even to acquire books from the vicinity library? She ‘d inquire. ‘Why ca n’t we travel to Sushmista ‘s birthday party when all other misss in category are traveling, alternatively of directing a gift with Singhji? No admiration everyone thinks we ‘re stuck up ‘ . She further says that,

I am tired of these old adult females sari you make us have on. You would believe we wear populating in the Dark Ages alternatively of in the Eighties. I bet there is n’t another girl my age in all of Calcutta except Sudha, of-course who is forced to dress like this. Why ca n’t I wear pants, or a maxi, or at least some kurtas one time in a piece? 14

Actually these inquiries are for those people who are non able to judge adult female ‘s distinction. By her plants the writer demonstrates the black face of the society and wants to take myths and stereotypes.

Womans do non hold any single rights, Is it because she is a girl and her felicity does n’t count? That same defeat we can experience in the character Neela, the supporter of the fresh Neela: Victory Song ( 2002 ) . Through her inquiries, Divakaruni puts a stigma on the society that,

Why does everyone feel they have to command misss – even after they are married? Why are adult females expected to sit softly and mutely, embroidering and doing pickles, while work forces get to do all the exciting topographic points? Why ca n’t a miss be a freedom combatant? 15

After acquiring married, a girlturns into a belongings and duty of her hubby. It indicates that in her whole life she is treated as a belongings merely and to take attention of her is a duty of her milieus. Therefore, her hubby is supposed to maintain her in detention and take attention of her demands or outlooks. As a married woman she has to execute her responsibilities. When she becomes old, she used to populate in the house of her boies and has to pass a really forlorn and lone life. It was good written in Purana,

“ KaryeshuMantri, KaraneshuDaasi,

Kupecha Lakshmi, KshamayaaDharitri,

Bhojyeshu Mata, ShayentuRamdha,

Shat Karma Yukta, Kula Dharma Patni. ” ( Acharya: 351 )

Harmonizing to our Hindu tradition, it is believed that a married adult female should hold performed four regulations: as her hubby ‘s retainer ( dasi ) in sense of responsibility ; as his curate ( mantri ) in sense of doing determination ; as a female parent ( mata ) to his childs ; and as a lover ( rambha ) in his bed. Hence, Dasi, Mantri, Mata, Rambha all are different portrayal of adult female, which is mentioned in our ancient heroic poems. Our ascendants talked about the responsibilities of adult female, but they ne’er talked about what a adult male has to make. Historically talking, whether it was in Medieval Indiaor Ancient India, the place of adult females in the subcontinent was ne’er good.

Divakaruni opposes all these false traditions and myths. She asks over it that, why these regulations are merely mended for adult females? , As all these ancient heroic poems have been written by work forces, is it the ground behind the rough canon towards adult females? , Before make up one’s minding her life, did anybody asked about her ain desires or wants? Well, the writer has presented two different portraitures in her book Sister of my Heart. The 1 is Sudha, who ever acceptedall the regulations mend for her and the other is Anju, who ever encourage her to contend for her ain rights. Anju all the clip maintain oppugning to Sudha,

Why is it you that has to number out the dirty apparels for the dhobi and so number the clean apparels he brings back? Why is it you who has to do up the market list each twenty-four hours and manus out the spices for crunching and cut up the veggies for tiffin and dinner? 16

She besides encourages her by her rough remarks,

Without a college instruction, what sort of life are you traveling to hold? You might every bit good tie a pail around your cervix and leap into a good right now. You might every bit good but flashers over your eyes and fall in the bullocks that go round the mustard factory. That ‘s all you ‘re traveling to be a animal of load for some man.17

Divakaruni has covered a broad scope of issues associated to myths and stereotypes, which are popular among the adult females of the Indian civilization. She strives to set issues in forepart of the universe through her authorship. Arrange matrimony is the most high-lighted issue in her plants. Her short-story aggregation Arranged Marriage ( 1995 ) , trades with a assortment of issues: including racism, economic disparity, interracial relationships, divorce, and abortion. Her basic involvement is to concentrate on the construct of arrange matrimony in the context of Indian civilization. The difference between male child and miss, which has been traveling on from the ancient clip, still exists in the society. From the beginning of a miss ‘s life, it is determined to acquire her married in an ordered manner. It is non she who will make up one’s mind to whom she is traveling to be married ; even her life ‘s most of import determination is in her household ‘s manus. She is trained by her milieus to acquire expertness in family plants. To take attention of her household is her first responsibility from the twenty-four hours of her matrimony. Divakaruni mentioned, It is assumed in our society that, “ a married adult female belongs to her hubby, her in-laws ” 18.

It indicates that a miss does non hold any independent life. It is she who is traveling to be chosen by the opposite side and she would be positive plus overall presentable at the minute of bride sing ceremonial. So many folklores are besides associated to this procedure of her life. If anyone says no to her, it would be considered a bad fortune for a miss. She must be prepared plenty for bride sing minute particularly on have oning bright and colorful garb ; it ‘s her household ‘s belief that this will convey her fortune. After all this is the most of import stage of her life and hereafter. Divakaruni seeks to follow out those minutes that what is precisely going-on in the head of victim. She must be believing, ” … ..the adult male who is coming to our house with his parents today and who will be my hubby if I ‘m lucky plenty to be chosen ” 19.

Therefore, it is a sort of prestige issue for a miss and her household ; if things went incorrect so people get material of chitchats. It is considered to be a bad luck for her if she gets rejected.

These falsities are traveling on from our crude society, other than this the awkward portion is that still we are transporting on the same imposts. A miss is asked so many inquiries by her would be mother-in-law. Divakaruni thrashed out such sort of inquiries in her fresh Sisters of my Heart ( 1999 ) , when Sudha ‘s mother-in-law asked her,

What was her favorite topic in school ( embellishment ) , what is the proportion of sugar to H2O in rosogullah sirup ( one to two ) , what does she believe should be a adult female ‘s most of import responsibility ( taking attention of those she loves ) . 20

Bing an Indian, Divakaruni does non oppose the usage of arrange matrimony but she condemns the humiliation faced by misss in arrange matrimonies. She would wish to alter the system non custom. The writer yearns for the reply of these inquiries that, why the society has non given the similar rights to a male child and miss to take their life spouse? Why it is merely she for all the forfeits and duties? Today ‘s scenario is small bit changed, but in earlier yearss a miss could non even speak to her would be hubby before matrimony. A miss ‘s psychological science is ever surrounded by the struggles that, ” I do n’t cognize him at all. What if he does n’t wish me after we ‘re married? What if none of his household likes me? “ 21

That same dissension or clang Divakaruni illustrates in the class of her plants every bit good as in her characters. Apart from the construct of matrimony the writer further describes assorted other facets on the topic of myths and stereotypes among the adult females. Some of the subjects are besides related to apparels. Indian civilization is known for its colorss particularly in apparels andDivakaruni has focused a batch on the colors of adult females ‘s outfits. In our civilization adult females used to have on colorful saree. Largely they prefer ruddy, orange, pink, viridity ; which are symbol of brightness and life. The writer gave a perfect image of Indian adult female in her fresh Sister of my Heart,

They showed a stick figure adult female in a traditional red-bordered saree with a large clump of keys tied to her anchal. She wore a ruddy marriagebindi in the Centre of her brow and stood following to a moustached adult male transporting a briefcase. Around them were gathered several stick figure kids, their sex indicated by boxlike trunkss or triangular skirts.22

In one of her narrative “ apparels ” , Divakaruni centred on the significance of colorss. It was believed that the different coloring materials have different significance. For pink frock it was supposed that, “ its organic structure was a pale pink, like the morning sky over the adult females ‘s lake. The coloring material of passage ” 23… ..and as similar, “ a bluish one for the journey, because blue is the coloring material of possibility, the coloring material of the sky ” 24.

Even, at the clip of one ‘s matrimony, excess limelight is given on the coloring material of bride ‘s frock. But the fact is that all these colorss are a portion of her life, till her hubby is alive. In traditional households, widows are supposed to have on white saree and to give up all their decorations including bindi ( ruddy grade on brow ) . Divakarunifigured out a widow in a narrative, “ The saree, a midst voile that willbounch around the waist when worn, is borrowed. Widow ‘s colour, colour of stoping ” 25.

It is believed that after the decease of one ‘s hubby, colorss are non a portion of her life. Therefore, it was prohibited for her to have on colorful apparels. Decorations and bindiare besides signifies propitiousness. After that widows are expected to give their lives to any serious chase of faith or to her hubby ‘s household. The writer shows it incorrect and attempts to take this sort of outlook from the society or faith.

Divakaruni farther talked about the conditions of widow in her short-story aggregation Arranged Marriage that, “ all over India, at this really minute, widows in white sarees are bowing their veiled caput, functioning tea to in-laws. Doves with cut-off wings ” 26.

In ancient clip when a Hindu died, his married woman either committed Sati on her hubby ‘s funeral pyre or retired into a life perennial purdah, faith contemplation, and societal damnation. Sati was ideally preformed as an act of immortal love. It was believed to purge the twosome of all accrued wickedness. But now, the state of affairs has changed and Sati is illegal and detestable. That ‘s what Divakaruni wants to turn out through her narrative “ Clothes ” , that after being a widow merely white saree is non a portion of her life. She made an attempt to demo the satisfaction of the cardinal character Mita, when her in-laws non do the same what the other does. She said, “ When person asked if my hair should be cut off, as they sometimes do with widows back place, they said no ” 27.

Divakaruni has struggled to destruct all those myths and development through her authorship, which are normally happen with the widow on the name of tradition. Now, a widow is no more a dove with cut-off wings. Even after this doomed, she can populate her life independently and besides take duty of her household.

It is non nature, but category society, which cheated adult females of their right to lend maps of society and placed the major emphasis upon their carnal maps of maternity. And this larceny was committed through a double myth. On the one side, maternity is symbolized as a biological adversity taking topographic point out of the motherly variety meats of adult female ; beside this ill-mannered philistinism, maternity is symbolized as being something about religious. To soothe adult females for their place as second-class citizens, female parents are blessed, awarded with aura and blessed with particular “ characters ” , feelings and knowledge everlastingly off from the clasp of work forces. Want and sanctity are merely two sides of the same coin of the societal larceny of adult females under category society.

Although she is being gifted by bless to deliver a new life, but still she has to contend back against the societal evil. From the really following twenty-four hours of her matrimony the household seeks for the good intelligence. They get impatient when clip passes over and over. Therefore, Divakaruni exposes those same sentiments through her character Anjuthat,

Five old ages might non look that long to people in America, but where we come from, it is. Marriages can be broken in half that clip, and bare married womans sent back to their parents ‘ place in shame.28

It becomes a anguish for her to confront different sort of remarks from assorted people. She hesitates to go to societal assemblage, even she is surrounded by the leery expression of society as if she has done a large offense. Hence, barrenness becomes a expletive for her. To acquire rid of it, they take their ain superstitious notion manner. They get satisfaction in taking her to the holy topographic points to get rid of the expletive. For illustration Divakaruni in her short narrative “ Ultra Sound ” , checked out the point when the supporter faced the same job, when,

Runu ‘s mother-in-law had taken her to the shrine of Shasthi, goddess of childbearing. The household priest had waist to pacify the angry planets. They ‘d taken her for a medical check-up to do certain there were no ‘problems with her system.29

On decision, the household blames the females merely for their faulty system, though a male and female both can be responsible if a babe is non being conceived.Being a female parent is non that much easy for a adult female ; she has to travel through assorted worse conditions. The Orthodox traditional household ever assumes that merely a boy kid can transport send on their coevals. It is considered to be really lucky if the senior kid is a boy.

Stabbings on a adult female ‘s life and slaughters against her self-respect and self-have been observed in the full transition of history. Girl babies were concealed alive. The other manner to acquire rid of them was utilizing the pappy grains, sap of the calotropisplant or giving them kiping Peels. Sometimes their parents and kith and family performed these cold Acts of the Apostless with a heavy bosom and great sorrow and heartache. The point to chew over is why these types of awful act occur, why society remains a soundless perceiver and what forces people to perpetrate such types of Acts of the Apostless. The writer strongly tried to indicate out the societal threat of female aborticide. It is non merely a black topographic point on the civilisation, but besides making a large job for the sex-ratio.

Divakaruni spot-light similar class of fables through her work. She wants to demo the world at forepart of her readers for that they can judge what is incorrect and what is right. In her fresh Sister of my Heart, the supporter Sudha was mentally harassed by her household on the issue of child-birth. She was continuously forced by them to give birth to a male child kid. She expressed her commiseration status that, “ they want to kill my babe ” 30, even “ they want me to hold an abortion ” 31. It shows her weakness when she explained, “ The amnioshowed that it ‘s a miss… … My mother-in-law says it ‘s non fitting that the eldest kid of the Bhattacharjee family should be a female ” 32.

It was a quandary in her head, whether she has to remain in the same topographic point in her household or to go forth it in hunt for her ain single life. But, the chief job is about the state of affairs which is unsure and 1000s of wary ideas are at that place in the head of supporter ‘s household members:

What about the societal stigma? … … That ‘s easy for you to state from here. Runu ‘s the 1 who ‘ll hold to confront it every twenty-four hours. Even if money is n’t a job, what kinds of life will it before her? She surely wo n’t hold the opportunity to remarry. She ‘ll be entirely with her girl the remainder of her life, a societal outcast, person the neighbors point a finger at every clip she walks down the street.33

There is no uncertainty in it that all these bounds were constructed from the starting in our societal format. Class-society was the same as it is in the present. Advance medical and technological developments have permitted medical practicians and scientists to plight certain techniques and methods to find the sex of the fetus. The most of import among them are chrion villus Biopsy, amniocentesis and now the by and large used echography. Everybody is interested to cognize the sex of the fetus and when it is determined a female one ; it is aborted through different methods.

It is doomed that such things are go oning mostly in India and other Asiatic states to place sex of the fetus in order to hold it aborted if it is female.The sex-determination trials were fundamentally aimed to place gender related familial abnormalcy in the unborn kid. The purpose behind such trials is good but worlds, under the impact of self-indulgent inclinations, ever run good to fulfill their aspirations, desires and self-importances at the cost of others and civilisation every bit good.

Alternatively of this, few illustrations are still there which depicts the sense of adult females power. Divakaruni pictures her characters as a portraiture of Shakti. They are non traveling to digest this societal injury everlastingly, and eventually they choose their ain life by their ain manner. Both her characters Sudha from Sister of my Heart and Runu from The Ultrasound do the same. They both run off from their in-laws topographic point and get down their independent life for their girls.

In our ancient heroic poems there is a quandary sing to the position of adult females, sometimes they are treated inferior and on the other manus they are besides considered to be a Goddess ( Shakti ) . In our history Draupadi was an illustration of such adult female power.Divakaruni has made an attempt to follow out the figure, feelings, ideas, and inquiries which are going-on in the head of Draupadi in a class of her fresh Palace of Illusions ( 2008 ) . She has presented a adult female ‘s reaction or feedback on the being of society. The writer tried to demo a fabulous position of myths and stereotypes in her book. This fresh speaks about the great Indian heroic poem the Mahabharata, through the eyes of Draupadi. She endeavoured to clarify those points that, is at that place anything left to be faced for a adult female? How she fit herself in these eldritch conditions? Is it the lone finish of her life? It is non she who makes a determination for her ain life even she is made to populate the manner of life which is prepared by her surrounding and fate.

It is a really all right effort by the writer to re-write the Mahabharata through a feminine position. She wrote in her note that,

But ever, listening to the narratives of the Mahabharata as a immature miss in the lantern-lit eventides at my gramps ‘s small town place, or subsequently, concentrating over the 1000 page leather-bound volume in my parents ‘ place in Kolkata. I was unsatisfied by the portraitures of the adult females. 34

Therefore, this crude heroic poem did n’t hold powerful, complex adult females characters that affected the action in major ways. For case, there was the widowed Kunti, female parent of the Pandavas ; Gandhari, married woman of the sightless Kaurava male monarch ; and most of all there was Panchaali, king Drupad’sbeautiful girl influence her the most. But in some manner, they remain shady figures, their ideas and motivations cryptic, their emotions portrayed merely when they affected the lives of the male heroes, their functions finally subservient to those of their male parents or hubbies, brothers, or boies. She further says that,

I would put the adult females in the head of the action. I would bring out the narrative that lay unseeable between the lines of the work forces ‘s feats. Better still, I would hold one of them tell it herself, will all her joys and uncertainties, her battles, her victory, her grief, her accomplishments, the alone female manner in which she sees her universe and her topographic point in it. 35

When we read the heroic poem Mahabharata, we are able to acquire the image of the status of adult females in the crude civilisation. But there are so many points related to adult females are still unfocussed. The writer tried to re-write the Mahabharatawith the narrative of Draupadi. We can happen it wholly different through her eyes.

Draupadi was one of those characters who were connected to every incident of the epic event. She herself was the grounds of barbarous frame work of evil society and how she faced all those ill-customs, was the foundation rock for the new and strong thought of today ‘s adult female. Draupadi ‘s “ Cheer-Haran ” , indicate out a inquiry on adult females ‘s honor, therefore, the narrative tells us about the war which was caused by an maltreatment to one adult female and her thirsting require for retaliation that finally wipes out the 3rd age of adult male -Bheeshma, the gramps ; Drona, the instructor ; Kripa, the royal coach.

Draupadi and her brother Dhirstadyumna ( Dhri ) emerged from fire and they both were grown up together but at that place was a great difference in their life style and day-to-day modus operandi. They both were given different instruction by the coach Kripa. It was believed that adult female is merely meant for family plants and her chief responsibility is to take attention of her hubby and household. Opposite to it male child was given other lessons, though these a miss could n’t portion. It is a point of inner struggle which is introduced by Divakaruni that, a miss ‘s universe is wholly different from the male child ‘s one and it is expected that she must accept it. There are so many inquiries which was arouse in Draupadi ‘s head that, why Dhri was given other lessons, though these I could n’t portion?

He fought with blade and lance and Mace with the commanding officer of the Panchaal ground forces. He learned to wrestle, to sit Equus caballuss and elephants, to pull off a chariot in instance his charioteer was killed in conflict… … … he set in tribunal and observed my male parent distributing justness. For a male monarch must cognize how to utilize his leisure suitably – he played die with other baronial born young person, or attended quail battle, or went boating.36

As opposed being a adult female Draupati ‘s lessons are wholly different. An ageless watercourse of adult females flowed through her flats every twenty-four hours, attempted to teach her in the 64 humanistic disciplines that gracious ladies must cognize. She was given lessons in dance, vocalizing, and playing music. She was taught to run up, pull, pigment, and adorn the land with antique auspicious designs. These full faculties made her defeated butthat was the fate, which was decided for a adult female by our ascendants. With each lesson she felt the universe of adult female fastening its snare around her and she had a fate to carry through it. Through Draupadi the writer asked a inquiry to the society that, ” Why was no 1 concerned about fixing me for it? 37.

Divakaruni discusses all those myths and stereotypes through Draupadi ‘s autobiography, which were popular in theancient clip. Her brave inquiries are a stigma on the society that, who decided that a adult female ‘s highest responsibility is to back up adult male? Why she ca n’t be after on making other things with her ain life?

In ancient clip a queen must larn the regulations of bearing – how to walk, talk, and sit in the company of adult male ; how to demo regard to Queenss who are more of import ; and the most of import how to intimidate the other married womans of her hubby. A male monarch ever takes other married womans, whether 1s like or non and on the other side a adult female wo n’t even acquire a opportunity to speak to her hubby before matrimony. The writer besides mentioned in her work The Palace of Illusions, the coach Kripa ‘s declaration for adult females ‘s responsibilities that,

A Kshatriya adult female ‘s highest intent in life is to back up the warriors in her life: her male parent, brother, hubby, and boies. If they should be called to war, she must be happy that they have the chance to carry through a heroic fate. Alternatively of praying for their safe return, she must pray that they die with glorification on the battleground. 38

Besides of all negative illustration in societal format there are few positive facets besides, which make them experience about their ain proud being. In Hinduism there are a figure of portraitures who inspired today ‘s adult female to contend for their ain ownerships and acquire spark to populate with self-respect. Such as Sita, Kunti, Gandhari, Rani Laxmibai, and so on ; who rooted their ain individuality into the predominating male dominated society. It was nil that the society of their clip was different even still they are calibre to go graven images for their followings. In one manus adult female is ever criticized but on the other manus it was said in Manuscript for her, ” Where adult females are honoured, there the Gods are pleased. But where they are non honoured, no sacred rite outputs wagess. ” Manuscript ( 3.556 )

In decision, adult females are far excessively different from work forces to be their peers, and Chitra Banerjee realized this. She thinks that adult females lack the strength that work forces possess, and this means that adult females are weaker physically merely. Work force may hold stronger than adult females physically but adult females have strengths that are far superior in other countries. The Divakaruni realised these strengths and began to detect that adult females are more suited for certain duties in her life.She thinks that today adult females get tonss of recognition and are recognized more for their abilities than they used to be. But the bulk is that adult females are still non treated as peers to work forces. A good illustration of this is that adult females do n’t do every bit much money as work forces by and large, even if they both have the same occupation. Often adult female makes about 30 % less money than a adult male does for the exact same occupation.

We talk of revolution – political and economic and yet the greatest revolution in a state is one that effects betterment in the position and populating conditions of its adult females. – Jawaharlal Nehru

Womans have gained so much power and regard in the past 30 or so old ages. Since, adult females have been recognized for things such as the portion of the national authorities but the society still non bury the gender issue and stereotypes. This is unjust but since this is now our civilisation for the most portion positions adult females, it is something that Divakaruni believes will be the largest obstruction for a adult female campaigner to get the better of. She gave us a opportunity to look in a clip when adult female had truly treated as a weaker sex, most work forces see adult females as weak and non to utile. Bing a adult female herself, she feels that adult females are an of import portion of the society.

Author ‘s authorship is accordingly to a great extent about adult females, and since she is composing on the topic of adult females, she finally writes for adult females and intelligent work forces. She invariably gives her attending in footings of gender instead than race. She would really much affectionate of all backgrounds to pick up in her books. Possibly for a ground, that adult female ‘s experiences are much more similar so normally thing.

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