Wordss get combined into more complicated buildings, are called phrases. Then, phrases get combined to do sentences. The proper ordination of words in sentences is called sentence structure. All human linguistic communication have a construction. We call this construction grammar. “ I went shopping today and bought a new coat ” is a clear sentence. Its grammar is right. But “ I shopping today go coat new have bought ” sounds incorrect and is difficult to understand. That ‘s because its grammar is wrong.
Semanticss on the other manus, is the survey of how significance in linguistic communication is created by the usage and the interrelatednesss of words, phrases and sentences. Therefore, sentence structure and semantics have important function in geting and learning linguistic communication.
Harmonizing to an American linguist, Bloomfield, the best known definition of a word is a minimal free signifier that is the smallest signifier that can happen by itself. Wordss by themselves, or words strung together in a random manner are of comparatively small usage, for those who have visited s foreign state armed merely with a dictionary and no cognition of the linguistic communication. We should look at how words combined into longer vocalizations and cognize the significance for apprehension or for easier acquisition of linguistic communication.
There are two basic rules of sentence organisation: additive order and hierarchal construction. Linear order is the most obvious rule wherein the words in a sentence must happen in a peculiar sequence if the sentence is to convey coveted significance. Although additive order is an of import rule of sentence organisation, sentences are merely more than of ordered sequence or words ; they have internal hierarchal construction every bit good. That is, the single words in a sentenced organized into natural, semantically consistent groupings which are themselves organized into larger groupings, the largest grouping of all being the sentence itself.
One facet of our syntactic competency is our apprehension of the similarities and differences in the behaviour of the words in our linguistic communication. Though all human linguistic communications have legion words, each word in a given linguistic communication in non wholly different in its behaviour from all the other words in that linguistic communication. Alternatively, a big figure of words frequently exhibit the same belongingss, which suggests that a linguistic communication ‘s tremendous stock list of words can be grouped into a comparatively little figure of word categories based on their morphological and syntactic belongingss. These word categories are called lexical classs because the vocabulary is the list of all words in a linguistic communication. Verbs, adjectives and adverbs are portion of the lexical Classs. We besides have the closed lexical classs that are sometimes known as map words. The members of closed categories, unlike the lexical classs, have small significance outside their grammatical intent and are used to associate phrases of assorted types to other phrases. These categories are called “ closed ” because the add-on of new member to a closed class seldom occurs. Clinchers, subsidiary verbs, prepositions, concurrences and pronouns autumn under closed lexical classs.
Another sort of syntactic class is the phrasal class. Phrasal class is a set of components that behave the same, or portion the same maps and distribution. Verb phrase, adjectival phrase, adverbial phrase, prepositional phrase and sentences can be grouped as phrasal classs. The lingual process which divides sentences into their constituent parts or components in known as constitutional analysis. The consecutive beds of components which make up a sentence can be shown most clearly on a tree diagram. Its advantage is that each articulation or node on the tree can be labeled, so that the whole building becomes clearer. An alternate manner of showing the information found on a tree diagram is by agencies of revision regulations. A rewrite regulation is a replacing regulation, in which the symbol to the left of an pointer is replaced by an expanded signifier written to the right of the pointer. Its advantage is that they are absolutely expressed. They do non go forth anything to the imaginativeness. By following them, you could bring forth a perfect English sentence even if you did non cognize any English, since the regulations are applied automatically, measure by measure, one symbol at a clip.
It ‘s good to see linguistic communication in syntactic signifier, nevertheless words, phrases and sentences mean something. A linguist who is analyzing intending attempts to understand why certain words and buildings can be combined together in semantically acceptable manner while others can non. There are sentences that are grammatical syntactically but they are contradictory. To to the full understand what significance is, here are the things that should be clear: 1. Meaning is provided by a community of native talkers, non by some particular authorization like a dictionary or a grammar book. 2. The significance of look is non merely a definition composed of more words in the same linguistic communication, since finally the significance of some words would hold to be known in order to understand the definitions. 3. The significance of an look is non merely a mental image, since mental images seem to change from individual to individual more than significance does, since mental images tend to be merely typical or ideal illustrations of the things they symbolize, and since non all words have matching mental images. 4. The significance of a word involves more than merely the existent thing the word refers to, since non all looks have real-world referents, and replacing looks with indistinguishable referents for each other in a sentence can alter the significance as a whole. 5. Knowing the significance of a sentence involves cognizing the conditions under which it would be true, so explicating the significance of a sentence can be done in portion by explicating the truth conditions. 6. Knowing the significance of an vocalization besides involves cognizing how to utilize it, so conditions on linguistic communication usage besides form an of import facet of significance.
Meaning is a complex phenomenon affecting relationships between a linguistic communication and the heads of its talkers, between a linguistic communication and the universe, and between a linguistic communication and the practical utilizations which it is put.
Syntax surveies the organisation of words into phrases and phrases into sentences. There are forms and regularities that can be discovered in larger units of buildings and its components. If syntax considers linguistic communication from structural position with comparatively small concern from significance, semantics shows great concern on significance. Harmonizing to Roman Jakobson, “ Language without significance is nonmeaningful ” . Since significance is a portion of linguistic communication, semantics is a portion of linguistics.
Syntax and semantics are interrelated with each other. It is difficult to decode the significance if the vocalizations or the linguistic communication spoken are non good organized ; unless you ‘ll work more on mark linguistic communication for you to be understood. Or you ‘ll hold with you dictionary and understand in verbatim which is more hard and you might non acquire the exact significance. In reading, where comprehension is really important, as pedagogue, we should learn our pupils reading comprehension schemes. Furthermore, we should besides steer them so that they would cognize the proper usage of those schemes on reading comprehension.
It is really clear that semantics trades with the survey of significance, alterations in significance, and rules that govern the relationships between sentences or words and their significances. Therefore, to understand linguistic communication we need to acquire the significance of words and morphemes that compose them. We besides must cognize how significances of words combine into phrases and sentence significances. Finally, we must see context when finding significance.