This paper examines thematic/argument construction of the predicate used in the sentences, the sentences were constructed by a research worker on a random footing, and the focal point of the survey was on the thematic construction and theta function of verbs used in this sentences, more specifically the thematic /argument construction of the verbs used in chief clauses of the study.
Aims of the survey:
Indentifying the thematic construction of the verbs used in this sentences
Identifying the statement construction ( theta function ) of the predicate in this sentences
Questions of the survey:
What are the thematic construction of the verbs used in this sentences
What are theta functions of these statements?
Scope of the survey:
This survey aims to place thematic/argument construction of the predicates used in the undermentioned sentences:
Mary workss her flowers in the garden by the lake
The professor of sentence structure told a narrative to his pupils
The male child laughed in the schoolroom
They cut it with a knife
The old edifice of the Congress collapsed at 02:00 Autopsy
Your caput maestro is purchasing you a laptop in your birthday
The physician came yesterday
The ball fell down
The focal point of the analysis will be on thematic/argument construction of verbs used in these sentences.
Verb and statement:
Mark Newson ( 2006 ) stated that, to explicate and understand the difference between lexical and functional classs, we need to cognize and present constructs related with how the portion of the sentence related to each other to finish the significance of that sentence the undermentioned illustration explains that the Professor teaches the pupils here in this sentence there is an event which can be described as ( learning ) , and this event is affecting two persons or participants, the professor and the pupils, and this participants related in a peculiar manner, so the professor is the one making the instruction and the pupils are the one acquiring taught.
Therefore the verb describes the character of event and both the professor and the pupils refer to the elements participated in this event, so the word maps as the verb is so called predicate whereas the one maps as nouns is so called statement, therefore what participants ( statements ) can be involved in the sentence or event is determined by the significance of a peculiar sentence like return for illustration the undermentioned illustrations:
Stephen is kiping
John gives Mary some flowers
In these sentence Stephen is merely one participant in the event of sleeping, so one statement, but in the 2nd sentence consist three participants which are John, Mary and some flowers, therefore three statements, it clear that from the illustrations verb like slumber takes merely one statement whereas verb like give takes at least three statements to finish its significance.
Bas Aerts ( 2001 ) posited that English sentences can be described in two ways, functionally and officially, for illustration the sentence the male child eats banana consist of topic which is the male child and predicator ( verb ) which is chows and direct object which is a banana, so the topic and direct object are filled by noun phrases whereas the predicator is filled by a verb, so the verb chows can non organize a sentence by itself, but it needs other elements to build a meaningful sentence, as it clear that from above sentence that eat demands who was done the act of eating something and was being eaten, therefore the 1 who does the of feeding and something that was being eaten are so called statements or participants.
Leonad H. Babby ( 2009 ) explained that, one of the most of import theories of productive sentence structure is covering with the impression that sentence structure is a projection of the vocabulary, chiefly to suggest expressed theories of the building between the semantics and morphosytactic construction, he added that “ it is right if by vocabulary we understand predicate statement construction ” so the sentence ‘s chief syntactic construction ( vP ) is instantly projection of verb ( V ) statement construction, or the statement construction of any sentence based on grammatical ( syntactic ) relation is determined by the verb ( V ) .
David Adger ( 2002 ) stated that the word like Teach does non show a complete idea on its ain, minimally the word Teach expresses a relationship between objects, which one teaches other, in comparing with the word like slumber which needs merely one object, the object that sleeps, Teach and slumber in contrast with word like gives, which involves three objects, person gives something to person, these words express constructs which some of these constructs are necessary to human computational system that related to the significance of the words, so a predicate can be used in word picture of a state of affairs, but this predicate needs other linguistics ‘ elements to finish the idea as explained above with Teach, slumber and give.
When a predicate involves one other component to finish the idea so a predicate is one-place predicate like in slumber, and when it needs two or three, so a predicate is two-place or three-place predicate.
By traveling back to the words sleep, Teach and give, we can unite these verbs with other participants to build the undermentioned sentences:
Ali is learning the miss
Mary gives Nina a pen
In the first sentence the predicate is combined with the subject which is one-place predicate, in the 2nd one the predicate combined with agent and benefactive which is two-place predicate, and for the last one the predicate is combined with beginning, benefactive and subject which is three-place predicate, Thus these belongingss are linguistically so called thematic functions or theta functions which related to the vocabulary semantics, so if person negotiations about the figure of thematic functions that a predicate assigns, he refers to theta functions and each theta roles assigns merely one function in the sentence. Martin Haiden ( 2005 ) added that harmonizing to Chomsky ( 1981 ) each statement assigns merely one theta function, and each theta function assigns merely one statement.
List of theta functions
Radford ( 2009 ) listed the theta roles as:
Subject: shows the consequence of person ‘s action e.g. the ball fell down
Agent: shows person does the action e.g. Kim is swimming
Experience: shows the entity sing the psychological province e.g. they love Mary
Locative: shows the topographic point which something situated or takes topographic point e.g. he rolled the ball down the hill
Goal: shows the differentiation of some other entity e.g. the pupil lives in KL
Beginning: which shows the entity from which something moves e.g. Mona came from London
Instrument: shows the instrument used to make some action e.g. Ahmed opened the door with cardinal.
This involved indentifying the thematic/argument construction of the predicates used in the sentences
The first process in analysing the informations involved indentifying the thematic construction of the predicates in this sentences
The following measure is placing the theta functions of the predicate statements.
Designation of statement construction:
The statements of the verb are those phrases which complete the significance of verb.
Designation of thematic construction:
Thematic construction ( theta-role ) is the function in which the statement of the verb played.
Harmonizing to the analysis, verbs differ in the they employ the statement and thematic construction, each verb needs merely a limited figure of statement, thereby English verbs can be classified harmonizing to the statement and thematic construction to: first: accusatory verb, which is verb with tow statements e.g. the verb works and purchase, the 2nd: ditransitive verb, which is a verb with three statements e.g. the verb told, the 3rd type of the verb is unergative which is verb with one statement and this statement must delegate the function of agent, the 4th type is unaccusative which is the verb with one statement and this statement must delegate the function as theme therefore can differ it from unergative, and the last type is instrument verb which is the verb with instrument as one of its statements, this categorization is based on the information merely, more specifically these types are merely the types used in this survey.