Articulatory Phoneticss: Articulatory Phonetics is one of the subfields of Phonetics. It deals with the articulation and the acoustic belongingss of address and how they combine to do syllables, words, and sentences. Namely the articulatory phonetics trades with the manner of sound production in the human system. It helps us to understand the assorted variety meats involved in the procedure of sound production and their maps. Air plays a critical function in this procedure. The influx of air into the vocal piece of land of the human organic structure is transformed into sound moving ridges. Here I would to depict the assorted factors involved in address production.
Vocal Variety meats:
The vocal organ drama major function in the procedure of address production. The basic beginning of power is the respiratory system for all the address sounds. Air from the lungs goes to the trachea and in the voice box. This air current passes between the little muscular creases called the vocal cords. If the vocal cords are apart, the air from the lungs will a free transition into throat and the oral cavity. If the vocal cords are non apart and have narrow transition so there occurs certain sum of air force per unit area. This air force per unit area causes vocal cords to vibrate. In this mode the sound is produced due to the quiver of the vocal cords. The soft roof of the mouth is a muscular flap and it can be used to press against the back wall of the throat and shut of the rhinal piece of land. Hence it besides prevents the air from traveling out through the nose. We find a velic closing at that place. This action separates the rhinal tract organize the unwritten piece of land so that the air can travel out merely through the oral cavity. There is a little extremity hanging down at the lower terminal of the soft roof of the mouth and it is called the uvula. The reminder portion of the lingua is divided into the Centre, back and the root. The Centre is partially beneath the difficult roof of the mouth and partially beneath the soft roof of the mouth. The dorsum is beneath the soft roof of the mouth and the pes is opposite of the back wall of the throat.
The Articulation of Consonant Sounds:
Consonant is a address sound, which is formed by the complete or partial closing of the upper vocal piece of land. The upper vocal piece of land lies above the voice box. The air-stream must be obstructed in some manner or other to organize the consonants. The mode of articulation is the manner that the consonant is articulated.
Topographic points of Articulation:
When we use the tip or the blade of the lingua and the alveolar ridge, we produce this harmonic sound. Hence this is called alveolar consonants. Example: tie, pie, near, sigh, ardor and so on.
A harmonic sound pronounced by conveying both lips into contact with each or by rounding them is called bilabial consonant. Example: bargain, my, pie and so on.
A harmonic sound pronounced by puting the lingua against the dorsum of the top forepart dentition is called alveolar consonant. Example: thigh, thy and so on ‘
A harmonic sound pronounced by raising the lower lip until it touches the upper forepart dentition is called Labiodental consonants. Example: fie, vie and so on.
A harmonic sound pronounced by raising the lingua to or near the difficult roof of the mouth is called palatine. We will be able to experience the haste of cold air between the forepart of the lingua and the difficult roof of the mouth. Example: Hugh and so on.
A harmonic sound pronounced by puting the tip of the lingua down behind the blade of the lingua of near the dental consonant is called palate-alveolar. We will be able to experience the feel the articulation if we hold the place while in a breath through the oral cavity. And besides we can experience the cool air between the forepart of the lingua and difficult roof of the mouth. Example: shy, show, she and so on.
A harmonic sound pronounced with the tip of the lingua raised and dead set backward is known as retroflex. Many people do non utilize retroflex sounds at all. Examples: rye, row, beam and so on.
A harmonic sound pronounced with the dorsum of the lingua near to or in contact with the soft roof of the mouth is called velar. Here the dorsum of the lingua is raised so that it touches the veil.
Example: drudge, beldam, bent and so on
In this manner we can sort the consonants with the aid articulation. In order to acquire the feeling of different topographic points of articulation, we can see the undermentioned consonants at the beginning of each word: fee, subject, see. When we pronounce these words we find that the topographic point of articulation moves back in the oral cavity in doing this series of unvoiced consonants traveling from labiodentals, through alveolar consonant, and alveolar, to palate-alveolar. Similarly, when we pronounce the undermentioned words ; flying, we feel that the point of articulation moves frontward from velar through alveolar, to bilabial.
Manner of Articulation:
The mode of articulation explains how the lingua, lip, jaw and other address variety meats involved in the harmonic sound production. The topographic point of articulation is where the obstructor occurs in the vocal piece of land. The mode of articulation can be classified into Stop consonants, Fricative consonants, approximants and Lateral consonants.
Stop consonants occur when the articulators are closed wholly so that the airstream can non travel out of the oral cavity. There are two types of halt consonants.
When there is a complete obstruction of both rhinal and unwritten pits of the vocal piece of land, so the airstream is wholly obstructed. The air force per unit area in the oral cavity will construct up and an unwritten halt will be formed. When the articulators come apart the airstream will be released in little explosion of sound. The undermentioned words produce such sound: pie, purchase – bilabial closing, tie, dye- alveolar closing, cardinal, guy- velar closing.
When the air is stopped in the unwritten pit and it passes through the nose, we obtain rhinal halt. Nasal stop sounds occur at the beginning of the word ‘my’- scriptural closing, near – alveolar closing and the terminal of the word ‘sang’- velar closing.
When there is a uninterrupted frication at the topographic point of articulation, viz. the airstream is partly obstructed and disruptive air flow is produced. It is called continuant sounds. We can happen continuant sound in the undermentioned illustrations: fie, vie – labiodentals, thigh, thy – alveolar consonant, sigh, zoo – alveolar and shy- palate-alveolar. Fricative sounds can be classified in two types viz. sibilants and non sibilants. In these types the higher-pitched sounds with a more obvious hushing and a really typical sound is produced. Example: suspiration and shy.
The attack of one articulator on another without the vocal piece of land being narrowed down, we get a disruptive airstream. Such mode is called as approximant. The consonants in the words ‘we ‘ and natural ‘ are illustrations of estimate, because they have the estimate in the velar part and in the alveolar part severally.
We get sidelong consonant sound, when the obstructor of airstream at a point along the unwritten piece of land. We have the uncomplete closing between one or both sides of the lingua and the roof the oral cavity. We have the undermentioned word as illustration viz. “ lip ” . When we pronounce this word, the sound at the beginning is alveolar sidelong consonant. We find trill and pat in pronunciation. When the articulator is held in the tip of the lingua, the airstream causes to vibrate. Hence we get the shake sound. Example: rye, natural and so on. Tap is a impermanent closing of the unwritten pit. Example: utter and bag. The ‘tt ‘ and ‘dd ‘ of these words are pronounced as a flap. Sometime pat is besides called as flap. This contact is so bit by bit comes down so that there exists a spirant at the same topographic point of articulation. Such sort of combination of halt instantly followed by a continuant is known as an Affricate. We can besides sort the affricatives into sonant and unvoiced. We find the voiceless affricative at the beginning of the word ‘Church ‘ and sonant affricative at the terminal of the word ‘judge ‘ . Hence we understand that affricative is a address sound made up of a halt instantly followed by a spirant.
Hence harmonic sound can be classified in footings of five factors. They are as follows:
State of the vocal cords – voiced and unvoiced consonants
Topographic point of Articulation
Central or Lateral Articulation.
Velic closing – Oral and Nasal
Manner of articulative action.
We have the word ‘sing ‘ as an appropriate 1 for all the above categorizations of consonants. The consonant at the beginning is a voiceless, alveolar, cardinal, unwritten and continuant. Similarly the consonant at the terminal is a sonant, velar, cardinal, rhinal and halt.
The Articulation of Vowel Sounds:
Vowel is a address sound, which is articulated with an unfastened unwritten piece of land. Hence none of the articulators come really near together and the transition of the airstream is to a certain extent unobstructed. The vowel word comes from the Latin, which means speech production. There is deficiency of cardinal closing of the air watercourse. In other words vowels vary in pitch and they are determined by quality of the sound moving ridge. There are two sorts of vowels. They are monophthong and diphthong. The monophthong is a individual or simple vowel sound representing the karyon of a syllable. The diphthong is produced as one uninterrupted sound non as a sequence of sounds. Vowels are ever voiced and vowels are besides unwritten. In mode of pronunciation, vowels are all produced with unfastened estimate. The vowel is normally used to intend both vowel sounds and the written symbols that represent them. Vowel sounds may be specified in footings of the highest place of the lingua and the lips. Vowel sound is normally described in footings of the common qualities height, backness and bulginess. Now I would wish to depict the three classs of vowels.
Vowel – Height
The tallness vowel refers to the perpendicular tallness of the lingua matching to the root of the oral cavity or the gap of the jaw. This can be classified into two types viz. the low vowels and high vowels. The lingua is tongue is positioned high in the high vowels. Example: [ I ] and [ u ] . Similarly the lingua is positioned low in the oral cavity. Example: [ a ] . Sometimes low and high vowels are called as unfastened and close vowels severally. This unfastened and close vowel states the place of the jaw besides. Harmonizing to the International Phonetic Alphabet there are seven different types of vowel highs. They are as follows: close vowel, near-close vowel, close-mid vowel, mid vowel, open-mid vowel, near-open vowel and unfastened vowel.
Vowel – Backeness
The place of the lingua during the pronunciation of a vowel with regard to the dorsum of the oral cavity is known as vowel backness. Example: [ I ] . Here we find that the place of the lingua is towards the dorsum of the oral cavity. The backness vowel is classified into five. They are as follows: forepart vowel, near-front vowel, cardinal vowel, near -vowel and back vowel. When the highest point of the lingua is in the forepart of the oral cavity, the vowels are known as forepart vowels. Example: Heed hid, caput and had. When we pronounce the vowel in the word ‘heed ‘ , the lingua is reasonably near to the roof of the oral cavity. Hence this kind of vowel is classified into a high forepart vowel. When we pronounce the vowel in the word ‘hid ‘ , the lingua is somewhat less near to the roof of the oral cavity. Hence this kind of vowel is classified into a low forepart vowel.
When we articulate the vowels in the undermentioned words ‘father, good, nutrient ‘ , the lingua is near to the upper or back surface of the vocal piece of land. Hence these vowels are known as back vowels. If the organic structure of the lingua is highest in the vowel so it is known as high back vowel. E.g. : ‘food ‘ . If the organic structure of the lingua is the lowest in the vowel so it is knows as low back vowel. E.g. : ‘father ‘ . The articulation between the high back vowel and the low back vowel is known as a mid back vowel. E.g. : ‘good ‘ .
Vowel – Roundedness:
The place of the lips play a critical function in jointing vowels particularly it is rounded or non. When we pronounce the words ‘food and good ‘ , we feel a motion of the lips in add-on to the motion of the jaw. This motion is known as lip rounding. Vowels can be classified as rounded and unrounded or dispersed vowels. Example: who’d- rounded and heed-unrounded.
Vowel – Nasalization:
Nasalization of a vowel is the articulation of a vowel sound when the soft roof of the mouth is lowered, so that the air travels through the oral cavity. Example: [ a ] and [ a?? ] are the nasalized equivalent of [ a ] and [ v ] severally.
Vowel – Voice:
Voice is the voicing procedure of jointing a vowel, where the vocal cords produce certain produce certain periodic quivers. We can besides specify voice as any oscillating sate of portion of the voice box that modifies the airstream and consequences quiver. The assorted types of voice are average voice, decrepit voice and breathy voice. Let us see the undermentioned Example:
Breathy voice-he wears [ jaI¤ ] , average voice -tree – [ ja ] and decrepit voice -he carries – [ jaI° ] .
Vowel- Tongue root Chemical reaction:
When jointing some vowels, the root of the lingua has alone places in some linguistic communications in Africa. There are two categorizations in it, viz. Advance Tongue Root and Reacted lingua root. The difference between these two resembles the tense and they are pronounced otherwise. During the procedure of lingua root reaction we find certain sum of tenseness in the vocal piece of lands.
Vowel – Tension / Checked vowels versus Free Vowels:
Tension is a alone vowel quality used to depict the differences in consonants. Let us see the followers words for illustration: ‘bit ‘ and ‘beat ‘ . The vowel in the first word can be described as a tense vowel and the vowel in the 2nd word is described as a slack vowel. We normally articulate the tense vowel with a advanced lingua root than the slack vowels.
Hence vowel sounds are classified with regard to the undermentioned factors:
The tallness of the organic structure of the lingua.
The front- back place of the lingua.
The grade of lip rounding.
Here we besides find that the articulation of vowels with regard to the place of the highest point of the lingua is non ever satisfactory for few grounds. First, the high vowels do non hold the same tallness and the back high vowel has about the same tallness as a mid front vowel. Second, the back vowels contrast significantly in their grade of backness. Third, there exist considerable differences in the form of the lingua and in the forepart vowels and the back vowels. English has six diphthongs, five of which are falling diphthongs and one is of which is a lifting diphthong.
Address is composed of vowels and consonants. They form the syllables and the syllables form the words. There are other characteristics superimposed on the syllables and they are known as suprasegmentals. It includes fluctuations in emphasis and pitch. Variation in emphasis used in English linguistic communication helps us to distinguish a noun and a verb. Example: ‘an abuse ‘ versus ‘to abuse ‘ , ‘a deviant ‘ versus ‘to deviant ‘ and ‘an flood ‘ versus ‘to flood. In all the above examples the nouns are stressed in the first syllable and the verbs are stressed in the last syllable. Let us see the
Example: “ This is my male parent ” . Here we find the highest pitch occur on the first syllable of ‘father ‘ and the lowest on the 2nd. Now let us see the undermentioned inquiry, “ Is this your male parent? ” Here we find the first syllable of ‘father ‘ is by and large a low pitch and the last syllable is on a high pitch. Hence the pitch gives the fluctuations in significances of the same words.