Functional grammar, as explained by Halliday ( 1994 ) is concerned with significances. Functional grammar looks at linguistic communication as dwelling of units of significances instead than balls of signifiers. These units of significances are represented in assorted unwritten and written texts. In maintaining with the thought, functional grammar is interested to analyse linguistic communication at the text degree instead than sentences. Further, Halliday ( 1994 ) writes that there are 3 lines of significance in the clause. ( 1 ) the subject maps in the construction of the clause as message ( 2 ) the capable maps in the construction of the clause as an exchange ( 3 ) the histrion maps in the construction of the clause as representation. Giving more account about functional grammar, he adds that functional grammar makes extended usage of map labels like histrion, procedure, end, subject & A ; rheme etc.
Functional grammar is a new topic in the English Department of State University of Jakarta. It has become a topic in the English Department of State University of Jakarta since 2002. This topic is to be taken by all pupils to finish their survey. Functional grammar consists of functional grammar I and functional grammar 2 with 3 semester credits each. Both functional grammar 1 and functional grammar 2 have similar intent that is to back up the development of ability to talk and compose English right. ( Buku Pedornan Akademik FBS, 2004/2005 )
As experienced by English Department pupils in functional grammar categories, the procedure of larning functional grammar includes the treatment of constructs which is so followed by analysing text. Texts to be analyzed can be taken from different resources such as newspaper, magazine, advertizement, movie or novel.
Based on the observation and informal negotiations with other pupils done by the research worker, E pupils frequently had troubles when analysing text. The pupils felt confused to set the words from text into functional grammar constructs. So far, there was no pattern how to use functional grammar constructs in speech production.
Sing the status, the research worker is interested to carry on a survey to place English Department pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards their cognition, comprehension, and ability to use functional grammar constructs in analysing text and speech production.
B. Focus of Study
The focal point of survey is placing English Department pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards their cognition, comprehension, and ability to use functional grammar constructs in analysing text and speech production.
C. Problem Statement
Based on background of the survey above, inquiries addressed are:
1. What is English Department pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards their cognition of functional grammar constructs.
2 What is English Department pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards their comprehension of functional grammar constructs
3 What is English Department pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards their ability to
use functional grammar constructs in analysing text.
4 What is English Department pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards tieir ability to use functional grammar constructs in speech production.
D. Purpose of Study
Based on job statement, the intent of this survey is to place English Department pupils ‘ perceptual experience towards their cognition, comprehension, and ability to use functional grammar constructs in analysing text and speech production.
E. Benefit of Study
This survey is to give input related to English Department pupils ‘ cognition, comprehension of functional grammar constructs and their ability to use the constructs in analysing text and speech production.
This chapter discusses seven subjects relevant to the demands of supplying theoretical bases for a survey of placing English Department pupils ‘
perceptual experience towards their cognition, comprehension, and ability to use functional grammar constructs in analysing text and speech production. The first subject is traditional grammar, the 2nd subject is functional grammar, the 3rd subject is the differences between traditional grammar and functional grammar, the 4th subject is functional grammar as a topic in the English Department, the 5th subject is Perception, the 6th subject is Ability to Apply, and the 7th subject is Talking.
In the treatment about Traditional Grammar, Halliday ( 1994 ) explains that traditional grammar has ever been the grammar of written linguistic communication ; and traditional grammar has ever been a merchandise grammar. While, Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) province that grammar is the construction of linguistic communication. They farther explain that traditional grammar purposes at depicting the grammar of criterions
English by comparing the grammar of English with the one of Latin. They province that pupils learn the name of parts of address ( middaies, verbs, prepositions adverbs, adjectives ) They besides explain that traditional grammar focuses on the regulations for bring forthing coect sentences.
Still related to traditional grammar, based on Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia 2O36 ) Rhode Island 1Lng Isrics trad t’ona1 grammar is a screen name for the aggregation of
constructs and thoughts about the construction of linguistic communication that Western societies have received from ancient Greek and Roman beginnings. The beginning besides states that the focal point of attending of traditional grammar is on the surface construction, non on significance.
So far, traditional grammar has been associated with the usage of category labels like noun. verb, adjectival, adverb, etc. Traditional grammar is chiefly concerned with sentence structure and some morphology. Traditional grammar focal points on surface construction. Traditional grammar limits the treatment on the sentence degree.
In the treatment about Functional Grammar, Halliday ( 1994 ) explains that functional grammar is basically a ‘natural ‘ grammar, in the sense that everything in functional grammar can, be explained, ujtimately, by mention to how linguistic communication is used. He farther states that the purpose of functional grammar has been to build a grammar for intents of text analysis: 1 that would do it possible to state reasonable and utile things about any text spoken and written in modern English.
Traveling into deeper treatment, Halliday ( 1994 ) pronoses three lines of significance
in the clause. There are subject, capable and histrion. As a on the job estimate, he
defines different strands of significance as follows:
1. The Theme maps in the construction of the clause as message.
2. The Capable maps in the construction of the clause as an exchange.
3. The Actor maps in the construction of the clause as representation.
While, Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) note that functional grammar efforts to depict linguistic communication in existent usage and focal point on text and contexts. They view that functional grammar was developed based on an premise that linguistic communication as a resource for doing intending. They besides province that functional grammar is concerned tiot merely with the constructions but besides with how those constructions construct intending. Functional grammar starts with the inquiry, how the significances of this text are realized.
On the same position of Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) , and Halliday
( 1994 ) , Martin, Matthiessen, & A ; Painter ( 1997 ) describe that functional grammar is a manner of looking at grammar as it is used. Functional grammar focuses on the
development of grammatical systems as a agency for people to interact with each other.
1. Clause as Message
Halliday ( 1994 ) states that clause as message is a clause which has significance as a message, a quantum of information. He besides claims in all languages the clause has the character of a message: it has some signifier of organisation giving it the position of a communicative event, but there are different ways in which this may be achieved. In the clause as a message, there are theme and rheme.
Halliday ( 1994 ) explains that subject is the component which serves as the point of going of the message, the portion in which the clause is concerned. Furthermore, he states that the subject is put foremost.
Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) , speaking about subject, note that subject is what the clause is traveling to be approximately. They further depict that the subject can be identified as that or those element ( s ) which come ( s ) foremost in the clause. Subject represents the point of going of this message from the old 1. Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) shortly province that ‘this is what I ‘m speaking about ‘ . They besides said that in footings of looking at a clause as a message, the subject looks backwards, associating to the current message to what has gone earlier.
On the same position about Theme, Martin, Matthiessen, & A ; Painter ( 1997 ) note that subject is one of two systems that organize the information presented in the clause, the other being that information. Further they besides province that subject can be divided into 3 classs. There are conceptional / topical subject, interpersonal subject, textual subject.
1. Conceptional! Topical subject is linguistic communication construes human experience. Ideational consists of what there is to reason about.
2. Interpersonal subject is linguistic communication enacts human relationships. Interpersonal consists of something people can interact with.
3. Textual subject is linguistic communication creates discourse. Textual consists of word order. Related the clause to its context.
Halliday ( 1994 ) states that rheme is the balance of the message, the portion in which the subject is developed. He farther explains that rheme as a message construction. A clause consists of a Theme accompanied by a Rheme.
Still in the treatment about Rheme, Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wigneil ( 1994 ) note that rheme is the remainder of the clause New information is contained in the rheme
They further represent that rheme is ‘This is what I ‘m stating about it ‘ . Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) besides said that the rheme points both backwards and forwards by picking up on information which is already a’ailable and adding Ti it and by showing information which was non at that place earlier.
2 Clause as Exchange
Based on Flalliday ( 1994 ) , clause as exchange is a clause which has significance as an exchange, a dealing between talker and hearer. In clause as exchange, there are temper and residu.
Temper harmonizing to Halliday ( 1994 ) refers to the component that realizes the choice of temper in the clause. While, Martin, Matthiessen, & A ; Painter ( 1997 ) describe that the temper component makes clause ‘negotiable ‘ and consists of Finite and Subject.
( 1 ) . Finite
This term, harmonizing to Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) province that finite component is one of the little Numberss of verbal operators showing tense, mode and mutual opposition. They farther explain that finite component has the map of turn uping an exchange with mention to the talker and doing a proposition something that can be argued about.
Still in the same treatment about finite, Martin, Matthiessen, & A ; Painter ( 1997 ) refers to the 1 that makes a clause a negotiable by coding it as positive or negative and by anchoring it, either in footings of clip ( it is! it is n’t: it was/it was n’t:
it will/it wo n’t ) or in footings of mode ( it may! it wiIIJ it must, etc ) .
( 2 ) . Capable
In the treatment about capable, Halliclay ( 1994 ) states that topic is the responsible component, but in proposition this means the 1 on which the cogency of the information is made to rest.
Not to be different from Halliday ( 1994 ) , Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) province that topic is that upon which the talker rests his instance in exchanges of
information, and the one responsible for sing that the prescribed action is or is
non carned out in exchanges of goods and services
Still n the treatment about capable, Martin, Matthiessen, & A ; Painter ( 1997 ) stated that topic is the component in footings of which the clause can be negotiated.
Halliday ( 1994 ) , Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) said that residue consists of functional elements of three sorts: Predicator, Complement and Adjunct.
( 1 ) . Predicator
Halliday ( 1994 ) says that predicator occurs in all major clauses, except those that are displayed through eclipsis. Predicator is realized by a verbal group.
Still in the same treatment about Predicator, Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) claim that predicator is the verb portion of the clause, the spot which Tells
what ‘s making, go oning or being.
( 2 ) . complement
Halliday ( 1994 ) says that a complement is an component within the residue that has the potency of being capable but is non. Complement is realized by a nominal group.
Giving more account about complement, Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wigneli ( 1994 ) province that complement answers the inquiry ‘is/had what ‘ , ‘to whom ‘ , ‘did to what ‘ .
( 3 ) . Adjunct
Adjunct, harmonizing to Halliday ( 1994 ) , and Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) is an component that has non got the potency of being capable. Adjunct is typically realized by an adverbial group or a prepositional phrase.
3. Clause as Representation
Halliday ( 1994 ) describes that clause as a representation is a clause which has significance as a representation, the histrion is the active participant in that procedure. He besides states that participants related to each procedure type are as in the tabular array below:
a. Procedures and Participants
Material: Actor ( actor of the procedure )
procedures of Goai ( thing affected by the procedure )
Range ( thing unaffected by the procedure )
Beneficiary ( the 1 to whom the procedure is said to take topographic point )
Behave ( a witting being if it is non, the clause is considered to be
Behaviour ( extends the procedure )
Senser ( actor of the procedure that is realised by a human or at least
witting participant )
Phenbmenon ( what is thought, wanted, perceived or liked /
disliked that is realised by a nominal group or embedded clause )
Sayer ( actor of the procedure )
Receiver ( addressee of the address )
Target ( the participant which is the topic of the talk )
Verbiage ( sums up what is said in one nominal group or embedded
Carrier ( thing described )
Attribute ( description, it is typically an indefinite nominal group
The other component that besides plays an of import portion in the experiential significance is the circumstance. A circumstance is defined as any piece of circumstantial information about the procedure within its ain clause ( Halliday 1994 ) . The map is to light the procedure in some manner. Fortunes are realized by adverbial groups, prepositional phrases, and even by nominal groups.
Still in the same treatment about Circumstance, Halliday ( 1994 ) divides
fortunes into 9 classs. There are: ( 1 ) Extent ( 2 ) Location ( 3 ) Manner ( 4 )
Cause ( 5 ) Contingency ( 6 ) Accompaniment ( 7 ) Role ( 8 ) Matter ( 9 ) Angla
( 1 )
Extent is expressed in footings of some unit measurings like paces, laps, unit of ammunitions, and old ages. The interrogative signifiers for Extent are: ( a ) how far? ( B ) how long? ( degree Celsius ) how many? The typical construction is a nominal group with quantifier or indefinite.
with an adjectival as Head )
Identified ( that which is to be identified ) Identifier ( the new individuality )
( 2 ) Location
Location clarifies the location of the look. The general questions are where? and when? . The typical construction is an adverbial group or prepositional phrase.
3 ) Manner
Manner, another set of classs, is divided into three subcategories. There
are: ( a ) Means ( B ) Quality ( degree Celsius ) Comparison.
Means refers to the agencies whereby a procedure takes topographic point, it is typically expressed by a prepositional phrase with the preposition by or with. The interrogative signifiers are how? and what with?
Quality is typically expressed by an adverbial group with-ly adverb as Head.
It answers the inquiry of ‘how ‘ .
Comparison is typically expressed by a prepositional phrase started with like or unlike, or an adverbial group of similarity or difference. The interrogative signifier is what.. .like?
( 4 ) Cause
The Cause was divided into 3 classs. There are: ( a ) Reason ( B ) Purpose
( degree Celsius ) Behalf
Reason represents the ground for which a procedure takes topographic point – what causes
it, the interrogative signifier are why? or how?
Purpose represents the intent for which an action takes topographic point – the
purpose behind it. The interrogative signifier is what for?
Behalf represents ihe entity, typically a individual, on whose behalf or for
whose sake the action is undertaken – who is for. They are expressed by a prepositional phrase with for or with a complex preposition such as for the
interest of, in favor on behalf of. The interrogative signifier is who for?
( 5 ) Eventuality
Eventuality comprises 3 subcategories. There are: ( a ) Condition ( B )
Concession ( degree Celsius ) Expression.
Condition is expressed by in instance of, in the event of.
Concession is expressed by in malice of or despite.
Express ion of default has in the absence of, in default of.
( 6 ) Accompaniment
Accompaniment, another set of circumstantial elements, represents the
significances ‘and ‘ , or ‘ , ‘not ‘ as circumstantial. interrogative signifiers are and
who / what else? It is expressed by prepositional phrase with preposition
such as with, without, besides, and alternatively of.
( 7 ) Function
Role includes the subcategories of Guise construes the significance of ‘be ‘ the iitterrogative signifier is what as? and Product with significance of ‘become ‘ , interrogative signifier is what into? .
( 8 ) Matter
Matter is expressed by preposition such as about, refering, with mention
to and sometimes merely of. Interrogative signifier is what about? .
( 9 ) Angle
Angle is used preposition to, but, like. It is frequently expressed by a more complex signifier such as harmonizing to, in the position I sentiment of, from the point of view of.
From the definitions, it can be concluded that functional grammar makes extended usage of map labels like Actor, Process, Goal, Theme, Rheme and so
on. In functional grammar there is no differentiation between lexis and gran’1mar. Both lexis and grammar are meaning-creating, because functional grammar is concerned with significance than construction.
The Differences between Traditional and Functional Grammar
Linda Gerot & A ; Peter Wignell ( 1994 ) stated that the chief difference between traditional grammar and functional grammar is in the unit of analysis. Traditional
in 4th semester. While, functional grammar 2 is to be taken by pupils in 5th semester. Both functional grammar I and 2 consist of 3 semester credits unit. Both functional grammar 1 and functional grammar 2 are to be taken by pupils to finish their survey.
As stated in Buku Pedoman Akademik PBS ( 2004/2005 ) , Functional grammar I and 2 have purpose that is to back up the development of ability to talk and compose English right.
Based on experience and observing in functional grammar categories, analysing texts is one sort of the procedure of functional grammar acquisition. Texts to be analyzed can be taken from reliable stuff. There are different resources to analyse written texts such as newspaper, magazine, advertizement, etc. While, to analyse spoken texts, the stuff can be taken from duologues in the movie or novel.
Percept has assorted defmitions from assorted angles. Bloom ( 1956 ) cited by Elliot et all. ( 2000 ) , says that “ perceptual experience is the procedure or act of comprehending information and doing sense of it ” .
As stated in New Lexicon Webster International Dictionary of English Language Volume 2 ( 1997 ) perceptual experience is ( 1 ) the act of perceiving, apprehensiveness with the head or the senses ; ( 2 ) an immediate of intuitive recorition, as of a moral or esthetic quality ; ( 3 ) the module of perceiving, as distinguished from the act of comprehending. Meanwhile, in Oxford Advanced Learner ‘s Dictionary ( 2000 ) ,
perceptual experience is defined as “ an thought, a belief or an image you have as a consequence of how we see and understand something ” .
Still in the treatment about perceptual experience, in Winkipedia Encyclopedia, an cyberspace based encyclopedia, “ perceptual experience is a procedure that involves choosing, forming, and construing stimulations in our environment ” .
Further. HeiTher ( 2003 ) explains that “ perceptual experience refers to reading of what we take in through our sense ” . He notes that the manner we perceive our environment is what makes us different from other animate beings and different from each other.
From the definitions stated above, the research worker concludes that perceptual experience can be thought as each person ‘s personal theory of world, through the procedure of construing and imputing significance to what he/she observed or experienced.
Briefly, perceptual experience refers to see and experiencing. Therefore, two sorts of instruments were used for the informations aggregation. They were questionnaire and interview.
Based on the statement of functional grammar intent, that is to back up the development of ability to talk and compose English right. It means that functional grammar can be applied by English Department pupils in linguistic communication accomplishment, talking in peculiar. Related to the statement, to mensurate pupils ‘ perceptual experience about their ability to use functional grammar in analysing text and speech production can be seen from educational aims end of cognitive sphere ( Bloom Taxonomy ) in the 3rd degree. The 3rd degrees are knowledge. comprehension and application.
Ability to Use
In Webster ‘s New World Dictionary of American English ( 1998 ) , ability is a accomplishment, expertise, or endowment. Meanwhile in Cambridge International Dictionary ( 1995 ) ability is the physical or mental power or accomplishment needed to make something.
As stated in Longman Dictionary of English Language and civilization ( 1998 ) ability is the fact of holding the accomplishment, power or other qualities that are needed in order to make something. While, Bloom ( 1956 ) cited in Elliot et all. ( 2000 ) proposes categorization of educational aims, related to 1: Cognitive Domain. There are 6 major categories: ( 1 ) cognition – remembering specific facts, ( 2 ) comprehension – understanding what is communicated, ( 3 ) application – generalizing and utilizing abstract information in! concrete state of affairss, ( 4 ) analysis – breakage job into subparts and observing relationships among the parts, ( 5 ) synthesis – seting together portion to organize a whole, ( 6 ) rating – utilizing standards to do judgements.
Subsequently these classs were revised, as stated by Arend RI ( 2004 ) , the last two classs of Bloom ‘s Taxonomy that are synthesis and rating were revised to go evaluate and create. To be more inside informations, Arend proposes cognitive procedure classs into the undermentioned. ( 1 ) retrieve – retrieve relevant cognition from long-run memory, ( 2 ) understand – concept from instructional -messages, including unwritten, written, and in writing communicating, ( 3 ) use – carry out or utilize a process in a given state of affairs, ( 4 ) analyze – interrupt material into constitutional parts and find how, parts relate to one another and to an overall construction or intent, ( 5, ) evaluate – do judgement based on standards and criterions, ( 6 ) create
– put elements together to organize a coherent or functional whole ; reorganise elements into a new form or construction.
Based on Bloom ‘s Taxonomy, ability to use occurs after ability to cognize and to grok. Related to the survey of placing English Department pupils ‘ ability to use functional grammar to better their speech production ability, the inclusion of ability to cognize or knowledge and ability to grok ( comprehension ) is hence considered necessary.
In the treatment about speech production, Broomly ( 1988 ) explains that “ Speaking is an expressive linguistic communication putting to death which the talker symbols to pass on ” .
While, Jones ( 1989 ) says speech production is a signifier of communicating that has four elements i.e. talker, receiving system ( hearer ) , message and channel ( communicating tools such as, telephone, Internet, missive, face to confront interaction, etc ) .
Still in the treatment about speech production, in communication, people besides produce, sounds, taking the right signifier, seting words in the right order and so away. This is besides supported by W.F. Mackey ( in Bygate 1995 ) who says that in unwritten look people non merely affect the right sounds, the right form of beat and modulation but besides the pick of words and inflexion in the right order to convey the right significance.
When we speak to other people, it means that we express our thoughts or our feelings orally. This statement is supported in Webster Dictionary ( 1998 ) “ to talk is to show ideas sentiments or feelings orally.