By and big, harmonizing with the literature, we have to see two chief attacks for explicating regional development and hence the economic growing. Basically we refer to the Neo-classical attack and the Keynesian attack. Since cardinal differences remain about the implicit in causes of regional and local disparities in growing rates, we will be looking at these theories, which allow us to analyze and explicate differences in growing between parts ( e.g. why growing is greater in the North than the South of Italy ) .
Growth can be defined in a figure of ways: growing in end product, growing in end product per worker and growing in end product per capita. There is non a most appropriate index because the utilizing of one alternatively of another depends by the intent of the research. Harmonizing to Armstrong and Taylor ( 2000 ) we refer to end product growing, used to bespeak growing in productive capacity and its ability to pull capital and labour from other parts, and growing in end product per worker, used to bespeak alterations in a part ‘s fight.
We notice that we analyze the basic constructs of the two attacks. The neo classical attack emphasis the supply side features of the growing procedure and hence the supply-side of the economic system as labour supply, capital stock and proficient advancement. It assumes efficient market allotment throughout and so complete cognition ( perfect information ) , perfect competition and no barriers to mobility of factors. Therefore, this attack explains regional disparities as the consequence of additions from the reallocation of resources towards their pareto-optimal degree.
The deductions of this attack, in which demand adjusts to provide, are that the theoretical account suggests that regional disparities occur basically because proficient advancement, the growing of capital stock and the growing of the labour force may change between parts. Furthermore, in the basic Neo-classical theoretical account, factor migration plays an of import portion in cut downing regional disparities ; it is assumed that capital and labour move to the parts offering the highest rate of return. In fact parts with a high capital/labor ratio will hold high rewards and low output on investing and hence labour and capital are predicted to travel in opposite waies. However, the grounds shows that disparities in development persist in the long tally and extensions of the theoretical account were required. First, harmonizing to Cappello ( 2007 ) , a two sector export growing theoretical account helps to explicate why both factors flow to the rich part and back the debut in the theoretical account of the Human capital, considered in the endogenous growing theory as an engine of growing. Therefore, it is non plenty to hold technological development embodied in new capital stock acquired but the ability to absorb and utilize this new engineering is besides required.
Finally, from above we can province that the institutional environment thrusts disparities in regional development.
The Keynesian attack stresses the function of demand and in peculiar accent is placed on the function of regional exports as the chief engine of end product growing. Indeed this attack looks at the demand-side features of the growing procedure, supply adjusts to demand. We notice that a farther extension of the Keynesian theoretical account is the base for the cumulative causing which basically argues that one time growing disparities occur they tend to go cumulative and self-perpetuating.
In peculiar we examine, briefly, the Export-base attack in which typically capital and labour is attracted to parts rich in natural resources, so the cardinal underpinning of the export-base theoretical account is that the initial stimulation is traced to the development of natural resources. Therefore, the geographic distribution of resources helps to explicate why parts grow at different rates. The basic rule of these theoretical accounts is that a big economic system ( Country ) can trust its development on endogenous forces ; alternatively a smaller system ( Region ) is influenced by external factors to the system.
The procedure implied by the theoretical account is that an addition ( positive daze ) in the growing of universe income has a positive consequence on export growing and the eventful addition in a part ‘s export growing raises first regional labour productiveness and so part ‘s fight by cut downing regional monetary values relative to rivals.
Bearing in head the two attacks we are able to see the policy deductions.
If we agree with the neoclassical point of position the policies that have to be implemented are those which do non seek to restrain the mobility of production factors and hence factor mobility should be promoted. Besides, proficient advancement in dawdling parts and the diffusion of cognition to these parts should be stimulated. Furthermore, invention and cognition should be considered as get downing points of regional policy for dawdling parts. At the terminal one of the most of import deduction regards the labour market and its characteristics. In fact, frequently, regional divergency occurs because labour market fails to set to an exogenic daze. This happened basically because of deficient migration or inflexible rewards. The latter, in fact, is the cardinal ground for the outgrowth of regional unemployment. To sum up the policy shaper needs to take into history the effects of national and regional bargaining.
If we consider the Keynesian attack the policy shaper needs to see that demand is of import every bit good as supply. Therefore, desired betterments in supply efficiency may be augmented by policies that seek to develop an export base. In fact, given the openness of regional economic systems, local companies need to sell to external markets and a more rapid growing, in the short tally, may be come-at-able by functioning external demand.
To sum up, there is no cosmopolitan understanding between economic experts about the causes of regional growing disparities and the two chief attacks have different policy deductions. Even if, as usual, a graduated mix of policy oriented on promote demand and oriented on the supply side are required, if we distinguish between Short and Long run we can state that from a SR point of position are more desirable policies that seek to advance external demand and in a LR position are more desirable policies that seek to advance domestic supply.