Lifestyle is associated with almost all types of human activity and directly determines the state of his health. This is an active activity of people, purposefully formed throughout their lives. Among the definitions of the concepts of a healthy lifestyle of a person, the most acceptable is the wording of academician Yu.P. Lisitsyn: “A healthy lifestyle is a way of human life aimed at preserving and strengthening his health”.
You can define a healthy lifestyle as follows – this is a way of life aimed at maintaining and improving people’s health. A healthy lifestyle implies a change in the attitude of the individual and society as a whole to the state of personal (and through it public) health.
Indeed, if an individual does not drink, do not smoke, do not use drugs, and is engaged in physical education, then his chances of getting sick are reduced. If society prohibits the advertising of alcohol and tobacco, then their consumption is reduced. If the state is engaged in the construction of sports facilities, the promotion of active sports, then the number of people involved in physical education is growing. That is, only a combination of individual and social events is able to improve both personal and public health.
A healthy lifestyle is not only biomedical activities, but also the rational satisfaction of physical and spiritual needs, the formation of personal culture and human education. This is a high medical activity, the ability to perform their professional and social functions regardless of the political and economic situation in the country.
The formation of a healthy lifestyle aims to improve the living conditions of a person on the basis of his valueological literacy, training in hygiene skills, knowledge of the main factors that worsen his health. Observations and experiments allowed us to separate the factors affecting human health into physical, psychological and social. Maintaining health largely depends on the human environment. Three groups of factors affecting human health are distinguished:
physical (air, water, soil, food pollution, noise, electromagnetic fields, radiation, etc.);
psychological (labor, family, personal, cultural relations, psycho-emotional influences, etc.);
social (social and political changes, unemployment, lack of time, energy, etc.).
Physicians, first of all, include the living conditions, the level of material support and education, the composition of the family, etc., as well as the factors that determine the age of the mother when the child was born, the age of the father, especially the course of pregnancy and childbirth, the physical characteristics of the child birth. Psychological factors are also considered as a result of the action of biological and social factors.
The formation of the human environment is directly related to its valueological culture, the ability to withstand the effects of physical, psychological and social pressure.
The genotype and hereditarily determined characteristics of the body and psyche are practically not amenable to correction in the process of individual development. Therefore, genetic defects and hereditary diseases are one of the most difficult problems of modern science. Humanity has high hopes for the fight against these diseases using genetic engineering methods. Each person in contact with representatives of medical genetics and psychology with careful monitoring of himself and his relatives can determine the hereditary characteristics of his body, his predisposition to organic diseases, temperament and other individual characteristics. Modern methods of medical genetics, psychological testing, and exteroreceptive diagnostics make it possible to carry out these examinations quite effectively, to receive recommendations on the prevention of possible diseases and the strengthening of individual health.
Protecting one’s own health is the immediate responsibility of everyone; he does not have the right to pass it on to others. After all, it often happens that a person with the wrong way of life, bad habits, lack of exercise, overeating brings himself to a catastrophic state by the age of 20-30 and only then remembers medicine.
The following basic elements of a healthy lifestyle are usually distinguished: rational nutrition; optimal physical activity; hygiene measures; rejection of bad habits; infectious disease prevention; rehabilitation measures.
No matter how perfect medicine is, it cannot save everyone from all diseases. Man is the creator of his own health, for which he must fight. From an early age, it is necessary to lead an active lifestyle, to harden, engage in physical education and sports, observe the rules of personal hygiene, – in a word, to achieve true harmony of health in reasonable ways (Appendix).
A healthy lifestyle is a lifestyle based on the principles of morality, rationally organized, active, labor, tempering and, at the same time, protecting from adverse environmental influences, allowing to maintain moral, mental and physical health until old age.
Each person has great opportunities to strengthen and maintain his health, to maintain working capacity, physical activity and vitality until old age.
Bad habits – habits that violate ethical standards accepted in society, as well as contribute to the deterioration of human health. The most common bad habits in modern society are: smoking tobacco, drinking alcohol and narcotic drugs.
Often this leads to serious illnesses: alcoholism, drug addiction, nicotine addiction. Refusing bad habits is another important step on the path to one’s own health. It is worth giving up smoking, if only because it harms your children and those closest to you.
The principles of physical education in a healthy lifestyle. According to statistics, from 30 to 50% of Russians experience physical inactivity (lack of motor activity). Hypodynamia leads to diseases such as obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, arterial hypertension, insomnia, etc. Individuals with physical inactivity, as a rule, are more likely to experience sexual disorders: decreased libido, fertility, and other disorders.
Optimal physical activity (active motor mode) is one of the most important factors in a healthy lifestyle. For preserving the health of an individual, systematic physical exercises or unprofessional sports, which give a load to all muscle groups (for example, swimming, badminton, etc.), are of particular importance.
Physical culture contributes not only to the physical development and prevention of a number of diseases, but also to the harmonious formation of personality. Regular physical activity stimulates mental activity. Persons who regularly engage in physical education are less likely to be addicted to drugs, alcohol, and nicotine than people with physical inactivity.
As the results of numerous studies show, having started systematic physical education, many people at the same time begin to observe other basic elements of a healthy lifestyle: eat rationally, give up bad habits, and are more strict about personal hygiene. This phenomenon is usually associated with the fact that, starting to engage in physical culture, the individual realizes that his health can be controlled.
The main types of physical activity recommended to maintain a healthy lifestyle:
Morning exercise is the most optimal form of physical activity, as contributes to the work of all muscle groups.
Walking – intensive walking is used with an additional load on the cardiovascular and muscle systems, for example, walking with crutches, walking on stilts, walking on stairs, water, etc.
Jogging – used alone or in combination with walking. It was once recommended as a panacea for a healthy lifestyle, but this concept is currently being revised.
Skiing has not only training, but also a hardening effect.
Rowing has a beneficial effect on metabolism.
Ice skating contributes to the development of coordination of movements.
Cycling strengthens vestibular reactions, stimulates metabolic processes.
Swimming contributes to the training of the cardiovascular system, as well as improving the mechanisms of thermoregulation.
Sports games in which various muscle groups are involved (badminton, tennis, etc.).
The principles of good nutrition. Nutrition is one of the indispensable factors of life. The ancients claimed that “man is what he eats.” Nutrients almost completely determine physical, mental performance. Human health is largely determined by its nutritional status (or nutritional status), i.e. the degree of supply of the body with energy and the whole complex of food and biologically active substances (primarily irreplaceable).
Food has a profound effect on development, growth, morbidity, mortality, not only in prenatal development and early infancy, but also on morbidity, physical and mental ability throughout life.
Accordingly, the amount and type of food consumed are important factors determining the general condition of a person. Good health has become an indicator of the standard of living of modern people, and maintaining it should be a paramount social task.
Reducing the morbidity of the population, preventing the chronic course of pathological processes in adulthood is economically advantageous, as it reduces the costs associated with the provision of medical care, prevents material damage due to disability. Consequently, proper rational nutrition, which maintains health and plays a significant role in the prevention of diseases, also becomes economically beneficial.
Rational nutrition is a timely and properly organized provision of the body with the optimal amount of food, including energy and nutrients in the required quantities and in the right ratio. A balanced diet can prevent or slow down the development of many diseases, and not only diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
The concept of healthy eating began to be used in the 90s of the twentieth century. The essence of this concept is that nutrition should not only satisfy the body’s needs for energy and nutrients, but also help prevent the development of chronic non-infectious diseases, maintain health and longevity. The concept of “healthy nutrition” includes a balanced diet, but supplements it by considering food as a serious factor in the prevention or risk of major diseases of modern man, including cardiovascular, oncological, diseases, diabetes, osteoporosis, obesity and many others.
The basic principles of good nutrition are as follows:
full satisfaction of energy, plastic and other needs of the body;
ensuring an adequate level of metabolism;
intake of a sufficient amount of vitamins, trace elements, dietary fiber and other essential (necessary) food components (nutrients).
The main criteria for a balanced diet are:
balance – nutrition, in which there are adequate ratios of proteins, fats, carbohydrates and other nutrients, depending on age, gender and other individual characteristics;
proper diet – food should be four to five meals a day; · you should not eat food between its main meals; · it is necessary to exclude large breaks (more than 4-5 hours) between meals; · you can not eat food immediately before bedtime; · energetically with breakfast you need to get about 25% of the food, with lunch – 35%, dinner – 15% and 25% – with other meals.
Five essential principles of safe nutrition of the World Health Organization.
The first principle. Keep clean. Wash your hands before contact with food, and often during cooking.
Wash your hands after going to the toilet. Wash and disinfect surfaces and equipment involved in cooking.
Protect the kitchen area from insects, parasites and other animals. While most microorganisms do not cause disease, dangerous microorganisms are present in large quantities in soil, water, animals and humans. Such microorganisms are carried on hands, rags and kitchen utensils, especially chopping boards, and even the slightest contact can cause them to enter the food and cause foodborne illness.
The second principle. Separate raw from finished. Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods. Use separate equipment, such as knives and cutting boards, to work with raw foods.
Store food in containers to prevent raw foods from coming into contact with ready-made foods. Raw foods, especially meat, poultry, seafood and their juice, can contain dangerous microorganisms that can get into other foods during cooking or storing food. Emphasize that such a separation should take place at all other stages of cooking, including slaughtering animals.
The third principle. Carry out thorough heat treatment. Thoroughly cook, especially when cooking meat, poultry, eggs, and seafood. Bring soups and stews to a boil to make sure they reach 70 ° C. Make sure the meat and poultry juice is clean, not pink. Ideally, a thermometer should be used.
Thoroughly reheat cooked food. Proper heat treatment kills almost all dangerous microorganisms. Studies have shown that heating food to 70 ° C can make it safe for consumption.
Products requiring special attention include minced meat, meat rolls, large pieces of meat and whole carcasses of poultry. Cook eggs and seafood until cooked; and bring liquid foods to a boil and boil them for 1 minute. Often the central portion of a whole piece of meat is sterile. Most bacteria are on the outer surface.
The fourth principle. Store food at a safe temperature. Do not leave finished foods at room temperature for more than 2 hours.
Keep in the refrigerator all cooked and quickly spoiled food. Keep cooked food hot before serving. Do not store food for too long, even in the refrigerator. Do not defrost frozen foods at room temperature.
The fifth principle. Use of pure water and pure food raw materials. Use clean water or clean it. Choose fresh and safe foods. Choose foods that have been processed for their safety, such as pasteurized milk. Wash fruits and vegetables, especially if they are consumed raw. Do not use food after its expiration date.
Thus, health is the first and most important need of a person, which determines his ability to work and ensures the harmonious development of personality. It is the most important prerequisite for knowledge of the world, for self-affirmation and human happiness. Active long life is an important component of the human factor.
Health, as the most important highest value of a person, is formed under the influence of a number of social factors, referred to as a healthy lifestyle. WHO experts believe that human health is 50% dependent on a healthy lifestyle, therefore maintaining and promoting health is a priority. Currently, motivation for a healthy lifestyle is especially relevant.
In conclusion, we can once again emphasize that human health is the result of the manifestation of the hereditary characteristics of the body, the effects of the environment and the activity of the individual.