Attitudes To Love And Gender English Literature Essay

In this essay each verse form remarks on the attitudes to love and gender. The verse forms studied are “ How make I love thee? ” by Elizabeth Barrett Browning, “ First Love ” by John Clare, “ A adult female to her lover ” by Christina Walsh and “ My Last Duchess ” by Robert Browning. Written in 1842 by Robert Browning, “ My Last Duchess ” is the dramatic soliloquy of the duke of Ferrara who is negociating his 2nd matrimony through an agent of the count on the expansive stairway of the ducal castle at Ferrara in northern Italy. Executing the elements of a dramatic soliloquy, the duke reveals his state of affairs and much more than he intends to the both the agent and the reader.

“ How Do I Love Thee? ” was written in 1845 by Elizabeth Barrett Browning while Robert Browning was being courted. In this verse form Elizabeth Barrett Browning takes a male dominated signifier of poesy and writes it from her position. “ First Love ” is a verse form about love. The author John Clare wrote this verse form in the nineteenth Century and worked from the age of seven on a farm as a farm laborer. The peculiar twenty-four hours he refers to in the verse form is when he saw a beautiful adult female and he felt for the first clip the emotion of love. ‘A adult females to her lover ‘ was written in the 2nd half of the nineteenth century and it ‘s about Christina Walsh demanding for rights and equality for adult females. All of the verse forms were written in the pre1900 ‘s and during these periods adult females were treated otherwise. They were treated as 2nd category citizens and work forces were superior to adult females. The adult females were expected to obey work forces and they were frequently forced into matrimony and sex. Womans were expected to remain at place and expression after their kids and their hubby ‘s. Some adult females didn’t’t even acquire the chance to travel to school, allow entirely university.The legal rights of married adult females were similar to those of kids. They could non vote, action, or ain belongings. Besides, they were seen as pure and clean. Because of this position, their organic structures were seen as temples that should non be decorated with make-up nor used for such enjoyable things as sex. The function of adult females was to hold kids and tend the house. They could non keep a occupation unless it was that of a instructor, nor were they allowed to hold their ain checking histories or nest eggs histories. In the terminal, they were to be treated as saints, but saints that had no legal rights.During this period merely work forces wrote poesy to blandish adult females. However “ How make I love thee? ” and “ A adult female to her lover ” was written by a adult female. All of these verse forms are from different historical periods, topographic point and of even different civilizations so that differences and similarities can be easy emphasized. They are all linked by the subject of love. This comparative essay will see the similarities and differences between the verse forms. The essay will cover with following facets of the inquiry, subjects, linguistic communication, signifier, construction, tone, poet ‘s message and societal and historical context.

The verse form “ First Love ” by John Clare, is a traditional verse form for its clip, with three poetries each with eight lines with eight syllables in each line. It has a regular rime strategy which is besides traditional. The beat in this verse form is peculiarly effectual because the rime and beat in this poem sounds like that the talker is shouting about the hurting and agony love brings which conveys an agitated ambiance. It is in first individual, because it uses a batch of I, for illustration “ I could non see a individual thing ” or “ I ne’er saw so sweet a face ” . The rubric “ First Love ” implies strongest love which is immature, pure and guiltless. From the rubric it can be seen that the poet was ne’er in love before. ‘How do I love thee ‘ is besides in the traditional manner of sonnet, with 10 syllables in each line. In contrast with “ first Love ” , “ How make I love thee ” does non shout about the hurting and agony love brings, but it has a quiet passion and strength. This is reflected in the beat and the rime strategy that conveys a much more thoughtful and staid type of love than the love portrayed in the four poetries of “ First Love ” .

Furthermore In John Clare ‘s verse form “ First Love ” we see love as an instant attractive force and he says it was a love ‘so sudden. ‘ It besides highlights the facet that the love is non returned as the relationship between the poet and the individual he loves has ne’er even started. In fact he is barely noticed as we can see from the rhetorical inquiry “ And when she looked “ What could I ail? ” It is merely in his ain head that she even noticed his love for her. “ She seemed to hear my soundless voice ” ( L19 ) The oxymoron in line 19 portrays love as obsessional and selfish. A love that exists merely in the head of the lover. John Clare is composing as an grownup looking back to his vernal yesteryear, to his “ First Love ” . It is an guiltless love toward a miss he has merely merely seen, but still he feels immediately shocked and trapped in her love. The really first line of Clare ‘s verse form declares ‘I ne’er tungsten as struck before that hr ‘ . The word “ smitten ” suggests a violent, aggressive impact on him for seeing her for the first clip. He says in line four, “ And stole my bosom off complete ” This gives the reader an image of him out of the blue being hit by one of Cupids pointers, go forthing him unable to defy falling in love with her. It is a romantic love that is motivated by a short ocular attractive force instead than the love that grows as a consequence of a long relationship. This is clear from the deficiency of any elaborate description of the individual he loves, other than to state ‘Her face blossomed like a sweet flower ‘ and ‘I ne’er saw so sweet a face ‘ . Alternatively, he describes in great item the consequence that this “ sudden ” love had on his ain organic structure. He describes his face in line five, “ My face turned pale as deathly picket ” This simile and the usage of repeat ( “ picket ” ) suggests that love has a really strong physical impact within his ain organic structure. He besides says his legs ‘refused to walk ‘ in line six which suggests that love had taken control of him and love left a weakening consequence on his organic structure. He says in line nine, “ And so my blood rushed to my face ” proposing that love had a awkward consequence on him. He goes on to state in line 10 that love “ took my sight off ” This metaphor represents blind love based on visual aspect. In line 15 he says that “ blood burnt unit of ammunition my bosom ” proposing that love is painful and by contrasting the two thoughts of love he shows us that love can be good and bad. These new feelings seem to be a daze to the immature John Claire and have left him a changed individual. So much so that he can non return to the province he was one time in.

“ My bosom has left its brooding topographic point

And can return no more ” ( L23, 24 )

This can hold two significances. The first is that his love now belongs to that miss and can ne’er belong to another. It may intend that he ‘s brokenhearted and she did n’t value his love. But once more it may bespeak the loss of artlessness and that his bosom can ne’er once more return to the brooding topographic point of artlessness ” The love in Elizabeth Barrett Browning ‘s verse form is non a love based on sudden or obsessional attractive force, but is much deeper and pull its strength from the long relationship of her and her hubby Robert. She says,

“ I love thee freely, as work forces strive for right ;

I love thee strictly, as they turn from Praise. ” ( L7, 8 )

Here Elizabeth Barrett Browning highlights the good facets of love. She is doing mention to adult male ‘s freewill and the Gallic revolution. The talker is stating that her love is every bit free as work forces strive for rights, this fundamentally suggests that she loves him because it ‘s something she feels she has to make, she ‘s loving him on her ain free will and she ‘s non being forced to make it. She is stating that her love is pure and clean. She even declares that this love will go on after she dies. “ Smiles, cryings, of all my life! – and if God choose,

I shall but love thee better after decease ” ( L13, 14 )

Meaning that this love is everlasting and will non stop when she dies, but the love will go on and the love will go even deeper. In line 13 she is stating that every individual thing in her life is comparable to him and fundamentally he ‘s everything to her. She says her hubby ‘s love is like her mundane demands in line five and six,

“ to the degree of every twenty-four hours ‘s

Most quiet demand, by Sun and candle flame ”

The metaphor suggests that she loves him every bit much as her ain life and this love is every bit indispensable to her as the nutrient and drink that keeps her alive. The major difference in both verse forms is that the love in John Claire ‘s verse form is non true love as it is based on visual aspect and the love in Elizabeth Barrett Browning ‘s verse form is true and that love developed after a long relationship between her and her lover.

“ A Woman To Her Lover ” can be compared with “ My last Duchess ” as they both portion many differences. “ My Last Duchess ” portrays a stereotyped adult female of pre nineteenth century. The talker of the verse form, the Duke dehumanises his duchess in the verse form when he goes on to state in line fifty-four, “ Together down, sir, Notice Neptune, though, Taming a sea-horse. ” This signifies that adult females were non considered worlds and they did n’t hold the same rights as work forces. In fact during the sixteenth century adult females were to obey their hubbies and they were considered to be inferior to work forces. The Duke says in line one-four,

“ That ‘s my last Duchess painted on the wall,

Looking as if she were alive. I call

That piece a admiration, now. Fr Pandolf ‘s custodies

Worked busily a twenty-four hours, and at that place she stands. ”

The linguistic communication used by the talker implies person talking with pride over a ownership, in this instance a piece of graphics. The linguistic communication besides suggests that adult females were a adult male ‘s belongings and were non considered a individual. In the society of 1900 ‘s, adult females were supposed to remain at place with the kids, do all the family chores including dairy and be givening to the gardens, every bit good as fixing all the nutrient and they besides had to take attention of their hubbies. The talker says he tried to alter her behavior by learning her a lesson in line 40, “ and if she let Herself be lessoned so ” This signifies that he tried commanding her like she was his ownership. This quotation mark reflects the sexism of the clip as the attitude of the talker was sexist towards his late married woman because he tried commanding her like she was an object. This would n’t be considered male chauvinist in the pre1900 ‘s as adult females of the clip were usually treated like this and it was socially acceptable for a adult male to command his married woman because adult females did n’t hold many rights or the same equality as work forces. However position of adult females have changed overtime and today they are considered a human being and they have precisely the same rights as work forces. Womans and work forces both take attention of their kids and the house. These yearss sex before matrimony is socially acceptable and adult females are non an castaway if impure. Nowadays adult females survey and work and being a homemaker is really uncommon. On the other manus Christina Walsh takes control in “ A Woman To Her Lover ” and she talks about what is expected from the adult male in a relationship and what she wants from him. This verse form is different because the diction in “ My Last Duchess ” suggests that the talker thinks that adult females should be treated unevenly but in “ A adult female to her Lover ” Christina Walsh goes against the Torahs and demands for equality and rights for adult females which suggests that she ‘s an early women’s rightist for her clip. It is obvious that she is traveling against the regulations by merely looking at the construction of the verse form which is free poetry and sonnets were n’t in free poetries. This implies that she knew that she was traveling against the regulations by demanding for rights and equality and she enhanced this by do her poem free poetry. During the clip when this verse form was written, a group called Suffragettes motion was traveling on for female equality. The Suffragettes wanted the right for adult females to vote. Christina Walsh says that its incorrect to hold adult female treated like a sexual object in poetry three by utilizing tonss of sexual imagination and some poetic techniques such as initial rhyme in line 17, 18 and 19 to acquire her point across to the readers.

“ Or if you think in me to happen

a animal who will hold no greater joy

than satisfy your blatant desire,

my tegument soft merely for your fond caresses

my organic structure supple merely for your sense delectation.

Oh shame, and commiseration and degradation.

Not for you the manus of any wakened adult female of our clip ”

She besides says in poetry one that adult females should non be treated like retainers, female parent or hack.

“ Make you come to me to flex me to your will

as vanquisher to the vanquished

to do of me a bondslave

to bear you kids, have oning out my life

in plodding and silence

no retainer will I be

if that be what you ask. O lover I refuse you! ”

These quotes suggest that the female storyteller is rejecting common stereotypes people have about adult females. The verse form is n’t directed merely at her lover, it is directed at all work forces. The verse form suggests that she wants adult females to be treated reasonably, like a individual. In this verse form, it appears that the love talked about here is strictly sexual. She does n’t truly state anything about how she feels for him, she merely negotiations about how adult females of the clip are treated and how she wants to be treated. She refers to herself as a ‘creature ‘ , dehumanizing herself and stereotypes herself of a pre19th century adult females. In verse one, Christina rewrites the nuptials vows to ‘in plodding and silence ‘ . This may intend that she thinks the nuptials vows are outdated, desiring the adult females to remain at place, convey up the kids, and make what the hubby wants, and attention for him. She sounds sarcastic in the first three poetries because clearly she wants to be treated like a lady and non like a stereotyped adult female of the clip. In line two she uses imagination of war and conflict, “ As vanquisher to the vanquished ” The metaphor makes love sound like a changeless battle. She used a batch of direct linguistic communication such as, “ you ” . This shows that she is taking control which is really unusual for the adult females of 1900 ‘s as they were to talk to work forces with regard. Repeat is besides used a batch throughout the verse form, “ I refuse you! ” . This high spots and emphasizes that she will decline any adult male who does n’t give her the rights and equality she demands. The rubric of Christina Walsh ‘s verse form, “ A Woman to Her Lover ” would hold provoked a daze in the pre1900s because the word “ Lover ” suggests a sexual relationship. This would be considered socially unacceptable as adult females were non allowed to hold a sexual relationship with a adult male before matrimony. This besides makes her sound independent which is unusual for a adult female as in the pre19040s the adult females were dependent on their hubbies. Christina Walsh ‘s verse form wholly contradicts “ My Last duchess ” and she expresses this in a beautiful mode how adult females should be treated every bit to work forces, instead than work forces holding all the power.

“ First Love ” by John Clare can be compared to “ My Last Duchess ” by Robert Browning as they both base their love on visual aspect and non on feelings. The poet John Clare does n’t speak about the individual he love a batch, instead he merely remarks on her visual aspect and his love is blind because he immediately falls in love merely by looking at her. He focuses on her visual aspect, instead his feelings about her. He expresses this in line three and four,

“ Her face it bloomed like a sweet flower

And stole my bosom off complete. ”

The simile in line three indicates that his lover is really attractive and in line four the talker makes it clear that it ‘s the visual aspect that trapped him her lover. This shows that position of love is all about expressions. Similarly Robert Browning besides states that he wants a beautiful married woman. His last duchesss was besides beautiful and because she died, he wants another beautiful married woman. He conveys this in line one and five,

“ That ‘s my last Duchess painted on the wallaˆ¦

Will’t please you sit and look at her? I said ”

He shows a picture of his last married woman to a retainer who is traveling to set up his matrimony so that the individual knows that the new married woman should be beautiful excessively. This tells us that the poet ‘s attitude in both verse forms is based on visual aspect and looks. This was really common back in the pre nineteenth century because most of the work forces married good looking adult females.

Besides “ How make I love thee? ” can be compared to “ First Love ” because they both have different messages about love. The message Elizabeth Barrett tries to acquire across to her readers is that love is everlasting and it can non stop even after decease. She expresses this in line 14 and 15,

“ Smiles, cryings, of all my life-and, if God choose

I shall but love thee better after decease. ” Meaning that her love is really deep and in line 14 she says that her love is comparable to every individual thing in her life. The linguistic communication in How do I love thee is really emotional and overdone in line two and three,

“ I love thee to the deepness and comprehensiveness and tallness

My psyche can make, when falling out of sight.

The exaggeration used here suggests that her love is true, deep and honest. In line three, the word “ psyche ” refers to religion proposing that her love is really pure and holy. Alternatively in First Love the poet says that love disappears like snow and it changes like nature. He gets his message across to the readers by utilizing imagination of nature to convey his message to the readers. He expresses his message in line 19, “ Are flowers the winter ‘s pick? ” This rhetorical inquiry makes it clear that love does n’t last and it goes off after some clip like the seasons of the twelvemonth. In line 18 he uses the subject of nature, “ Is love ‘s bed ever snow ” This rhetorical inquiry implies that snow does n’t ever last and neither does love and it melts like snow. Both of these verse forms are comparable because they both portion different positions of love. Elizabeth Barrett Browning thinks that love is everlasting and John Clare says that love disappears. Therefore both of the poet ‘s attitude towards love is different.

“ A adult female to her lover ” and “ How make I love thee? ” can be compared as they both portion some similarities and differences. First they are both written by female poets which would sound really unusual back in the pre1900 ‘s as adult females did n’t compose poesy. The linguistic communication in both verse forms is formal, honest and insistent. In “ A adult female to her lover ” cardinal things are repeated such as, “ Lover ” or “ I refuse you ” , this emphasizes that the talker will non accept any proposal until she gets her equal rights. In How Do I Love Thee? “ I love thee ” is repeated a several times which emphasizes deep love. This is a similarity and a difference because repeat is used in both verse forms to foreground or stress something. However the message the poets try to acquire across to the readers is different. Christina Walsh demands for rights and equality for adult females and Elizabeth Barrett Browning shows the deepness of her love.

Furthermore the readings and subjects of “ A Woman to Her Lover ” can be compared with “ How Do I love Thee? ” because they both have some spiritual mentions. In “ A Woman to Her Lover ” there is a spiritual subject throughout the verse form as she refers to herself as an ‘angel ‘ who was sent from Eden to make as he pleases. This is proposing that a adult female is non a angel, a adult female is a human-being who can make whatever she wishes and she does n’t hold to make what the adult male says. In “ How make I love thee ” the love is religious and she declares this by utilizing a poetic technique called exaggeration,

“ I love thee to the deepness and comprehensiveness and tallness

My psyche can make, when experiencing out of sight ” ( L2, 3 ) She uses linguistic communication that creates a spiritual ambiance with words such as “ Grace ” , “ Praise ” , “ religion ” and “ saints ” doing love sound pure and sanctum. Christina Walsh says that in love both spouses should hold equal rights and Elizabeth Barrett Browning says that one time you fall in love, it lasts everlastingly.

The verse form “ How make I love Thee? ” can be compared with “ My Last Duchess ” . The author of “ How do I love thee? “ , Elizabeth Barrett Browning met the author of “ My Last Duchess ” , Robert Browning in 1845 and woo developed between them. They in secret got married. These verse forms can be compared with each other because the signifier of both verse forms is similar. There are riming pairs in both of the verse forms. In “ How make I Love thee? ” there are some riming pairs throughout the verse form for illustration,

“ I love thee to the deepness and comprehensiveness and tallness

My psyche can make, when experiencing out of sight ” and In “ Last Duchess ” there are riming pairs throughout all the verse form for case,

“ That ‘s my last Duchess painted on the wall,

Looking as if she were alive. I call ”

Possibly these riming pairs were used to stand for a twosome or a brace or perchance lovers.

Most of these verse forms reflect the romantic image of love, sexism, rights and equality that was common at the clip, but they each portray different facets. ‘First Love ‘ by John Clare high spot ‘s love as instant attractive force and the unmanageable effects it has on the physical organic structure. It is an obsessional love. It is about a individual who has felt the emotion of love for the first clip and have shocked him. In contrast to this ‘How make I Love thee ‘ by Elizabeth Barrett Browning highlights a more mature love of a adult female for her hubby, underscoring the impressiveness, pureness and spiritual love that goes beyond the life on Earth. “ A Woman to Her Lover ” by Christina Walsh is a perfect verse form of the company of love, demoing that it is a partnership non a absolutism. She takes control in this verse form and says what ‘s expected of a adult male in a relationship and what she wants from him. She is stating that it is incorrect to hold adult females treated like a sexual object, to convey up kids and be treated like a retainer. The verse form is n’t directed merely at her lover, it is directed at all work forces. What she wants is to be treated reasonably, like a individual. In this verse form, it appears that the love talked about here is strictly sexual. She does n’t truly state anything about how she feels for him, she merely negotiations about how adult females of the clip are treated and how she wants to be treated. In contrast to this “ My Last Duchess ” by Robert Browning portrays a stereotyped adult female of the pre 1900 ‘s and the talker says he treated her like his ownership and he tried to command her. The linguistic communication in this verse form reflects sexism of the clip. The duke in Browing ‘s verse form portrays a controlling attitude over adult females. He is dissatisfied with his duchess because she is a coquette, and because she gives attending to many work forces, and does n’t reserve all her attending for him. The duke was excessively commanding to let that so he executes her. His love was largely based on visual aspect because when he talks about acquiring a new married woman, he says she should be beautiful excessively. Overall, as a modern female reader I prefer “ A Woman to Her Lover ” because it was written back in the pre 1900 ‘s when it was sexism clip. I do n’t believe many adult females stood up for themselves and went against the Torahs during that period. I like this verse form because Christina Walsh expressed her positions openly and I think It would hold taken a batch of bravery to make that during that clip. She went against the Torahs and she stood up for every adult females. This verse form makes the reader understand that in love equality is really of import. I besides like the linguistic communication in this verse form because it ‘s direct, demanding and forceful. This persuades the readers and it makes readers gain that adult females deserve the same regard and self-respect. However I besides enjoyed reading “ How make I love thee? ” because the love she describes is truly deep and passionate. The linguistic communication is really romantic and I truly like the usage of emotional and overdone linguistic communication. Above all, I truly like the poet ‘s message which is that love is everlasting and love is true. The ground I like it is because I believe that if one ‘s love is true and honest so it will last everlastingly.

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