This subdivision will demo the Nipponese conceptualisation of “ engagement ” on the footing of metaphoric look, and so contrast it with English linguistic communication to uncover similarity and difference between these two linguistic communications. Although there are several ways to gestate “ engagement, ” this paper will cover with one type of conceptualisation based on idiomatic looks incorporating body-part word asi ( ‘foot ‘ ) in peculiar.
Features of conceptualisation for “ engagement ” in Nipponese: INVOLVINT IS STEPPING IN A SWAMP
The undermentioned idiomatic looks have the nonliteral significance relating to “ involvement in a certain channel ” and literally show a physical action associating to pess. In other words, their significances are extended from the sphere of physical action to that of engagement by metaphor.
Kare-wa bungaku-no sekai-ni asi-o humiire-ta
He-TOP literature-GEN world-GOAL feet-ACC make.step.in-PAST
‘He made his pess measure in the universe of literature. ‘ [ actual ]
‘He was involved in the field of literature’ [ figurative ]
Kare-wa seikai-ni asi-o tsukkon-deiru
He-TOP politics-GOAL feet-ACC stick-STATE
‘He stuck his pess into politics’ [ actual ]
‘He has been more than eager to be involved in politics’ [ nonliteral ]
Kare-wa ongakugyoukai-kara asi-o nuk-outoshi-teiru
He-TOP music.business-from feet-ACC pull.out-try.to-PPGRESSIVE
‘He attempts to draw his pess out of the music business’ [ actual ]
‘He attempts to go forth from music business’ [ nonliteral ]
In these looks, the mark of engagement is a certain sort of activities, such as political relations, or an abstract universe, such as the field of the literature, in which people are related with each other by agencies of peculiar thought, involvement, or penchant. The mark of a physical action in the actual significance of these looks, on the other manus, is a swamp. To be exact, the mark of an action expressed by verbs, humiireru ( ‘step in ‘ ) , tukkomu ( ‘stick ‘ ) and nuku ( ‘pull out ‘ ) , is non restricted to H2O. For illustration, it is possible to state doukutsu-ni asi-o humiireru ( ‘to make one ‘s pess measure into the cave ‘ ) , buutsu-ni asi-o tukkomu ( ‘stick one ‘s pess into boots ‘ ) , or zubon-kara asi-o nuku ( ‘to draw one ‘s pess out of pants ‘ ) . In above instances, nevertheless, the mark of a physical action in the actual significance is syrupy H2O as a swamp because these looks can coincide with doronuma ( ‘a swamp ‘ ) when they are figuratively used.
doronuma-ni asi-o humiireru
swamp-GOAL feet-ACC make.step.in
‘to make one ‘s pess measure in a swamp’ [ actual ]
‘to be caught in fuss ” [ nonliteral ]
doronuma-ni asi-o tsukkomu
swamp-GOAL feet-ACC stick
‘to stick one ‘s pes into a swamp’ [ actual ]
‘to be involved in bother’ [ nonliteral ]
doronuma-kara asi-o nuku
swamp-from feet-ACC pull.out
‘to draw one ‘s pess out of a swamp’ [ actual ]
‘to flight from bother’ [ nonliteral ]
When we put our pess into such syrupy H2O as a swamp, we can non travel our pess freely in it and it becomes more hard for us to draw our pess out of it. This experience corresponds to some facets of engagement: when we are involved in onerous activity, we can non act ourselves freely and it becomes more hard for us to go forth from it. In other words, the viscousness of a swamp which we step in corresponds to unmanageability of an activity.
Furthermore, when looks in ( 1 ) – ( 3 ) are figuratively used, they co-occur with the onomatopoeia doppuri which indicates the mode of soaking something in H2O as follows.
Kare-wa engeki-ni doppuri asi-o
He-TOP play -GOAL deeply.Onomatopoeia feet-ACC
‘He made his pess step profoundly in the play. ‘ [ actual ]
‘He immersed himself in the drama’ [ nonliteral ]
Kare-wa jazu-ni doppuri asi-o tsukkon-da
He-TOP jazz.music-GOAL deeply.Onomatopoeia feet-ACC stick-PAST
‘He stuck his pess into wind music’ [ actual ]
‘He was to a great extent involved in wind music’ [ nonliteral ]
In these instances, soaking one ‘s pess profoundly in H2O corresponds to affecting to a great extent in a mark activity. Furthermore, the correspondence between the deepness of a swamp in the beginning sphere and the degree of engagement in the mark sphere makes the undermentioned looks possible.
Kurashikku-ni-wa cyotto kata-asi-o tsukkon-da-dake-da
Classical.music-GOAL-TOP somewhat one-foot-ACC stick-PAST-only-COP
‘ ( I ) merely dipped one pes in classical music’ [ actual ]
‘ ( I ) was merely involved somewhat in classical music’ [ nonliteral ]
Hamaru-to kiken to shiri-nagara wain-no sekai-ni cyotto-dake asi-o humiire-teiru
Fall.in-if danger that know-although wine-GEN world-GOAL slightly-only feet-ACC step.in-STATE
‘ ( I ) have made my pess step somewhat into the universe of vino although ( I ) know that it is unsafe ( for me ) to drop deeper in it’ [ actual ]
‘ ( I ) have gone somewhat into the universe of vino although ( I ) know that it is hazardous ( for me ) to be addicted to it’ [ nonliteral ]
Kono giron-wa kantanni keccyaku-ga tuki-souni-nai. Hetani kono doronuma-ni asi-o tukkomu-to nukedase-naku-naru-node itumonoyouni asaku
This question-TOP easy settelement-NOM make-likely.to-NEG. Halfheartedly this swamp-GOAL feet-ACC stick.in-if pull.out-NEG-become-because as usual shallowly
‘This inquiry does n’t look to be settled easy. ( I will cover with it ) shallowly every bit usual because, if ( I ) make my pess step into this swamp halfheartedly, ( I ) will non be able to draw them out of it’ [ actual ]
‘This inquiry does n’t look to be settled easy. ( I will cover with it ) shallowly every bit usual because, if ( I ) am involved in such mire halfheartedly, ( I ) will non be able to get away from it’ [ figurative ]
In contrast to doppuri ( ‘deeply ‘ ) , both chotto ( ‘slightly ‘ ) in ( 9 ) , ( 10 ) and asaku ( ‘shallowly ‘ ) in ( 11 ) indicate that engagement in an activity is comparatively little in the degree ; hence, superficiality of a swamp corresponds to minor engagement in an activity. The cognition about stepping in a swamp, that it is easier to draw our pess out of a swamp if they are non profoundly caught in it, corresponds to some facets of engagement: when we are somewhat involved in an activity, it is easier to go forth from it. Therefore, these looks besides result in that the deepness of a swamp corresponds to the degree of engagement.
An activity in the undermentioned look, in add-on, is restricted to wickednesss or coarsenesss while activities in nonliteral significances of looks described supra are non restricted to them.
Kare-wa dorobou-kara asi-o arat-ta
He-TOP thief-from feet-ACC wash-PAST
‘He washed his pess from thief’ [ actual ]
‘He discontinue a thief’ [ nonliteral ]
The ground why the mark activity in ( 12 ) is restricted to wickedness or coarsenesss is because rinsing is normally taking the soil, hence, asi-o arau ( ‘to wash one ‘s pess ‘ ) focal points on uncleanness of clay in a swamp while the looks ( 4 ) – ( 6 ) focal point on viscousness of a swamp and ( 7 ) – ( 11 ) on its deepness. It has already pointed out that this correspondence between uncleanness and amorality ( or immorality ) constitutes a conceptual metaphor MORALITY IS CLEANLINESS ( Lakoff and Johnson 1999: 307 ) or AMORAL IS DIRTY / ETHICAL IS CLEAN ( Kovecses 2002: 210 ) which are exemplified by gimmick person red-handed, have clean custodies and so on ( ibid ) . In a precise sense, rinsing itself does non ever indicate taking the soil ; when we say, for illustration, wash the pigment off my manus, the pigment is non inherently soiled. Correspondence between the beginning CLEANLINESS/DIRTINESS and the mark MORALITY/AMORALITY is, nevertheless, to the full motivated our bodily experience. As for CLEANLINESS/DIRTINESS, there is the undermentioned cognition: the organic structure gets dirty when you touch soils, but it can be cleaned off by rinsing soil off ; soil induces a negative feeling while cleanliness induces a positive feeling, hence we are expected to maintain our organic structure clean ; it is easy to do our organic structure dirty while it is hard to maintain our organic structure clean. This corresponds to the cognition about the mark MORALITY/AMORALITY: we become amoral or immoral when we are involved in an wickedness, but we can be right by discontinuing an wickedness ; amorality induces a negative feeling while morality induces a positive feeling, hence we are expected to be a moral adult male ; it is easy for us to travel incorrect while it is hard for us to lodge to ethical motives. Therefore, it can be said that uncleanness of clay in a swamp represents amorality and that rinsing our pess off clay represents discontinuing an wickedness.
As described above, there is structural correspondence between STEPPING IN A SWAMP and INVOLVING IN AN ACTIVITY, and this correspondence constitute a conceptual metaphor INVOLVING IS STEPPING IN A SWAMP. Here are the ontological correspondences and the epistemological correspondences for this conceptual metaphor.
the deepness of a swamp
the degree of engagement
viscousness of a swamp
unmanageability of an activity
uncleanness of clay
Figure.1 The ontological correspondence in INVOLVEMENT IS STEPPING IN A SWAMP
to step in a swamp
to affect in an activity
to draw out one ‘s pess from a swamp
to halt affecting in an activity
the more syrupy ( or muddy ) a swamp is, the less freely you control your pess
the more onerous an activity is, the less freely you behave yourself
the more deeply you step in a swamp, the more hard it is for you to draw your pess out of it
the more to a great extent you are involved in an activity, the more hard it is for you to stop engagement in an activity
to clean your pess after drawing out your pess of a swamp
to go normal province after stoping engagement in an amoral activity
Figure.2 The epistemological correspondence in INVOLVEMENT IS STEPPING IN A SWAMP