In The Inferno of Dante Alighieri, nine circles make up Hell ; Circle one being the least penalty, to Circle nine being the greatest penalty. In the beginning circles many celebrated heroes and poets reside, but deep down in the bosom of Hell, the violent and the treasonists dwell. With great logical thinking, it shows obvious that Dante put specific people in certain circles for his hatred or commiseration of them. Dante ‘s Inferno signifiers from prejudices, and as the circles of Hell are analyzed his logical thinking and prejudices will reflect through the darkness of Hell.
Limbo, the first circle of Hell houses poets and worthy figures. They were placed here because they died before hearing the word of Christ and being baptized. Virgil explains “ they did non pay the Godhead his due respectaˆ¦and for these mistakes, non for any other defect [ they ] are lost ” ( IV, 38-41 ) . Dante feels commiseration for these characters and “ his bosom seized with unhappiness ” ( IV, 43 ) . He knew they did n’t merit this and even asks Virgil “ by virtue, was at that place of all time any individual freed from here? ” ( IV, 49-50 ) . Virgil tells Dante of the Harrowing of Hell, where Jesus releases the psyche of the patriarchs. The psyche here in Limbo pursuit around a clean streamer to typify the void they pursued in their life because they did non hold the counsel of God, while being stung by WASP. The figures in this portion of Hell do non merit this penalty, but their failure to idolize the Christian God lands them in this hopeless and ageless damnation. Dante does non wish to set these great and honest work forces in Hell, but since he has no pick, the outskirts of Hell is the tantrum for their psyches. And even though many of them were Dante ‘s function theoretical account or had some kind of strong influence on him, he feels less sympathy and cares less of their virtuousness, because he damns anyone who fails to follow the Christian God. Dante and Virgil so depart and fall down into the 2nd circle of snake pit, the circle of lecherousness. Dante ‘s prejudices become clearer when Cleopatra and Francesca & A ; Paolo appear in this circle. Again, Dante feels intolerable commiseration for these psyches and even finds a psyche to talk to him about their narrative and how it progressed. Francesca & A ; Paolo had a narrative that touches his emotions and reminds him of his ain love, Beatrice. Dante says, “ All your tortures make me weep with heartache and commiseration ” ( V, 116-117 ) . He feels awfully regretful for them because they died for love, something he was non able to portion with the 1 he loved. He did non see any job in the fortunes for them being killed. Francesca married Paolo ‘s brother and cheated on him with Paolo, who was married, and out of choler, they were killed by Palo ‘s brother. On the other manus we see Cleopatra disbursement her clip in the Circle of Lust. Cleopatra ‘s decease was by self-destruction, a ego inflicted bite by the Deadly European Asp. Truly, she should be in the 2nd precinct of Circle seven, Violence against thy ego. However, it is arguable that she was placed in this circle because Dante ‘s function theoretical account was Julius Caesar. Cleopatra was involved with him and had his boy, which likely landed her in Circle two. Dante admires the Romans, particularly Julius Caesar, and many of his arrangements are based on this esteem. As Dante gets ready to go forth the Lust Circle he had “ wept so much [ he ] fainted. All of [ him ] was overwhelmed by [ the ] shot of commiseration ; and [ he ] fell, as a dead organic structure falls ” ( V, 140-142 ) . A hideous malodor fills the air as Dante enters the gluttony of Circle Three. In this circle Dante meets Ciacco, who gives him his first prognostication and the first conversation about Florentine political relations. Ciacco tells Dante of the White Party taking power on May1, 1300, but a few old ages subsequently the Black Party will one time once more regulation and exile many members of the White Party, including Dante. Dante explains how Ciacco ‘s “ status fills [ his ] eyes with cryings, no affair what [ the ] wickednesss ” ( VI, 58-59 ) . Dante so asks of the whereabouts of some of his political enemies, and Ciacco answers “ they are amongst the blackest evildoers, booted into deeper cavities, for darker offenses ” ( VI, 85-87 ) . Upon hearing this Dante goes into a brooding temper and starts wondering of the agony of these work forces, but however into Circle Four their journey continued.
As they enter Circle Four, Dante cries out at what he sees. He becomes filled “ with heartfelt hurting ” ( VII, 36 ) , until he finds out whom they are. They are the hoarders and prodigals. Virgil explains that they are corrupt reverend, Catholic Popes, and cardinals ; work forces of the church who Dante hatred. Together with the Black Party, it was the church that exiled Dante from his darling town of Florence. Next they descend into the Wrath of Circle Five. Here lie the work forces of wrath and sullen. Of the wroth combat above the river Styx, guarded by phlegyas, Dante sees Filippo Argenti, a political enemy of his. Before Dante leaves he tells Virgil, “ O Master, great is my desire to see this chesty asshole dunked in slop ” ( VIII, 52-53 ) . Virgil feels proud that Dante eventually accepts that these work forces caused themselves to be in Hell and they deserve the penalty they are acquiring. And as promised, Dante sees Filippo ripped apart ; thanking God as he fills with delectation. From this point onward we begin to see Dante ‘s feelings displacement from commiseration to hatred, and as he progresses deeper into Hell, we see figures who were his political enemies. He took advantage of them being in Hell and amused himself with their hurting and torment. In the Heretics of Circle Six, Dante meets another of his political enemies. However, this brush unfolds much more courteously. A penalty of the Heretics, the ability to merely see in the hereafter. And from Farinata degli Uberti, Dante receives his 2nd prognostication. He predicts Dante ‘s expatriate from Florence and says, “ To myself, my forbears, and my party your household were bitterly opposed ; and twice I did throw out them from the metropolis ” ( X, 46-48 ) . Dante finds a connexion with this Ghibelline because his ain party had split and the opposing side exiled his party including him. Dante ‘s feelings are impersonal here and when he descends into Circle Seven, we see more of Dante ‘s prejudices.
In theses last circles of Lower Hell, we see a lacking of Roman people. Filled chiefly with Greeks, who Dante hatred, his political enemies, including Catholic Popes, and treasonists, with the worst penalty to those who betrayed his graven image, Julius Caesar.
In the first precinct of Circle Seven we see a “ river of blood ; and in it boil all those who have by force, assaulted others ” ( XII, 47-48 ) . This river contains work forces such as Alexander the Great and Attila the Hun. The caput Centaur of this group, Chiron, known for his preparation of many Grecian heroes. There seems to be no Romans boiling in this Hell River. This Hell belongs to Dante and he has the right to set who he wants where, and as we see who appears in each circle it shows he took advantage of that right. As he navigates to the lower degrees of Circle Seven, he sees those who committed force against themselves and encounters one of the psyche when he rips one of their limbs off. The psyche tells Dante a small of the history of Florence. As the journey continues Dante ranges those violent against nature. From Brunetto Latini, Dante learns that he will be rewarded for his epic political actions. Dante, nevertheless, coppices it off and Virgil commends him for such an attitude as he says, “ He bears the best who pays the closest attentiveness ” ( XV, 99 ) . Dante feels his last spot of commiseration when he recalls some work forces who were charred past acknowledgment, and with that he continues on through the last precinct and into circle eight. Virgil leads Dante through the Panderers, seducers, and adulators. In the 3rd pouch of Circle eight, the Simonies, he meets Pope Nicholas III who mistakes Dante for Boniface. After uncluttering up the misinterpretation, Nicholas tells Dante his narrative. Dante in returns says “ so remain you here in your upside-down airs for you are rightly punished. ” ( XIX, 97-98 ) Dante feels no commiseration for the Pope and believes he deserved this penalty for what he has done. Dante ‘s opposes the Catholic Church and here we see much of his personal bitterness to the church. In the 4th pouch, Dante finds the prestidigitators and diviners. At first he feels commiseration and heartache, but Virgil rebukes him for demoing such compassion to these evildoers. Continuing on, in the 6th ditch Dante stumbles upon the High Priest Caiphus who ordered the crucifixion of Jesus. Caiphus, labeled a dissembler, must bear all the wickednesss of the dissemblers. He spends his infinity crucified to the land of Circle Eight. In the 7th ditch Vanni fucci identifies himself to Dante and tells him of the White Party enduring a licking at Pistoia. He besides begs Dante to non distribute his narrative on Earth out of shame. In ditch eight we see the hero Ulysses or to the Greeks, Odysseus. He believed Odysseus to be an enemy to Rome, and since Dante favours Rome, Ulysses must die deep in Hell. Guido district attorney Montefeltro said to hold had confessed and was saved by Boniface. However, Dante holds him to his wickedness because he does non believe in confession and the corruptness of Boniface flows over excessively much to shrive any wickedness. Dante does non see atoning as something that works from the Catholic Church. He believes in moral determination devising and people should follow their ain logical thinking instead than blindly follow the Church way. The last ditches of Circle Eight contain corrupt Florentines who for illustration, forged money, lied and falsified themselves. In Ditch nine some work forces inquire Dante to state their narrative, but due to spiritual grounds, Dante said no without 2nd conjecture. Dante and Virgil now plunge into the deepest and darkest portion of Hell, Circle nine.
Circle nine houses all the treasonists. Here we see Dante topographic point these work forces closer and closer to the Devil, until eventually puting three, right in the oral cavity of the Devil himself. These work forces bear the worst of the wickednesss in Dante ‘s Hell and endure, non the burn of Hell, but the freezing blast of the Devil ‘s flutter wings. We can see strongly see Dante ‘s biased Hell when visible radiation sheds itself on the three work forces that are gnawed on twenty-four hours and dark by the oral cavity of the Devil.
The first zone of the Ninth Circle serve place to those who betray their household, hence the circle is named, Caina, after Cain who killed his brother Abel. While walking on the iced lake Dante by chance kicks a evildoers caput. This caput happens to be that of Bocca degli Abati, a treasonist of Italy. At first he does non desire to uncover his individuality to Dante, so Dante “ yanked good few handfuls of [ his hair ] out ” ( XXXII, 103 ) , this does non rock the treasonist, but a fellow treasonist next to him slop the beans and asks, “ What ‘s the affair, Bocca? ” ( XXXII, 106 ) . Next was the 2nd zone, Antenora, treasonists of their state. Here, laid frozen, was Count Ugolino. Ugolino began to rub shoulders with Archbishop Ruggieri, and in order to derive supreme authorization, turned against his grandson. With him out of the manner Ugolino had a consecutive shooting to power, but “ through [ Ruggieri ‘s ] evil intrigues [ he ] , who trusted him, was taken viciously and later killed. ” ( XXXIII, 16-18 ) Dante did non commiseration him because in order to obtain his ain selfish terminals, he betrayed his grandson, his ain family of his ain party, and now must digest the effects he received on Earth and in Hell. Besides in this zone Dante places the psyche of the still populating work forces, Fra Albergio and Branca d’Oria. Dante wants the gravitation of their wickednesss to be known. And it adds a spot wit to the temper before confronting Lucifer in the 4th zone. Onward through the 3rd zone, Ptolomea, treasonists to their invitees, Dante and Virgil land in the Fourth Zone of Circle Nine. This Zone bears the label Judecca, The zone of Judas, and here lies the treasonists to their helpers, Judas, Brutus, and Cassius. These work forces are dubbed the greatest evildoers of human history. Rome, to Dante, was the autonomous metropolis. Jesus ‘ church was centered in Rome, and Dante saw that Church as the ideal manifestation of faith. Judas Iscariot bewraying Jesus landed him caput foremost in the Devil ‘s oral cavity. Brutus and Cassius, informers of Julius Caesar, set downing in the Devil ‘s oral cavity with their caput out, raises the issue of Julius being a great helper. However, Dante feels that Caesar was the perfect manifestation of secular authorities, as the emperor of Rome at the tallness of its power. Brutus and Cassius serve a small less punishment, but finally shows how Dante believes that Church and State drama and every bit of import function. And with that Dante completes his circuit of Hell.
Dante makes his hierarchy from least powerful to most powerful, merely as the wickednesss progress through the circles. He begins with merely normal citizens, so to reverends, cardinals, Catholic Popes, and eventually to treasonists. Many of the figures we find in the book committed more than one wickedness, but Dante places them in their several circle on which wickedness they most embody, and he continues to set moral issues at the centre of his work Throughout the Inferno Dante believes in separation of Church and State, but should stay equal, and in the last circle Dante completes his vision of moral hierarchy and makes a last base on his political positions.