Dichotomy Between Knowledge And Performance In Teachers English Language Essay


Teacher of English as a 2nd linguistic communication is finally faced with a duality between cognition and public presentation, particularly if they teach classs with a major constituent of written look. A category of English linguistic communication scholars can execute sufficiently in everyday grammatical exercisings, but so neglect signally to interpret this demonstrated cognition into world when faced with the undertaking of composing original prose. The intent of this paper is to show a numerical analysis of grammatical mistakes in pupils ‘ authorship as a agency of placing those facets of English grammar that do non interpret good from everyday testing of grammatical cognition to original work. The consequences provide some penetration into deficit in the capablenesss of pupils and, more significantly, place ways to right them.

Interest in the instruction of English as an international linguistic communication has been turning throughout the Arab states, and most Arab authoritiess began to establish the instruction of English as compulsory topic in schools. At present, in most Arab states, all pupils who finish the public secondary school instruction must hold had at least eight old ages of learning in English as a school topic. So, because of the widespread usage of English as a 2nd linguistic communication, the topic of linguistic communication instruction in general and learning English as a foreign or 2nd linguistic communication in peculiar, has become the focal point of attending of most Arab research workers ( Al-Khatib, 2000 ) . Equally far as English at third degree in the Arab universe is concerned, ( Zughoul, 2003 ; Sultana, ( 2001 ) point out that learning through the medium of English is obvious in the field of higher instruction with the exclusion of Syria which maintained a strong instruction tradition through the medium of Arabic. Zughoul, in corroborating this issue has said, ‘no Torahs have been enacted or linguistic communication programs drawn to be implemented sing the usage of Arabic in Arab universities in any Arab state ‘ ( ibid, ( 2003 ) . Equally far as Arab pupils are concerned, late, Rababah has justly stated that ‘attitudinal surveies conducted on Arab pupils, systematically showed that Arab pupils are instrumentally motivated to larn English and that they are good cognizant of the public-service corporation of cognizing English. The chief stimulation for larning English is instrumental, i.e. to accomplish a end, e.g. a calling ( ibid, 2003 ) .To shed more about the present position of English in the Arab universe, Zughoul justly states: ‘despite the hegemonic and imperialistic nature of English, it is still severely needed in the Arab universe for the intents of pass oning with the universe, instruction, acquisition of engineering and development at big. Teaching still needs more attempts to be exerted to raise the quality and criterion of English of the Arab scholars at all degrees, ( ibid 2003 ) .

General Background

Language is a agency of communicating with persons. It is a system of sound which is structured and used to pass on people ‘s feeling, purposes, intent, etc to the others. It is a particular feature of homo or it can besides be regarded as one of human standards because merely human existences speak a linguistic communication. However, the ability to talk a linguistic communication should be developed in a societal group. Sapir ( 1921: P 8 ) says “ linguistic communication is strictly human and non natural method of pass oning thoughts, emotional, and desires by agencies of system of voluntarily produced symbols. ”

One of the Languages is English. It is one of the linguistic communications used in communicating about all over the universe. It used chiefly in Britain and its commonwealth all over the universe and it has become one of the chief linguistic communications of international communicating. It has a really of import function in technological and scientific progresss.

2.1 Grammar

The word grammar has several significances and there is no universally accepted definition. Different experts define the term grammar otherwise. There is no fixed definition of grammar. Leech ( 1982: 3 ) defined grammar as something in mention to the mechanism harmonizing to which linguistic communication works when it is used to pass on with other people. Harmer ( 2001: 12 ) defines grammar as the description of the ways in which words can alter their signifiers and can be combined into sentences in that linguistic communication. Gerot & A ; Wignell ( 1994: 2 ) province that grammar is a theory of a linguistic communication, of how linguistic communication is put together and how it works. Having known the definition of grammar, it is non difficult for us to understand why grammar is utile and of import. Without cognizing the grammar of a linguistic communication, one can non be said to hold learned the linguistic communication. Besides, it seems impossible to larn a linguistic communication without larning the grammar because it tells him how to utilize the linguistic communication. Peoples learn how to build a good message based on the regulations they have known and seek to convey the message to the others. These regulations are termed as grammar. The mechanism of grammar can non be seen concretely, because it is instead abstractly represented in the human head, but we know it is at that place because it works. One manner of depicting this mechanism is by agencies of a set of regulations which allow us to set words together in certain ways which do non let others. The significance of a message conveyed by linguistic communication has to be converted into words put together harmonizing to grammatical regulations and these words are so conveyed by sounds.

Preposition and atoms

Sawn states that Arabic has a wealth of fixed prepositions and atoms, used with both verbs and adjectives. Many of these do non co-occur with their direct English interlingual rendition. There are no phrasal verbs in Arabic and this whole country is one of the great hard for Arabic talkers. Defence mechanisms may affect choosing alternate but regular verbs to avoid utilizing phrasal verbs wholly, or the abuse or skip of the preposition or atom.

As prepositions in Arabic are ever followed by or linked to a noun or pronoun, preposition- stranding forms in English will normally be avoided in favor of the Arabic forms, which are frequently similar to more formal English.

Literature Reappraisal:

A Review of Second Language Acquisition ( SLA ) Research

Over the past old ages, surveies of 2nd linguistic communications larning have occupied a important place in the field of lingual. The term ”second linguistic communication acquisition ” refer to the subconscious or witting by which a linguistic communication other than the other lingua is learnt in natural or a taught scene. It includes the development of phonemics, lexis, grammar and matter-of-fact cognition ( Ellis, 2008 ) . Ellis ( 2008 ) defined Second Language Acquisition ( SLA ) as ‘the survey which people have showed great involvements although it does non hold a long history. ‘

Lingua franca Theory ( IL )

The Definition of Interlanguage

Harmonizing to Selinker ( 1972 ) , ‘interlanguage refers to the discreteness of a 2nd linguistic communication scholars ‘ system, system that has a structurally intermediate position between the native and mark linguistic communications. ‘ ( p. 201 ) . Nemser ( 1971:9 ) stresses the consecutive estimate to the mark linguistic communication in his term ‘approximative system ‘ . Corder ( 1972:151 ) makes usage of the term ‘idiosyncratic idiom ‘ to denote the thought that scholar ‘s linguistic communication is alone to a peculiar person. While each of these descriptions focal points on a peculiar thought, they portion the thought that 2nd linguistic communication scholars form their ain linguistic communication system.

Richards ( 1974: 124 ) provinces that “ the beginnings of mistakes in analyzing a linguistic communication might be derived from the intervention of the scholars ‘ female parent lingua and the general features of the regulation acquisition. ” The general features of the regulation larning do the mistakes which are called the intralanguage mistakes and the intervention of the scholars ‘ female parent lingua causes the mistakes which are called the lingua franca mistakes. He ( 1974 ) makes a differentiation between three beginnings of competency mistakes:

( 1 ) Intervention mistakes happen as an consequence of the usage of component from one linguistic communication whereas speech production another.

( 2 ) Intralingual mistakes reveal the general features of regulation larning such as defective generalisation, uncomplete application of regulations and failure to larn conditions under which regulations apply.

( 3 ) Developmental mistakes occur when the scholar attempt to construct up hypothesis about the mark linguistic communication on the footing of limited experience.

Richards ( 1971 ) besides classifies intralingual mistakes into four types:


It occurs when the scholar produces an unexpected construction on the footing of other constructions in the mark linguistic communication. In other words, it involves the creative activity of one unusual construction in topographic point of two mark linguistic communication constructions.

Ignorance of the regulation limitations

It includes the application of regulations to context where they do non use. It is in general linked to analogy. It contains a failure to to the full develop a construction. As a consequence, scholars of L2 English have been observed to utilize word order of declaration in inquiries. This type of intralingual mistake keeps up a correspondence to what is frequently referred to as an mistake of transitional competency ( Richards, 1971:174 )

False constructs hypothesized

The concluding type of intralanguage mistake, that is sometimes named semantic mistake, may be derived from defective comprehension in the mark linguistic communication.

The Stages of IL Development

It can be said that there are many manner to depict the patterned advance of lingual development and scholars are variable in their acquisition. Harmonizing to Brown ( 2000/1994: p211 ) , IL development can be classified into four phases.

The first phase is ‘random mistakes ‘ , in which the scholar can non acknowledge that there are some systematic orders to a peculiar category of points.

The 2nd phase is ’emergent ‘ , in which scholar becomes consistent in lingual production.

The 3rd phase is a ‘systematic phase ‘ in which the scholar has a capacity to turn out more consistence. When their mistakes are pointed out, they will rectify their mistakes right off. Surely, they are more close to the mark linguistic communication.

The last phase is ‘stabilization phase ‘ which is characterised by the scholars ‘ ability to self-correct.

Approachs to IL Study

Contrastive Analysis ( CA )

Harmonizing to Johnson & A ; Johnson ( 1998:110 ) , “ Contrastive analysis is a comparing two lingual systems, the scholar L1 and the mark L2 with a position to finding structural similarities and differences. Because of it, doing mistakes in larning linguistic communication is on a regular basis happen.

As said by Brown ( 1994:193 ) , “ 2nd linguistic communication larning fundamentally involved the overcoming of the differences between the two lingual systems- the indigen and the mark languages. Lado ( 1957:2 ) pointed out that the signifiers significances and distribution of native linguistic communication and civilization can be transferred to the mark linguistic communication. He besides states that “ those elements that are similar to this native linguistic communication will be simple for him and those elements that are different will be hard. “ ( p:2 )

Mistake Analysis ( EA )

Significance of Error Analysis

Mistake analysis in SLA was established in 1960s by Stephen Pit Corder and co-workers. Error analysis was an alternate to incompatible analysis, an attack influenced by behaviorism through which applied lingual sough to utilize the formal differentiations between the scholar ‘s L1 and L2 to predicted mistakes.

Harmonizing to James ( 1998:1 ) , error analysis is the procedure of finding the incidences, nature, causes and effects of unsuccessful linguistic communication. It can be said that doing mistakes in linguistic communication procedure can be highly common.

As Ubol ( 1988: 8 ) said, “ Mistakes analysis is a systematic description and account of mistakes made by scholars or user in their unwritten or written production on the TL. ” That is average that mistake analysis is concerned with the account of happening mistake and production mistake of their unwritten or written look differs from that of native talker or Target Language ( TL )

Corder ( 1981 ) noted that Mistakes can be important in three different ways. First, teacher can hold information about how much the scholar had learnt. Second, the research can hold grounds of how linguistic communication was learnt. Third, mistakes served as devices by which the scholar discovered the regulations of the Target Language ( TL )

Procedures of Mistake

To analysis the information, I use error analysis method. Corder was quoted by Ellis ( 2008:46 ) recommends the undermentioned stairss to carry on an mistake analysis investigate:

Collection of a sample of scholar linguistic communication by which make up one’s minding what forms of scholar linguistic communication to utilize for analysis and how to roll up thesis forms.

Designation of mistakes by which underlying the mistakes the scholar made.

Description of mistakes in which mistakes can be classified as group that found and declaring the categories of the mistakes.

Explanation of mistakes by which the mistakes can be established the beginning of the mistakes and ciphering how frequently errors appear.

Evaluation of mistakes in which tabelizing mistakes and pulling decision can be involved.

Mentioning to the stairss of mistake analysis method above, the day of the month will be analysis as followers:

Designation of mistakes:

In this measure, I studied the acquired informations and tried to happen out grammatical mistakes in peculiar mistakes in usage of preposition. I tried to analysis the information every bit nonsubjective as possible.

Description of mistakes:

Once the mistakes have been identified. I classified the mistakes into the class of “ mistakes in usage of preposition ” .

Evaluation of mistakes:

In this measure would be pulling a decision based on the analysis. I have to do a valid decision in the signifier of a brief description of the mistakes.

Mistake Types

Brown ( 1994 ) pointed out that there are two type ( Another division that is widely agreed on is that interlingual mistakes and intralingual mistakes believed by linguists. An mistake that consequences from linguistic communication transportation, which is caused by the scholar ‘s native linguistic communication, is called interlingual mistakes. Intralingual mistakes refer to those produced in utilizing the mark linguistic communication in ain footings. They result from faulty or partial of the mark linguistic communication, instead than from linguistic communication transportation.

Mistakes in the usage of prepositions

Prepositions are ever followed by nouns ( or pronouns ) . They are connective words that show the relationship between the nouns following them and one of the basic sentence elements: topic, verb, object, or complement. They normally indicate relationships, such as place, topographic point, way, clip, mode, agent, ownership, and status, between their objects and other parts of the sentence ( Wishon and Burks, 1980: 288 ) . A preposition may be composed of one, two, or three parts. For case: a. one portion: of, on, in, at, for, from b. two parts: because of, harmonizing to, etc c. three parts: in forepart of, on top of, every bit far as, etc In utilizing a preposition, one should be cognizant because there is no certain regulation for this. One has to find which preposition should be used based on its context.

Previous surveies Students on EFL Arab Learners ‘ authorship Mistakes

Bacha ( 2002:161 ) provinces that “ L2 authors are known to confront jobs in developing their authorship accomplishments at the university degree. These jobs are even more accentuated with L1 Arabic non-native talkers of English in needed English composing. ” She has added that Arab scholars or a foreign linguistic communication or 2nd linguistic communication do have serious jobs in composing and may non be motivated to develop their authorship accomplishments. Kharma and Hajjaj ( 1997 ) described preposition as an everlasting job for EFL Arab scholar. Kharma ‘s statement based on his ain empirical and theoretical surveies conducted in several Arab states ( e.g. Arab Gulf and Jordan ) and because he observed that about all research on syntactic mistakes in the Arab universe, preposition were found to be the most troublesome grammatical words and invariably go on a important preposition of mistake occupied the first of 2nd place among other syntactic and semantic mistakes.



The participants of this survey are the IELTS category of Arab pupils in English linguistic communication Centre at Manchester Metropolitan University in the academic twelvemonth of 2010. The category consists of 19 pupils. I choose nine of their written work indiscriminately. I selected them to be capable of this survey because they have already learnt the English grammar and they use English in the schoolroom learning larning procedure every bit good.

Data aggregation

In aggregation the information, the stuffs used for analysis were 9 written plants on one subject from IELTS class pupils at Manchester Metropolitan University. The pupils were asked to compose subject about ; “ in my dairy, I will: ” The subject was chosen for pupils to rehearse the simple past tense. The work was done as activity in category, but the pupils were allowed to utilize lexicons. The work created by the pupils was thoughtful, originative and good structured. I tried to analysis the pupils ‘ mistakes and to happen out the grammatical mistakes done by pupils in peculiar preposition mistakes.

Result and Discussion of mistakes


Date analysis in footings of Interlingual and Inralingual Mistakes

Discussion of mistakes

The topics of this survey made 28 mistakes ( see appendix 2 ) . There are three subcategories of mistakes ( permutation, add-on and skip ) will be presented by the side of their beginning whether it is intralingual or interlingual. The figure of mistakes is little as mentioned above. In the treatment of mistakes in this survey, merely few illustrations for interest of illustration to the three classs will be given and discussed.

Mistakes of permutation

Analysis of the informations disclosee illustrations of the permutation of prepositions which seemed to be caused by both, the pupils ‘ female parent lingua intervention and influence of the mark linguistic communication itself. The bulk of the mistakes were of replacements, made in the usage of prepositions in the composing whether the beginning was interlingual or intralingual.

Interlingual Mistakes

Intralingual Mistakes


In alternatively at:

The followers are exemplifying illustrations:

I felt comfy to larn English in MMU.

I did enrollment in constabulary… .

At alternatively in:

Finally, at the first hebdomad, I felt homesick.

This mistake are attributed to overgeneralization that arises from the ambiguity in the scholars ‘ head, peculiarly when they face the undertaking of utilizing one preposition to show different connexions and significances. In this instance, the scholars will overgenerlise one point over the other as in ( 1 ) they overgenerlised the preposition ‘at ‘ alternatively of ‘in ‘ .

To alternatively for:

The followers is exemplifying illustration:

I took exposures to him.

To alternatively in:

The followers are exemplifying illustrations:

I arrived to Manchester.

It was my first clip to the UK.

To alternatively on:

The followers are exemplifying illustrations:

My instructors asked us to travel with group to campus.

We took our pupil cards and to inscribe to our class.

For alternatively to:

The followers are exemplifying illustrations:

I started for survey difficult.

I came here for learn English.

About alternatively for:

The followers are exemplifying illustrations:

My first feeling about the university was good.

I search about a level or place.

During alternatively over:

The followers is exemplifying illustration:

During the three hebdomads… .

Mistakes of add-on

The add-on of preposition indicated those excess propositions are used where they are non needed. The analysis of the day of the month showed that ( 5 ) prepositions were added they were non necessary. Analysis of informations showed illustrations of the add-on of prepositions which seemed to be caused by both, pupils ‘s female parent lingua intervention and the influence of the mark linguistic communication itself. Here some exemplifying illustrations:

Addition of ‘of ‘

I started stady of Eingliesh.

The mistake in the above illustration attributed to the TL intervention. in the same manner, Modern Sanders Arabic does non necessitate a preposition in such context. Therefore, the scholar of this sentence overgeneralised the usage of the preposition ‘of ‘ in place where it is non nedded.

Addition of ‘for ‘

I spent about three hr for analyzing… … .

Addition of ‘to ‘

I pray mundane to get my passport.

I met to Staphany at that clip.

We went to shopping.

Mistakes of skip

Analysis of the informations revealed that there are… … prepositions were omitted from topographic points where they were needed. Besides, analysis of informations revealed illustrations of skip of preposition which seemed to be caused by both, the pupil female parent lingua and the influence of the mark linguistic communication itself. Here are some illustrations:

Omission of ( of )

The followers are exemplifying illustrations:

It was my first clip to ride^ a train.

I went to Manchester Metropolitan University, because^ enrollment.

Omission of ( for )

When I came back to my level with my family^ about one hr.

^the foremost three hebdomads, I visited my friend in Manchester.

I visited hotel in London ^3 yearss.

Omission of ( on )

The followers are exemplifying illustrations:

I got her my passport^ Wednesday.

^the first twenty-four hours in the school linguistic communication.

Omission of ( in )

The followers are exemplifying illustrations:

^ the 2nd hebdomad, …

When I arrived ^Manchester, … ..


This survey has investigated the types of written mistakes produced by Turkish pupils who are novices in their

degree of English proficiency. Findingss indicate that the early phases of linguistic communication acquisition are characterized by a

predomination of interlingual mistakes. It is suggested that pupil mistakes should non be regarded as a failure, but as a

existent advancement the pupil is doing in achieving the cognition of the mark linguistic communication, in peculiar, as mistakes provide

to the instructor or the researcher grounds of how linguistic communication is being learned or acquired, what strategies the scholar is

using in the find of the linguistic communication. As Corder ( 1967 ) noted “ a scholar ‘s errorsaˆ¦ are important in ( that )

they provide to the research worker grounds of how linguistic communication is learned or acquired, what strategies or procedures the

scholar is using in the find of the linguistic communication ” ( pp. 167 ) . Mistakes show the instructor what aspects of linguistic communication

points have been understood, learned or confused. Besides, by being able to foretell mistakes to a certain extent, instructors

can be well-equipped to assist pupils minimise or get the better of their acquisition jobs. Mistakes are indispensable to

the scholar because they may, in bend, benefit from assorted signifiers of feedback on these mistakes.

( 1 ) Based on the determination of the analysis, it shows that the pupils made a sum of 235 mistakes which consists of 153 or 65 % mistakes in utilizing verb signifiers, 3 or 1.3 % mistakes in understanding between capable and verb, 10 or 4.3 % mistakes in the usage of article, 30 or 12.8 % mistakes in the usage of preposition, 12 or 5.1 % mistakes in pluralisation, 23 or 9.8 % mistakes in the usage of pronoun, and 4 or 1.7 % mistakes in the usage of concurrence.

( 2 ) Harmonizing to the findings, it can be concluded that the pupils have non mastered the usage of verb groups. We can see it from the figure of the mistakes made. Although they had been taught about it before, they were still confused which one to utilize when doing a grammatical sentence. It could be because in bahasa Indonesia we do non hold the verb junctions. We do non hold clip signaling in showing thoughts. They are unfamiliar to this signifier and because English is still foreign for them. And those are the possible causes of their mistakes.

The pupils were still confused in doing the understanding between capable and verb. It could be because in bahasa Indonesia there is no understanding between capable and verb. The pupils were still confused in distinguishing whether to utilize the definite or indefinite articles. It could be because in Indonesian linguistic communication grammar there is no definite article used. The pupils still confused in make up one’s minding preposition which preposition should be used, whether to utilize in, on, or at. The pupils overgeneralized the pluralizing of nouns. They merely added the -s/ -es without sing that there are some irregular signifiers of nouns pluralisation. The pupils still confused in make up one’s minding which pronoun should be used to replace nouns, whether it is personal, comparative, genitive, or demonstrative pronouns. The pupils applied regulations in organizing past clip verb to concurrences. From the accounts above, I can reason that the pupils still confused in covering with English grammar systems.

Pedagogical deduction:

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