Effect Of Grammar Vs Vocabulary English Language Essay

This survey was designed to look into the consequence of grammar and vocabulary pre-teaching, as two types of pre-reading activities, on the Persian EFL scholars ‘ reading comprehension from a schema-theoretic position. The sample consisted of 90 female pupils analyzing at pre-university centres of Mobarakeh, Isfahan. The topics were indiscriminately divided into three equal-in-number groups. They participated in a trial of overall linguistic communication proficiency, and the consequences indicated that they were linguistically homogenous. Then, the three groups were exposed to different interventions. Group A received grammar pre-teaching, whereas group B received vocabulary pre-teaching. The topic in group C, nevertheless, received no pre-teaching. After having their interventions, the topics were given some short texts followed by a figure or multiple-choice comprehension inquiries as posttests. The consequences showed no important difference among the three groups though the vocabulary group performed somewhat better than the other two groups, and the public presentation of the grammar group was apparently worse than the control group.

Keywords: reading comprehension, grammar / vocabulary pre-teaching, scheme theory.

Introduction

“ Without uncertainty, in any academic or higher acquisition context, reading is perceived as the most outstanding academic accomplishment for university pupils ” ( Noor, 2006, p.66 ) . Learning a foreign linguistic communication involves geting four types of accomplishments: hearing, speech production, reading, and composing. It is by and large believed that reading is the most of import of all these accomplishments. The reading accomplishment is frequently required for academic, professional, and personal intents. This is peculiarly true of an international linguistic communication like English to which most people are exposed in the universe today.

Harmonizing to reading specializers, reading is non really a accomplishment but a procedure composed of many different accomplishments. It is defined as “ the ability of an person to acknowledge a ocular signifier, associate the signifier with a sound and / or significance he has learned in the yesteryear, and on the footing of past experience, understand and construe its significance ” ( Kennedy, 1974, p.3 ) . It follows from the above definition that reading is non a inactive activity. In other words, the reader must do an active part to get the available information.

Goodman ( 1967 cited in Rivers, 1981 ) describes reading as a “ psycholinguistic guesswork game ” which requires “ skill in choosing the fewest, most productive cues necessary to bring forth conjectures which are right the first clip ” . As mentioned in Carrell & A ; Eisterhold ( 1983, p. 554 ) , Goodman views this act of the building of significance as being “ an ongoing, cyclical, procedure of trying from the input text, foretelling, proving and corroborating or revising those anticipations, and trying farther ” .

Widdowson ( 1979 ) has discussed reading as “ the procedure of uniting textual information with the information a reader brings to a text ” . In this position the reading procedure is non merely a affair of pull outing information from the text. Rather, it is viewed as a sort of duologue between the reader and the text. Similarly, Carrell & A ; Eisterhold ( 1983 ) province that our apprehension of reading is best considered as “ the interaction that occurs between the reader and the text, an interpretative procedure ” . The synergistic position of the reading procedure can assist show a more comprehensive definition of reading. In the visible radiation of this position of reading, Nassaji ( 2003, p.261 ) , for illustration, contends:

Reading is non a single-factor procedure. It is a multivariate accomplishment affecting a complex combination and integrating of a assortment of cognitive, lingual, and nonlinguistic accomplishments runing from the really basic low-level processing abilities involved in decrypting print and encoding ocular constellation to high-ranking accomplishments of sentence structure, semantics, and discourse, and to still higher-order cognition of text representation and integrating of thoughts with the reader ‘s planetary cognition.

Now there is widespread understanding that without the activation of relevant anterior cognition by the reader and commixture of that cognition with the text information, there can be no reading of text. Recent empirical research in the field which has come to be known as “ scheme theory ” has shown the importance of background cognition within a psycholinguistic theoretical account of reading ( Carrell & A ; Eisterhold, 1983 ) . Harmonizing to Widmayer ( 2003 ) , the scholar in scheme theory actively builds schemes and revises them in visible radiation of new information.

Harmonizing to scheme theory, reading comprehension is an synergistic procedure between the text and the reader ‘s anterior background cognition through which readers interact with the text in order to animate significance. In other words, reading comprehension involves triping the appropriate scheme in order to do sense of incoming information. Recent tendencies, hence, stress the activation of background cognition prior to reading to ease comprehension.

As Carrell & A ; Eisterhold ( 1983 ) observe, accessing appropriate content scheme depends ab initio on textual cues. For 2nd linguistic communication readers, so, evidently some linguistic communication proficiency is required to trip relevant scheme. To this terminal, linguistic communication instructors can originate vocabulary and grammar pre-teaching, as two of import pre-reading activities. However, it has non been made clear in the present literature which of these two techniques has a greater influence on reading comprehension.

A demand is felt, hence, to pay closer attending to pre-reading activities in order to see how they influence reading comprehension. The present survey is an effort to research the issue of schema activation or scheme building through pre-reading activities. In fact, this survey is carried out with the purpose of happening some empirical grounds to back up the hypothesized relationship between grammar and vocabulary pre-teaching, as two types of schema activation/construction pre-reading activities, and reading comprehension of Persian EFL scholars.

Literature Review

Harmonizing to Anderson and Pearson ( 1984 ) , Sir Frederic Bartlett ( 1932 ) is normally acknowledged as the first psychologist to utilize the term “ scheme ” . Harmonizing to Bartlett in his authoritative book Remembering ( 1932, p. 201 ; cited in Anderson and Pearson, op cit ) , the term “ scheme ” refers to “ an active organisation of past reactions, or past experience ” . Schema theory suggests that our past experience or universe cognition we have in our head is organized into interconnected forms. These forms enable us to do anticipations about what we might anticipate to see in a given context. Such forms serve as devices for categorising and set uping information so that it can be interpreted and retained ( Widdowson, 1983 ) .

Anderson and Pearson ( 1984 ) focal point on the issue of how the reader ‘s “ scheme ” , or cognition, already stored in memory, map in the procedure of construing new information and leting it to come in and go a portion of the cognition shop. In other words, Anderson and Pearson ‘s Schema-Theoretic Model of the reading procedure addresses the interaction between old and new information.

Harmonizing to Anderson and Pearson ( 1984 ) , a scheme is an abstract cognition construction. A scheme is abstract in the sense that it summarizes what is known about a assortment of instances that differ in many specifics. It is structured in the sense that it represents the relationships among its constituent parts. Some constituents of a scheme are peculiarly outstanding ; that is to state, words adverting the constituent have a high chance of conveying to mind the scheme and merely that scheme and, hence, these words have great diagnostic value for the reader.

Most treatments of scheme theory have emphasized the usage of scheme to absorb information ( Anderson and Pearson, 1984 ) . Here, we deal with how a scheme may be modified to suit new information. Obviously, a individual may modify a scheme by being told new information. When we read or see something that fits in logically with what we already know, we add this information to our bing scheme. In this manner, we build or expand our scheme for a construct.

However, a scheme may alter because it can non manage incoming informations which contradict bing scheme. This change may take a great trade of clip every bit good as a great trade of grounds since most people by and large resist altering their scheme ( Matthews, 2002 ) . Similarly, Barnett ( 1999, p.32 ; cited in Mirhassani & A ; Khosravi, 2002 ) states that “ if the new textual information does non suit into a reader ‘s scheme, the reader misunderstands the new stuff, ignores the new stuff, or revises the scheme to fit the facts within the transition ” .

Schema theory and reading comprehension

Reading research workers distinguish between three types of scheme, viz. formal, content, and abstract scheme. Formal scheme, frequently known as textual scheme, refers to the organisational signifiers and rhetorical constructions of written texts. It can include cognition of different types and genres, and besides includes the apprehension that different types of texts usage text organisation, linguistic communication constructions, vocabulary, grammar, degree of formality / registry otherwise ( Singhal, 1998 ) . Contented scheme, harmonizing to Carrell & A ; Eisterhold ( 1983 ) , refers to a reader ‘s background or universe cognition and provides readers with a foundation, a footing for comparing. As Carrell ( 1988 a ) puts it, content scheme or background cognition of the content country of the text may be culture-specific. It is thought that readers ‘ civilizations can impact everything from the manner readers view reading itself, the content and formal scheme they hold, and their apprehension of single constructs ( Stott, 2001 ) .

Oller ( 1995 ; cited in Mirhassani & A ; Khosravi, 2003 ) negotiations about a new type of scheme, viz. “ abstract scheme ” . Harmonizing to Oller ( ibid, p.287 ) , “ abstract scheme carry the inductive integrating [ formal scheme ] to the wholly general ( abstract, immaterial, non-syntacticized ) degree of pure symbols ” .

In L2 reading research, the schema-theoretic focal point on both the content and the construction of a text was adopted by some research workers, best represented by ( Johnson, 1981, 1982 ; Carrell, 1984 ; Carrell & A ; Eisterhold,1983 ) . This work has explored how a text ‘s content and form influence L2 scholars ‘ reading comprehension ( Barnitz, 1986 ; cited in Pearson Casanave, 1988 ) .The research has by and large relied on written callbacks and multiple-choice comprehension trials to mensurate pupils ‘ comprehension of short reading transitions.

Schema theory is of import to linguistic communication instruction because conventional cognition is as indispensable a constituent of successful communicating as lingual cognition ( Widdowson, 1983 ) . As Cook ( 1997 ) besides puts it, schema theory can assist explicate pupils ‘ comprehension jobs and suggest the sort of background cognition they need. Consequently, comprehension occurs when a reader is able to utilize anterior cognition and experience to construe an writer ‘s message ( Norris & A ; Phillips, 1987 ; cited in Alvarez and Risko, 1989 ) . The relevancy of scheme theory to reading comprehension is that it acknowledges semantic constructivity. In this relation, Adams and Collins ( 1979, p. 3 ; cited in Perkins, 1983 ) contend:

A cardinal premise of schema-theoretic attacks to linguistic communication comprehension is that spoken or written text does non in itself carry intending. Rather, a text merely provides waies for hearers or readers as to how they should recover or build the intended significance from their ain, antecedently acquired cognition. The words of a text evoke in the reader associated constructs, their past interrelatednesss and their possible interrelatednesss.

Therefore, a reader ‘s failure to trip an appropriate scheme can convey about jobs in text comprehension. Harmonizing to Carrell ( 1984 ) , this failure to trip an appropriate scheme may be due to either the reader non expeditiously using his / her bottom-up processing manner to trip schemata the reader may already possess, or it may be due to the fact that the reader does non possess the appropriate scheme anticipated by the writer. To counterbalance for this lack, Carrell ( 1988b ) recommends utilizing appropriate pre-reading activities to trip bing background cognition every bit good as to construct new background cognition.

Pre-reading activities and scheme activation

Schema theory research shows that the greater the background cognition of a text ‘s content country, the greater the comprehension of that text ( Carrell, 1984 ) . The deduction of this for instruction is that some pupils ‘ reading jobs may be jobs of deficient background cognition, which can be provided for through appropriate pre-reading activities. In specifying pre-reading activities Tudor ( 1990 ) contends:

Pre-reading is a term used to mention to the scope of pedagogical techniques whereby scholars are engaged, prior to their chief processing of a mark text, in text-related conceptual activities designed to assist them to treat their text in a more meaningful mode ( P. 96 ) .

Pre-reading activities, harmonizing to Ausubel ( 1963 ; cited in Hyde, 2002 ) , are regarded as “ progress organisers ” which provide utile information and trip bing cognition so that the reader has a model or schema ready to help in processing and retaining the text. Similarly, ( Hyde, 2002 ) has reported that the usage of pre-reading instructional activities can ease comprehension through the proviso of context and the activation of the reader ‘s background cognition.

Harmonizing to Widdowson ( 1990, p.104 ) , in the procedure of doing and construing significance, “ grammar and lexis service as waies teaching discourse participants to do a peculiar sort of connexion between the lingual mark and the relevant facet of their conventional cognition. Similarly, Eskey ( 1971 ; cited in Cowan, 1974 ) contends that the two lingual hindrances to the procedure of decrypting the significance of sentences are vocabulary and grammar jobs. Actually, this survey intends to happen empirical support for the hypothesized relationships between grammar and vocabulary pre-teaching, as two types of scheme activation or pre-reading activities, and the reading comprehension of Persian EFL readers.

Grammar pre-teaching

Among assorted types of pre-reading activities is grammar pre-teaching. Harmonizing to Bossers ( 1992 ) , limited syntactic cognition and a basic unknowingness of syntactic boundaries have been found to hinder the second-language reading procedure ( cited in Droop & A ; Verhoeven, 2003 ) . Learners can presumptively get new cognition from reasonably unfamiliar texts when the necessary structural cues are provided.

As we all know, words normally do non come in isolation in natural texts, and their combination into larger units is governed by the sentence structure of the linguistic communication ( Lyons, 1981 ) . Readers need syntactic cognition to build an reading of what they read. Harmonizing to Adams ( 1980, p.18 ; cited in Lin, 2002 ) , “ syntactic competency is an of import dimension of lingual competency in general ” . Similarly, Berman ( 1984, p.153 ; cited in Lin, op cit ) notes that “ efficient foreign linguistic communication readers must trust in portion on syntactic devices to acquire at text significance ” .

In a more recent survey conducted by Shiotsu and Weir ( 2007 ) , where the range of grammar was clearly delineated as embracing the cognition of inflectional morphology, verb signifiers, and transmutations, grammatical cognition emerged as a stronger forecaster of L2 reading ability.

Even though grammatical competency is presumed to be indispensable for placing syntactic dealingss of sentence constituents, there has been small research on how readers ‘ cognition of grammar contributes to L2 reading comprehension ( Shiotsu & A ; Weir, 2007 ) .

Vocabulary pre-teaching

It is well-documented that vocabulary and L2 reading portion a mutual relationship ( Pulido, 2009 ; St?hr, 2008 ) .

Empirical surveies on the relationship between vocabulary size and L2 reading comprehension have systematically produced a strong correlativity between the two, runing from 0.50 to 0.85 ( Jahangard, 2010 ) . This has directed research workers to see vocabulary development as a stipulation for successful L2 reading comprehension, in add-on to a strong forecaster of L2 reading ability.

Poor L2 reading is viewed to be non due to the shortage in L2 grammar, but to the deficient cognition of vocabulary that carries semantic information ( Strother & A ; Ulijn, 1987 ) .

From a schema-theoretic point of position, vocabulary pre-teaching, as an effectual type of pre-reading activity, triggers schema activation and AIDSs comprehension. However, because of the complexness of the procedure of reading comprehension, it is really hard to set up a unequivocal, causal tie between vocabulary cognition and reading comprehension ( Ruddell, 1994 ; cited in Harmon, 1999 ) .

Schema theory explains the self-contradictory nature of the function of vocabulary direction in reading teaching method. On the one manus, an of import portion of learning background cognition is learning the vocabulary related to it and, conversely, learning vocabulary agencies learning constructs, new cognition ( Carrell, 1984 ) . Vocabulary pre-teaching can, hence, aid EFL readers both to construct the background cognition needed for reading and to demo them how to trip or entree such cognition in the reading procedure. The empirical grounds for the facilitating consequence of vocabulary pre-teaching on L2 readers ‘ reading comprehension has besides been provided, for illustration, in ( Hyde, 2002 ) . Besides, Findingss from Brisbois ‘s ( 1995 ) and Haynes and Carr ‘s ( 1990 ) surveies, where vocabulary cognition was shown to be a better forecaster of L2 reading ability than grammar.

On the other manus, there is besides research demoing that grammar has a comparable or a stronger consequence on L2 reading ( Alderson, 1993 ; Shiotsu & A ; Weir, 2007 ) .

The several weight of vocabulary and grammar in L2 reading still remains inconclusive chiefly due to the marked contrast in research findings ( Shiotsu & A ; Weir, 2007 ) .

The Research Question

Which pre-teaching activities ( grammar or vocabulary ) are more effectual in heightening reading comprehension?

Method

In this research, the consequence of two types of pre-reading activities, viz. , grammar and vocabulary pre-teaching, on EFL scholars ‘ reading comprehension was explored from the position of scheme theory. In other words, the research worker intended to see if the proviso of grammar versus vocabulary pre-teaching, as two types of schema-activation devices, influenced EFL reading comprehension every bit and in the same manner. In proficient footings, grammar and vocabulary constituted our independent variables, and reading comprehension was the dependent variable in this survey.

Subjects

The sample consisted of 90 female pupils analyzing at pre-university centres of Mobarakeh, Isfahan. They were all take parting in English categories for the University Entrance Examination readying held in Fatemeh Zahra High School of Mobarakeh. The topics were indiscriminately divided into three equal-in-number groups: two experimental groups and one control group. All three groups were about the same on the footing of their linguistic communication proficiency degrees because they had the same educational background, the same old ages of survey in English, and, most significantly, they had scored about the same on the linguistic communication proficiency trial administered to them.

Materials

The stuffs of this survey consisted of: 1 ) a pretest which was one of the Nelson English Language Tests, as a trial of overall linguistic communication proficiency, 2 ) four short reading transitions each followed by five multiple-choice inquiries prepared by the Persian Sanjesh Organization, 3 ) four lists of chief grammatical constructions or forms used in the reading transitions, to which merely the topics in one of the experimental groups were exposed in the signifier of a pre-reading activity, and 4 ) four lists of chief vocabulary points used in the reading transitions, which merely the topics in the other experimental group received in the signifier of another type of pre-reading activity.

The instructional stuffs of this survey included four lists of grammatical constructions and four lists of vocabulary points used in the reading texts that the topics were supposed to read after having intervention. In other words, a figure of grammatical constructions and vocabulary points were specified to be presented to the experimental groups prior to reading the texts incorporating those points.

Among the grammatical constructions which were presented as grammar pre-teaching were: inactive signifiers, conditional sentences, comparative and greatest adjectives, adjectives after associating verbs, comparative clauses, infinitival phrases of intent, the gerund, the infinitive after certain verbs, the parallel buildings “ both… … ..and ” and “ neither… … ..nor ” , that-clauses, nouns as qualifiers, the present perfect tense, and the anaphoric or cataphoric usage of pronouns.

The vocabulary lists which were presented in footings of vocabulary pre-teaching contained points such as consideration, root, supply, prepare, arm, tools, addition, develop, civilization, attend, income, addition, salvage, look for, production, convenience nutrient, take away, suited, contain, natural, natural, destroy, values, describe, procedure, society, take topographic point, scientists, population, growing, exist, frozen, fresh, notice, consequence, wonts, accomplishments, and instruction.

Procedures

In this survey, three groups of pre-university pupils were used. To do certain that all the topics were linguistically homogenous, one of the Nelson English Language Tests ( 250 D ) which measured the pupils ‘ overall linguistic communication proficiency at the intermediate degree was administered to them. The trial included 50 multiple-choice points on grammar, vocabulary, and English sounds. The clip allotted for the trial was 45 proceedingss, as recommended by the trial shapers. The topics ‘ tonss on the trial were subjected to an ANOVA and an obtained chance of 0.988 indicated the topics ‘ lingual homogeneousness. The following tabular array shows the ANOVA consequences for the pretests.

Table 1: The ANOVA consequences for the pretests

Sum of squares

vitamin D degree Fahrenheit

Mean Square

F

P-Value

Between groups

Within groups

Entire

2.489

9305.067 9307.556

2

87

89

1.244

106.955

0.012

0.988

Then, the topics in the two experimental groups received the intervention of the survey for one month, 60 proceedingss a hebdomad. The intervention in each group was different.

The first experimental group ( group A ) was exposed to grammar pre-teaching, as a type of pre-reading activity. The instructional stuffs were taught both deductively and inductively through a assortment of techniques such as giving illustration sentences, inquiry and reply, and saying the grammatical regulations explicitly. In fact, the chief focal point of the activities was the elucidation of lingual signifiers and the activation of the topics ‘ old cognition.

The topics in the 2nd experimental group ( group B ) were exposed to vocabulary pre-teaching, as another type of pre-reading activity. The instructional stuffs were taught through a assortment of techniques such as word definition, equivalent word and opposite word, utilizing the words in contexts, inquiry and reply in English, and giving the Iranian equivalents of certain points. The chief focal point of such activities was really triping the topics ‘ anterior cognition and triping their schemes so that they might come to a sound reading of the texts they were traveling to read.

In group C which was the control group, evidently, there was no intervention. In other words, no pre-reading activities were presented to the pupils. They were merely asked to travel straight to the reading texts and read them for comprehension.

Each session, after the two experimental groups were exposed to pre-reading activities, all the three groups were given a short reading text to read for comprehension. Then, they were asked to reply five multiple-choice inquiries based on the text they had read. Since there were four reading texts each for one session, there were four such trials. All the trials were made by the Persian Sanjesh Organization and had been used as portion of the university entryway scrutiny some old ages ago. The pupils ‘ reply sheets were so collected for rectification and statistical analyses.

Consequences

After the rectification and marking of the topics ‘ reply sheets, the obtained informations were subjected to an ANOVA. The ultimate consequences revealed no important difference between the public presentation of the topics in the three groups in footings of reading comprehension.

Table 2 presents the obtained tonss of the three groups on the reading comprehension trials ( posttests ) on a 0-20 graduated table.

Table 2: The Tonss Obtained on the Posttests

Group A

Group B

Group C

Mark

Frequency

Mark

Frequency

Mark

Frequency

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

1

3

4

9

4

3

3

3

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

6

4

1

3

4

4

5

5

3

2

2

1

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

5

2

5

2

3

4

3

3

1

2

n=30

n=30

n=30

Statistical findings

Table 3 presents the basic descriptive statistics for tonss of the three groups on the comprehension trials ( posttests ) .

Table 3: Descriptive Statisticss for the posttests

Group

No.

Mean

South dakota

Std. Mistake

Min.

Max.

A

30

9.40

1.90

0.35

6

13

Bacillus

30

10.70

2.59

0.47

4

15

C

30

10.17

2.80

0.51

5

14

Entire

90

10.09

2.49

0.26

4

15

ANOVA consequences

An ANOVA process was run to happen out if the average difference among the public presentation of the three groups on the reading comprehension trials was important. Table 4 shows the consequences of the ANOVA. The F value was 2.112 which was non statistically important, demoing that there was no difference between the public presentations of the groups involved in the survey.

Table 4: The Results of the ANOVA for the Posttests

Sum of Squares

vitamin D degree Fahrenheit

Mean Square

F

P-Value

Between Groups

25.622

2

12.811

2.112

0.127

Within Groups

527.667

87

6.065

Entire

553.289

89

Discussion

As the consequences of the survey reveal, the topics in the three groups preformed likewise on the reading comprehension trials. In other words, no important difference was found among the public presentation of the first group, who received grammar pre-teaching, the 2nd group, who were exposed to vocabulary pre-teaching, and the 3rd group who received no intervention.

The obtained consequences provide us with no empirical grounds to reject the void hypothesis of the survey. The consequences of the survey, hence, lead us to retain the hypothesis that grammar or vocabulary pre-teaching does non hold a important consequence on the reading comprehension of the Persian EFL scholars. However, the descriptive statistics presented earlier reveal that the mean and the maximal mark of the 2nd experimental group, who received vocabulary pre-teaching, are a small spot higher than those of the other two groups. Though the difference is non statistically important, it can be said that the vocabulary pre-teaching technique has a more facilitative consequence on the Persian EFL scholars ‘ reading comprehension. On the other manus, the topics who received grammar pre-teaching have a mean mark even lower than that of the control group. This apparently enervating consequence of grammar pre-teaching can be attributed to the fact that excessively much attending to the linguistic communication signifiers may ensue in losing path of the content of reading texts.

Decision

The principle behind the present survey was to look into whether such pre-reading activities as grammar and vocabulary pr-teaching have a important impact or merely a comparatively facilitative or even a enervating consequence on reading comprehension. The consequences obtained in this research revealed that grammar and vocabulary pre-teaching had no important consequence on the sweetening of reading comprehension. Rather, vocabulary pre-teaching had merely a comparatively facilitative consequence on reading comprehension whereas the consequence of grammar pre-teaching was apparently enervating.

The findings of this survey back up Interactive-Compensatory Model of the reading procedure harmonizing to which a procedure at any degree can counterbalance for lacks at any other degree. In other words, any reader may trust on better developed cognition beginnings when peculiar cognition beginnings are temporarily weak. The similarity of the public presentation of the three groups in this survey can be declarative of the being of a sort of compensatory processing applied by the topics left with differing bottom-up and top-down cognition beginnings.

Furthermore, the consequences of this survey can be interpreted as a piece of grounds for Eskey ‘s ( 1988 ) position of reading comprehension as “ a changeless interaction between bottom-up and top-down processing, each beginning of information lending to a comprehensive Reconstruction of the significance of the text ” ( P.94 ) . In other words, this survey through empirical observation supports Widdowson ‘s ( 1979 ) contention that reading is a procedure of uniting textual information with the information a reader brings to a text.

The consequences of this survey can besides supply empirical support for the importance of background cognition within a psycholinguistic theoretical account of reading. In Goodman ‘s ( 1988 ) footings, the reader concentrates his entire experience and acquisition on the undertaking, pulling on his experiences and constructs he has attained every bit good as the linguistic communication competency he has achieved. In other words, from a schema-theoretic point of position, the reader actively builds schemes and revises them in visible radiation of new information ( Widmayer, 2003 ) .

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