As scientific discipline and engineering develops quickly, computing machine and cyberspace have started its impact on different facets of people ‘s life. The influence of them on instruction is besides clearly seen. More computing machine or cyberspace based classs are offered by schools and educational establishment. Educational web sites and package are besides designed with a big figure. In the field of 2nd linguistic communication ( L2 ) acquisition and instruction, computing machine and cyberspace are besides altering the manner of instruction and survey in different countries. When it comes to vocabulary development, eLearning dramas a function that can non be neglected. With more and more schools and pedagogues employ eLearning in vocabulary instruction, a inquiry is put frontward that to what extent eLearning can assist or impede L2 vocabulary development. This paper is written with the purpose of analysing the effects of eLearning on vocabulary development and supplying an reply to the inquiry about the influence eLearning has on 2nd linguistic communication development.
1.1 Structure of the paper
The paper is based on related theories and researches and it consists of four parts, debut, related theories and researches, eLearning and vocabulary development and decision. Introduction is a brief overview of the whole paper together with a emphasis on the importance of vocabulary in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. Related theories and researches subdivision introduces theories on vocabulary development and internet-based vocabulary acquisition. ELearning and vocabulary analyzes the features of cyberspace and the effects of them on vocabulary instruction and acquisition. Conclusion is a reappraisal of the analysis in this paper and an reply is provided to the inquiry “ How far can eLearning aid or impede L2 vocabulary development? ”
Importance of vocabulary in L2 acquisition
As one of the chief parts of linguistic communication, the importance of vocabulary is agreed on by most of the pedagogues and scholars and it has been stressed by different linguists. Wilkins ( 1972 ) sees vocabulary as a must in footings of conveying significance. “ Without grammar really small can be conveyedi?›without vocabulary nil can be conveyed ” i?ZAccording to the apprehension of a figure of linguistic communication instructors, McCarthy ( 1997 ) stresses that “ No affair how good the pupil learns grammar, no affair how successful the sounds of L2 are masteredi??without words to show a broad scope of meaningsi??communication in an L2 merely can non go on in any meaningful manner ” . Therefore, a big vocabulary or a reasonably adequate one is necessary in larning linguistic communication. Vocabulary is the foundation of linguistic communication and it is the basic of the development of all the other linguistic communication accomplishments, hearing, speech production, reading, composing and interlingual rendition. In words of Nation ( 1993 ) , vocabulary is closed related to the adept usage of any linguistic communication. Hence, an effectual vocabulary larning scheme becomes reasonably of import in footings of linguistic communication acquisition. In the field of eLearning, direction delivered on a computing machine via cyberspace or CD-ROM ( Clark & A ; Mayer, 2007 ) , it is besides an on-spot undertaking to happen an effectual manner of vocabulary expansion and developing scholar ‘s vocabulary schemes. A big figure of researches on it have been under taken under the field of computer-assisted linguistic communication acquisition ( CALL ) .
2 Related theories and researches
In this portion, related theories and researches are introduced along with analysis of its application on vocabulary acquisition.
2.1 Learning theories
When it comes to vocabulary acquisition, effectual schemes are ever something that scholars want to develop and instructors put accent on. The involvements of some research workers are besides aroused and theories associating to vocabulary acquisition are given by different linguists or expert in hope of supplying some intimations on vocabulary development and scheme gaining.
Bruner ‘s constructive Learning Theory refers to larning as a procedure of active find ( Wilson, 1996 ) . The acquisition of cognition is the consequence of the interacting between the scholar and its environment. This environment includes non merely the instructors but besides other available stuffs. Bing emphasized in this theory is student-centeredness, the usage of context, cooperation, conversations and significance, and the inner relationship between cognition. ELearning can supply different types of stuffs, images, sound or texts. Using computing machines and cyberspace, pupils besides have entree to more reliable linguistic communication. They interact with the stuff and so a better apprehension of the vocabulary and utilize them more freely. Cognitive larning theory indicates that human existences procedure auditory information prior to ocular information ( Mayer & A ; Moreno, 1998 ) . Through eLearning pupils can ever happen words and the stuff coming with audio paths and images or even video cartridge holders. Learners process the information in different countries of their encephalon and unite them together to derive cognition. The effectivity of information processing is therefore increased along with a comparatively all-sided apprehension of the vocabulary.
2.2 Memory procedure
As acquisition is greatly related to memory, exceptional vocabulary acquisition, understanding the how information is memorized for farther usage seems to be of great importance. Therefore, it is necessary to hold certain cognition of memory procedure. The related country of it in lingual survey is psycholinguistic.
Memory procedure is composed of three parts, encoding information, hive awaying it, and recovering it for use. These three phases are non merely indispensable to the procedure of memory of English cognition, but besides of import to the efficiency of memorising Englishi?ZEach of them represents a different procedure during memorising. Encoding is when information is ab initio recorded in useable signifier for memorising. Storage refers to the care of information saved in the memory system. Retrieval indicates the procedure of placement of the stored information in memory, conveying it into consciousness and so doing usage of it ( Sperling, 1960 ) . When larning stuff or other information is presented, encoding starts to work. The consequence of encryption is that certain per centum of the information is stored in the memory system. This is when hive awaying takes topographic point. Then, retrieval happens when the stored information is needed which normally involves retrieving or pull outing.
Harmonizing to memory procedure, in the field of linguistic communication acquisition, psycholinguists produce a corresponding procedure or linguistic communication acquisition and utilizing. This procedure besides includes three phases, which are input, cardinal processing and end product. Input is when encoding in memory procedure happens. Cardinal processing is related to hive awaying of information. End product peers to the retrieving of the linguistic communication. Whether the retrieving can win or non is linked to what type that piece memory is, working memory or lasting memory. Information falls into lasting memory, or long-run memory, can largely be recalled successfully. That in working memory, which is frequently referred to as short-run memory, nevertheless, can be retrieved merely within a short period of clip. The ground behind it is that the capacity of short-run memory is instead little, with a size of about five to nine units of information, which differs from one person to another. Hence, if short-run memory happens during vocabulary acquisition, pupils, without any recycling, would non be able to recover the words after certain period of clip.
2.3 Surveies on L2 word cognition model
Surveies on L2 word cognition chiefly follow three attacks: The first attack is to build descriptive standards to reply what cognizing a word entails. The 2nd attack is the receptive-productive dimension, which is used as a bridging dimension between lexical competency and public presentation. The 3rd is to separate the word cognition into comprehensiveness and deepness. In this paper, merely deepness of vocabulary cognition will be discussed in inside informations subsequently.
Dale ( 1965 ) proposed four degrees of cognizing a word: ( 1 ) ne’er saw it before, ( 2 ) has heard it but does n’t cognize what it means, ( 3 ) recognizes it in context and knows by and large what it has to make with, and ( 4 ) knows it good. While Stahl ( 1985 ; 1986 ) proposed three degrees of word cognition: association, comprehension, and coevals. Knowledge of a word at the association degree means that when presented with a word, pupils can do accurate associations even though they might non understand the significance of the word. Knowledge of a word at the comprehension degree means that pupils understand the normally recognized significance of the word. Knowledge of a word at the coevals degree means that pupils can supply the mark word in a fresh context.
Among these theoriesi??the categorization of word cognition type by Richards ( 1976 ) and Nation ( 2001 ) are most influential and fit criterions for the undermentioned researches. Richards ‘ proposed eight premises, which have been adopted by his followings as a model for depicting vocabulary cognition. On the footing of Richards ‘ part, Nation ( 2001 ) provided us a feasible and systematic model of word cognition types, which grouped word cognition into three dimensions: Form, Meaning and Use.
Besides needed to be introduced is deepness of vocabulary cognition. The differentiation of comprehensiveness and deepness of vocabulary cognition has been often used in the recent literature on L2 vocabulary testing. Anderson and Freebody ( 1981 ) gave the definition of these two facets of vocabulary cognition. ‘Breadth ‘ of vocabulary cognition refers to the figure of words which the individual knows at least some of the important facets of significance. While the ‘depth ‘ is the quality of apprehension, distinguished when a individual has a sufficiently deep apprehension of a word.
Therefore deepness of vocabulary cognition has been used to mention to the quality of lexical cognition, or how good the scholar knows a word ( Meara, 1996 ; Read, 1998, 2000 ) . Research workers have noted the complexness and multidimensionality of word cognition and have suggested that cognizing a word well should intend more than cognizing its single significances in peculiar contexts. Assorted sorts of cognition are associated with a word that a scholar must cognize, runing from cognition related to its pronunciation, spelling, registry, stylistic, and morphological characteristics ( Haastrup & A ; Henriksen, 2000 ; Meara, 1996 ; Nation, 1990 ; Richards, 1976 ) to knowledge of the word ‘s syntactic and semantic relationships with other words in the linguistic communication, including collocational significances and cognition of opposite word, synonymity, and subordination ( Chapelle, 1994 ; Henriksen, 1999 ; Read, 2000 ) . It is acknowledged that there is a great trade more involved in cognizing a word in a 2nd linguistic communication than being able to fit it with an L2 equivalent word or supply an L1 interlingual rendition equivalent.
Read ( 1998 ) classifies three distinguishable lines of development in the application of deepness to L2 vocabulary acquisition:
The difference between holding a limited, obscure thought of what a word means and holding much more detailed and specific cognition of its significance, which he refers to as preciseness of significance.
Knowledge of a word which includes non merely its semantic characteristics but besides its orthographic, phonological, morphological, syntactic, collocational and matter-of-fact features: comprehensive word cognition.
The incorporation of the word into a lexical web in the mental vocabulary, together with the ability to associate it to – and separate it from – related words, which we can name web cognition.
We may happen out that the three attacks overlap to a considerable extent. But really each 1 has been the footing for assorted writers ‘ histories of what deepness of vocabulary cognition agencies.
All the factors — -such as age, aptitude, cognitive manner, and personality — -remain more or less out of the control of the single scholar. But likely the most powerful factor in finding a scholar ‘s ultimate linguistic communication accomplishment, one which is much more under a scholar ‘s control, is motive.
In the book Foreign and Second Language Learning, William Littlewood ( 2000 ) examined some of the factors, which might assist to explicate why some 2nd linguistic communication scholars are more successful than others. Categorization is made among these factors harmonizing to whether they relate chiefly to the scholars ‘ motive, their chances to larn, or their learning abilities. Motivation in demand theories is normally thought of as an interior thrust, impulse, emotion, or desire that moves on to a peculiar action. It has been mostly studied by psychologists. Most linguistic communication instructors and research workers agree that motive is cardinal for pupil linguistic communication acquisition. ( Gardner 1985 ; Oxford & A ; Shearin, 1994 ; Williams & A ; Burden 1997 ) It is considered by many to be one of the cardinal factors that influence the rate and success of a pupil ‘s 2nd linguistic communication acquisition ( Dornyei, 1998 ) They hold the belief that pupils who are extremely motivated are likely to take part more actively in the acquisition activities, and therefore normally learn with better public presentation. Conversely, lowly motivated pupils are insufficiently involved and hence unable to develop their possible accomplishments. Researches show that motive straight influences how frequently pupils use 2nd linguistic communication schemes, how much input they receive in the linguistic communication larning how good they do on curriculum-related accomplishment trials, and how high their general linguistic communication proficiency becomes. ( Oxford & A ; Shearin, 1994 ) Be it integrative, which refers to the scholar ‘s desire to incorporate into that linguistic communication ‘s discourse community, or instrumental, which refers to the scholar ‘s desire to larn the new linguistic communication in order to carry through some other end as sing the linguistic communication merely as a tool, the internal thrust to larn is ever profound to accomplish a successful scholar, while besides in this instance, a successful author. Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert ( 1972 ) found through their research in the Philippines that the degree of the scholar ‘s instrumental motive correlated best with their successful in 2nd linguistic communication acquisition. Yasmeen Lukamani ( 1972 ) found the same when she studied scholars of English in India. The consequence may be the same in China, where English is non so dominant, but merely learnt as an international linguistic communication.
3 ELearning and vocabulary development
This portion provides analysis of how eLearning affects manner of vocabulary acquisition and instruction and hence helps or hinders vocabulary development in certain ways. Since eLearning is closely related to computing machine and cyberspace, the analysis is undertaken in footings of characteristics of computing machine and cyberspace and some tools and maps they provide.
3.1 Features of computing machine and cyberspace and the effects
In recent decennaries, computing machine and cyberspace have greatly influenced linguistic communication instruction and acquisition because of their characteristics. The undermentioned portion intends to discourse some of the characteristics and their influence of vocabulary acquisition,
3.1.1 Abundant information
One of the characteristics of computing machine and cyberspace is that they provide abundant information. This makes it easier for users to happen information they want. If a pupil wants to acquire information about a word, he or she can mention to internet and acquire a elaborate account in both their female parent lingua and 2nd linguistic communication within several chinks. Pictures, pronunciation and the beginning of the word are besides available. With the aid of principal on the cyberspace, 1000s of reliable sentences bespeaking the use of the word can besides be found which guarantee pupils get the hang the word with its development ( Barlow, M. , 1992 ) . What can non be neglected nevertheless is that with a bombard of illustrations, scholars may be confused with the usage of the word since misused sentences are besides included in principal.
Another characteristic is a strong sense of interaction computing machine and cyberspace bring which allows scholars to be extremely involved in the procedure of larning alternatively of passively having the cognition. Without computing machine and cyberspace, people can utilize tapes or pictures to help their survey but this is normally inactive. With computing machine and cyberspace, on the other manus, their survey can go active. Quite a figure of web sites and package like New Dynamic English have been already designed on an synergistic base. Users can take texts, sound paths, images and video cartridge holders freely and even pick up a function signifier the cartridge holders and interact with characters in it. Vocabulary larning becomes besides easier with the word games included in the package or web sites. Meanwhile, communicating with people from other portion of the universe through confab suites or confabs package like Windows Live Messenger offers scholars chance of communicate with people from other parts of the universe. Through communicating they can see how other people use their vocabulary in existent life. This is particularly helpful for get the hanging vocabulary in footings of pronunciation and utilizing the words in context. Through communicating vocabulary expansion becomes easier and less humdrum as scholars are larning through communicating, which concurs with thoughts from communicative linguistic communication attack. What ‘s more, they have entree to words non available in books or magazines. For illustration, “ Jihad ” is nominated as one of the top 10 popular words in the United States. This is a word from Arabic and it means “ holy war ” or “ to contend for something ” which can non be found in English lexicons or books but is accessible through cyberspace. With the benefits brings by the characteristic, nevertheless, it needs to be addressed that linguistic communication used on cyberspace can be different from that used outside cyberspace in footings of spelling. Abbreviations or symbols can be seen normally to increase the velocity of communicating or do the conversation more interesting.
Materials ‘ being updated in clip is besides one of the features of computing machine and cyberspace which is a large difference from stuffs available in libraries or on the market. The stuffs on cyberspace are ever updated often within short period of times including newspaper and magazine like The Post and Times. For people outside Britain or the States, the paper versions are normally difficult to acquire or available after rather a few yearss to English scholars. With internet nevertheless they have entree to the on-line versions. This ensures cognition of most up-to-date linguistic communication, which includes newly-coined words and new significance and use attaching to bing 1s. For illustration, the word “ in ” has been attached with a significance of “ up-to-date or popular ” in recent old ages. This significance has n’t been included in lexicons. With the aid of cyberspace nevertheless, scholars can acquire the new significance of the word.
Computer and cyberspace can besides be used to do larning more interesting. A batch of vocabulary acquisition web pages or web sites can be found today. A common characteristic of them is that they relate words to images and sounds. Learners can larn the words by snaping on the image to acquire the significance and the pronunciation of it. Sometimes flashes or video cartridge holders designed around several words are available as good. This can be really actuating in term of linguistic communication acquisition ( Mayer, R. E, 2003 ) . Besides being often included are different sorts of games. These games are designed harmonizing to what scholars have merely learnt and purpose at supplying pattern of the words or proving on the acquisition consequences, whether scholars have remembered the vocabulary and are able to utilize them in sentences or conversations. One good illustration of this sort of web sites is the web site named SHOCKWAVE supplying games of vocabulary, grammar, etc. ( http: //www.shockwave.com/online/word-games.jsp ) Another illustration is the British linguistic communications ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.italki.com/url/229.htm ) , which provides picture cartridge holders and synergistic activities for linguistic communication acquisition. A batch of EFL web sites besides have the characteristic of doing larning interesting and attractive. Besides web sites with actuating design, vocals and films are besides blessing 2nd linguistic communication acquisition beginnings. They normally non merely hold a high degree of reliable but besides are interesting plenty to provide the gustatory sensation of scholars. In other words, scholars can larn the linguistic communication every bit good as basking the procedure.
3.2 Some tools and maps provided by computing machine and cyberspace and the effects
As a consequence of the development of engineering, computing machine and cyberspace includes some tools and maps that can non be found in other topographic points. These tools or maps contribute to doing eLearning distinguished from other manner of larning. They are portion of the grounds for which eLearning has changed 2nd linguistic communication vocabulary development. This portion introduces some of the tools and maps of computing machine and cyberspace, hunt engine, principal and hypertext nexus. Based on them, analysis is undertaken with another facet.
In linguistic communication acquisition, it is of great importance for scholars to obtain linguistic communication learning resources or information. Buying or adoption related books or magazines all the clip is non possible and practical. This is both a money-consuming and a time-consuming undertaking. With the cyberspace, nevertheless, the job is solved with easiness, thanking to seek engines provided by different web sites. By utilizing these hunt engines pupils can happen resources for enlarging their vocabulary with seconds. The stuff they obtain can hold a big assortment of signifiers as good, ocular, auditory or both. Using search engines is particularly helpful when it comes to happening equivalent word or opposite word because quite a few online lexicons have included the map of automatically naming of the opposite word and equivalent word, an illustration is an on-line lexicon from China dict.cn ( hypertext transfer protocol: //dict.cn ) . Learners can besides utilize hunt engines to turn up a web site that provides words holding different sorts of lexical relationship with the given words. This can be realized by utilizing hunt engines every bit good. Among the seeking consequences I get, one web site is particularly recommended, Lexical FreeNet ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.lexfn.com/ ) . A hunt engine can be found on this web site and it offers seven maps, show related, connexion, show approachable, intersection, rhyme coercion, spell cheque and substring with their maps explained briefly. In show related, generalizes can assist scholars happen the subordinate of a word while specializes can take to the subsidiaries of a word. Using other maps would demo other information about the given word. If a scholar uses this web site to larn a word, he or she therefore can acquire rather a batch of information and associate the cognition he or she has in head. The benefits of hunt engines computing machine and web sites provide can therefore be clearly seen. On the other manus, though, a job besides comes. Using search engines can ever take to 1000s of links for users to take from. To pick out a proper one from all of them can be time-consuming and palling. A suggestion is that scholars can acquire aid from instructors for a good aggregation of utile web sites. They should besides utilize “ favourites ” map of different cyberspace browsers to construct up their ain aggregations for subsequently usage.
With the of import function it plays in linguistic communication acquisition, vocabulary acquisition is however seen as one of the most hard procedure. A titanic scope of words and the job of burying are all subscribers to the stretch of this state of affairs. One other ground comes to the collocations of words. The co complexness of collocations in English frequently leads to scholars ‘ confusion while larning and subsequently on to their misusing of words, which would easy ensue in a state of affairs that they can non show themselves precisely or even neglect to convey their significance. In instance of pupils who are normally assessed with tests, inquiries on collocations of words are ever among those they lose Markss on. It is true that pupils can larn about the collocations utilizing lexicons, but this is ever deadening and time-consuming. With the cyberspace an computing machine, nevertheless, their acquisition can be more interesting and efficient. This is due to the online principal and well-designed dictionary web sites ( for illustration, www.hyperdic.net and hypertext transfer protocol: //www.globalwordnet.org/gwa/wordnet_table.htm ) . The advantage of mentioning to corpus during vocabulary survey is that the definitions of a word are non defined to the lexicons. Besides it is non limited by personal experience and memory. Corpus is a dictionary that ever changes with people ‘s usage and these alterations are eternal. There is no concluding version of this dictionary and the definitions of words are enlarged or minimized along with people ‘s usage of them in existent life. Persons can ever attach new significances to the words ( Sincclair, 1997 ) .By utilizing principal, scholars are able to derive a comparatively all-sided apprehension of the vocabulary and this would assist them in remembering and utilizing of the words. On the other manus, it needs to be accepted that as sentences in which some words are misused are included in principal every bit good, a concern comes as some scholars may memorise the incorrect information of certain words and this can be difficult to rectify. Learners with a lower degree in linguistic communication larning tend to hold more jobs of this sort.
3.2.3 Hypertext Link
Hypertext refers to a text and the links within it that lead to other paperss like texts, sound paths, flashes, etc. Hypertext links are used to recognize the altering from one text to other paperss. This is likely one of the most common maps of internet-based resources. This is a axiomatic advantage of eLearning compared to the traditional manner of acquisition, which confines scholars to the books or other stuffs being used. Trying to mention to other information can ever be time-consuming. With the aid of computing machine and cyberspace, scholars can spread out their survey easy. When person looks up a word utilizing on-line dictionary, hypertext links are ever provides taking to related words or other information of the given word, such as the equivalent word or opposite word of the word, collocations of it, beginning of it etc. Sometimes related theories or stuffs for farther reading are besides accessible if words like task-based, communicative are typed in, particularly when on-line encyclopaedia are used.
Based on the analysis made above, it can be said that the rapid development of engineering, computing machine and cyberspace, has brought linguistic communication acquisition and vocabulary development. Problems of traditional vocabulary development are partially solved, like trouble in deriving reasonably plenty stuff, lacking of interaction, holding no entree to reliable linguistic communication, lacking of involvements, etc. ELearning ensures scholars with a strong dorsum of the linguistic communication resources which can be easy accessed and let them to roll up every bit much as possible the related information about the words they are larning. With different types of resources internet provides, scholars ‘ vocabulary developing procedure is non every bit humdrum as it used to be. Pictures, auditory and ocular AIDSs from cyberspace made vocabulary larning more attractive every bit good as effectual. Games designed for vocabulary acquisition and reexamining have motivated scholars and made them willing to trim clip of development their vocabulary since they are larning through playing when they use games provided by different web sites. Along with the abundant vocabulary developing resources and interest-arousing ways of analyzing eLearning brings, the velocity of stuff updating on cyberspace allows scholars to maintain up with the development of linguistic communication and altering within the vocabulary. Furthermore, there is ever a job that 2nd linguistic communication scholar can non use their vocabulary cognition into composing or talking genuinely. ELearning provides multimedia AIDSs to scholars and therefore constructs a comparatively reliable context for vocabulary acquisition. This, to some extent, can increase scholars ‘ understanding the significance and utilizing of the words and hence raises the possibility of scholars ‘ utilizing their vocabulary with a reasonably acceptable degree of genuineness.
As a nose count of scholars and pedagogues, there is no perfect manner of either larning or vocabulary development. ELearning has greatly improved 2nd linguistic communication vocabulary acquisition and development. However, on the other manus, there are some jobs being brought by ELearning every bit good. That it provides a big sum of information makes stuff easier to entree has made it difficult to take the most appropriate resources to utilize from a great figure of picks. A concern is that the stuff may non all be trusty. For scholars who are at comparatively lower degrees, the flood of resources can easy confound them and take to a incorrect choice of information. This would impede their acquisition of vocabulary and the effects can last long if scholars ‘ misinterpretation of the words is non corrected in clip.
Undeniably, although there are some jobs when eLearning is applied to 2nd linguistic communication vocabulary development, the aid scholars can acquire from it overweighs the jobs. The helpfulness of eLearning on vocabulary development can be found thought the whole procedure of larning. In order to profit more from eLearning in footings of 2nd linguistic communication vocabulary development, it is suggested that scholars seek for purposes from successful scholars and instructors. Websites naming larning schemes and accomplishments are besides recommended.