Rollo Reese May Theories Of Personality English Literature Essay

May older sister was diagnosing with schizophrenic and the male parent blame the unwellness on excessively much instruction. Turning up May was non close to his parents and truly disliked his female parent, he considered his ma as a “ bitch-kitty on wheels ” . He believed that his female parent ‘s behaviour and his older sister schizophrenic disorder caused him to hold two failed matrimonies. ( Rabinowitz, Good, & A ; Cozad, 1989 ) .

May ‘s was married three times and had two failed matrimonies, from his first married woman he had three kids a boy and two girls, he stood marry for 30 old ages in his first matrimony due to the kids, but so realized the matrimony was n’t traveling to acquire better and stop up disassociating his first married woman, his 2nd matrimony was besides unsuccessful. The last adult female that he married was name Georgia Miller Johnson and was a Jungian analyst and that matrimony lasted from 1988 until he died of TB, his boy Robert Rollo was a manager of reding at Amherst College and his twin sister Carolyn Jane was a societal worker and creative person and the 3rd kid was Allegra Anne who was a documental movie author and a individual female parent of two adoptive multiracial kids. ( Bugental, 1996, p. 418 ) .

May go to college at Michigan State University and major in English and was asked to go forth because he became an editor of a extremist pupil magazine, he so transferred to Oberlin College where he received his BA in the twelvemonth of 1930. After graduating, he pursued in art and was going through Europe with a group of creative person. He stood in Europe from 1930 until 1933 and add-on to his survey of art, he taught at an American College in Greece where he took summer seminars that was taught by Alfred Adler in Vienna.

In his 2nd twelvemonth while being in Europe, he began to oppugn the significance of his life when he came down with TB, While being in an sanatarium, he was faced with the possibility of decease, he had a batch of clip to read many literatures, he came across a literatures that was on the author named Soren Kierkegaard, who was a Danish spiritual author, a individual that was inspired of experiential motion. May became inspired of Soren Kierkegaard words of wisdom that it gave May the inspiration of coming up with his ain theory. ( Dr. C. George Boeree, 1998, 2006 )

Rollo Reese May was best known as an American experiential psychologist and he was referred as the male parent of experiential psychotherapeutics. May was associated with the humanistic psychological science ; he had a different manner of believing on the Human being, so other psychologist, his human being was sharper on the tragic dimension.

Harmonizing to Dr. C. George Boeree, ( 1998, 2006 ) on May ‘s personality Theories, stated that Rollo Reese May, used different footings and invented new words from some of existential philosophy old thoughts, for illustration the word fate is the same as thrownness and it is combined with the word fallenness, which mean that portion of people ‘s lives that is determine for them, he besides gave another illustration of the word bravery, which was used more frequently than the traditional term genuineness, which meant confronting one ‘s anxiousness and so raise above it. ( Dr. C. George Boeree, 1998, 2006 ) .

Harmonizing to Serlin, llene, Mays work was maintained by the balance between darkness and visible radiation, between the experiential and the rational. May considered the cardinal inquiries of human being as the nature of immorality, love and will and the significance of anxiousness and the of import of myth. May inspired many people and it came from his ability to call the nothingness of create in its face, to call evil but worked toward the good, to see nonmeaningful, but to detect significance and to confront decease, but create life. May was in the antiwar motion and many other societal causes, he taught and mentored infinite pupils and called himself a “ soft Rebel ” ( Serlin, llene A. Tikkun, January 1995. pg. 65 ) , in the face of an increasing dehumanised universe.

Rollo Reese May Theories of Personalities

While being under influenced of Freud, Kierkegaard and Tillich, May developed a theory of personality that was based on experiential doctrine and from that, he accepted the undermentioned footings:

Dasein means a peculiar individual in a universe that is peculiar clip and bing is under a peculiar set of fortunes.

May ‘s Three Modes of Being:

Umwelt is the interaction with the physical universe, Mitwelt, is the interaction with other worlds and the Eigenwelt is the interaction with oneself.

Alienation is when a individual is estranged of facet of the nature, which consequences of experiencing lonely, emptiness and desperation this happens because the three manners of being is alienated from nature and from other people.

Say hey kids describe freedom, which a individual can be free to take the significance of their ain being. Since a individual is free to take what type a individual they become, they have to be responsible for what they become, another individual circumstance of their destiny can be congratulations or blamed for the nature of their being, because we are responsible for ourselves. Ontology is the survey of being. Within existential philosophy, ontological analysis is directed at understanding the kernel of worlds in general and of single in peculiar. Phenomenology is the survey of witting experience as it exists for the individual without any efforts to cut down, split or compartmentalise it in anyhow. Authenticity, if people live their lives in conformity with values that are freely chosen, they are populating reliable lives, if nevertheless if people conform to values established by others, they have non exercised their personal freedom and are hence living unauthentic lives, unauthentic is causally related to neurotic anxiousness and guilt and the feeling of solitariness, ineffectualness, self disaffection and desperation. Death because worlds are mortal and because decease is the ultimate province of nonbeing, consciousness of one ‘s inevitable decease can do anxiousness. The beginning of anxiousness is portion of human being and can non be voided. The consciousness of decease, nevertheless, can add verve to life by actuating a individual as much out of life as possible in the limited clip available. Thrownness is the circumstanced of a individual ‘s lives which it ca n’t be control. Other existential philosopher referred this as thrownness and May refers it as fate.

May was the lone experiential psychologist that discusses certain phases, non every bit rigorous as the Freudian development.

May ‘s Phases:

Artlessness is the pre ego witting phase of an baby, it is the inexperienced person of premoral that is neither bad or good, the description that was given is like a wild animate being who kills to eat and since the animate being has to eat, he or she has to make what is must. Rebellion phase, the childhood and stripling is when the self-importance or uneasiness of the contrast with an grownup from the no of a two old ages old to the no manner of a adolescent, which mean the rebellious individual wants their freedom and does non yet understand of the duty that goes along with it. A adolescent would wish to utilize their allowance money on what of all time they want, but still what the parent to supply the money and still kick about the parent non being just. Ordinary phase is when the normal grownup self-importance, conventional and a small drilling, possibly they have learned that the duty, but happen it excessively demanding, and so seek safety in conformance and traditional values. Creative is an reliable grownup, the experiential phase, beyond self-importance and self-actualizing. This is the individual who, accepting fate, faces anxiousness with bravery.

Human Dilemma

Harmonizing to May ( 1967 ) , the human quandary is when people can see themselves as both the topic and the object at the same clip. May ‘s description of the object-subject duality is done in assorted ways, which is non ever consistency. Peoples are capable of seeing themselves as an object to things that happens to them, which are influenced by their fate. Aims are events of variables that are caused through emphasis that can do a individuals behaviour, which is the stimulation that happens in certain ways and the manner people respond to that certain manner. Subjective is when the individual is cognizant of the fact is go oning to them and Acts of the Apostless on the information, which gives them the finding of experience that are valuable and which one are non valuable to them and so move harmonizing to the personal preparations. ( May, 1977, pp.198-201 )

May description of self-relatedness is distinguished of a human that rest from nature. It is “ adult male ‘s capacity to stand outside himself, to cognize he is the topic every bit good as the object of experience, to see himself as the entity who is moving in the universe of objects ” ( May, 1967, p. 75 ) .

Worlds can see the universe and we can besides see ourselves sing and the self-relatedness or consciousness of our ego allows the worlds to get away the determinism and personal influence what we do. Humans consciousness of one ‘s ego can give us the power to stand outside of the stiff concatenation of stimulation and response to hesitate and by that intermission can throw some weight on either side that can project some determination and what the response will be, ( May, 1953, p. 161 ) .

Harmonizing to May feeling on these two psychologists, Skinner and Rogers, he felt that they had emphasized one side of the quandary but was at the disbursal of others. Skinner had avoided the subjective of experience, May felt that people do n’t respond to their interior experience of their environment, but they do see their environment in footings of their past experience and they do construe the footings of their ain symbols of hope and fright, ( May, 1967, p. 15 ) .

May ‘s description of intentionality meant all mental Acts of the Apostless are strictly subjective of the manner it is intended or that relates to the events that are from the exterior of themselves. The illustration that was given, love is a subjective experience but one must love person of something. Percept is a capable experience but one must comprehend something. ( May, 1969, pp. 224-225 )

Importance of Myth

May believed that myth is the manner of doing sense in a mindless universe, and is a narrative form that gives the significance to the society of being ( 1991, p. 15 ) , the job in the society as cults, drug dependence, self-destruction and depression are traced of the deficiency of myths that can supply the persons with a sense of their interior security.

Anxiety and Guilt

May was truly interested in the human anxiousness and guilt ; he rejected Freud ‘s reading of anxiousness as the consequence from struggle that is between a individual ‘s biological demands and the demands of society. May felt that Freud ‘s analyzed was excessively biological and compartmentalised and Freud ‘s anxiousness viewed his consequences from the struggle of the Idaho, self-importance, and superego. May O.K. on Kierkegaard ‘s experiential definition alternatively because Kierkegaard theory of human freedom and anxiousness went manus and manus.

Normal anxiousness is when a individual experience the effort to spread out one ‘s witting or when the new values is displaced with the old 1s due to alterations in the individual fortunes and it is an built-in of a healthy growing, May ‘s theory consists that all growing of anxiousness is the creative activity of resignation yesteryear values ( May, 1967, p. 80 ) .

Neurotic anxiousness is when a individual has n’t met their normal anxiousness on the clip of the existent crisis in their growing and the menace to their values, which the neurotic anxiousness ends in the consequence of the old unmet normal anxiousness ( May, 1967, p. 80 ) . In my apprehension of May ‘s theory on normal anxiousness and neurotic anxiousness, one is when the individual is holding a job, but non major and the job can be solve. Example, when it is clip to compose a paper my normal anxiousness boots in and I start experiencing shortness of breathe and so I ca n’t concentrate on what I am making and so I have to walk off for a small piece to loosen up. Neurotic anxiousness is when a individual have jobs and ca n’t command their feeling and get down to believe that life is non traveling to acquire better for them, they start to go depress, experiencing lonely and do n’t what to make anything with their lives, but it all depends on the fortunes the individual is traveling through.

Importance of Valuess


May had four description of love and they are Sex, Eros, Philia and agape:

Sexual activity is the biological thrusts that can be satisfy by prosecuting in sexual intercourse, the same manner eating a repast that can fulfill the hungriness thrust, which both can be triggered by the demand and the handiness of an object that will fulfill the demand, ( May, 1969, p.73 ) .

Eros is when a individual brotherhood a uniform with another individual. Eros intends to seek a stamp and originative relationship within the context of sexual experience and is responsible for a human to seek a relationship with the universe and with people in general.

Philia is the 3rd of love which is a friendly relationship or a brotherlike love. Harmonizing to May, Eros can non last for long without Philia because the tenseness of uninterrupted attractive force and passion would be excessively great ( May, 1969 ) . Philia is the relaxation in the presence of the beloved with accepts the other ‘s being as being ; it is merely wishing to be with the other, wishing to rest with the other, wishing the beat of the walk, the voice, the whole being of the other.

Agape is the 4th type of loving, which May, 1969, p. 310 ) , is the unselfishness of concern for one ‘s spouse and the facet of love that is unconditioned.


Rollo Reese May, inspired me because he was a psychologist that explain his theories on the human nature and cause people to make the things that they do. He expressed that people goes through anxiousness for different ground, and

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