An writer is defined non merely by the narratives he tells, but how he tells them. The manner an writer writes can be divided into three basic classs: techniques, subjects, and manner. Gabriel Garcia Marquez is no different. His authorship goes beyond the secret plan, and can be farther explained by analyzing the classs mentioned supra. In most of Marquez ‘s work, he uses the techniques of intertextuality and suspense. Marquez besides tries to convey to his reader similar subjects in his literature. These subjects include solitude, political force, and the nature of clip for worlds. Style is a small harder to analyse with Marquez, as he is well- known for non transporting the same manner of composing from one work to another. However, one manner that is undeniably present in about all of his authorship is Charming Realism. Although Marquez ‘s huge library of novels, short narratives, and even journalistic histories may look excessively big to happen a common denominator, analysing his authorship shows that he does see the same expression throughout his organic structure of work.
Marquez has written many monolithic, embracing, novels that tell narratives of legion characters over long periods of clip. This type of composing lends itself to the writer doing mentions to better explicate his authorship. Marquez does this by practising the technique of intertextuality. Intertextuality is a literary technique in which an writer uses mentions back to other work of fiction ( literature, dramas, movies, etc. ) or historical events ( Palencia- Roth 34 ) Writers can utilize intertextuality to supply a skeleton for an event or character in a narrative, to unclutter it up for the reader. The technique can besides be used to parody what is being referenced ( Palencia- Roth, 34 ) .
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There are three chief types of intertextualities: general, restricted, and autarchic. General intertextuality is when the writer cites a work outside of what he himself has written ( Palencia-Roth 34 ) . This includes fundamentally anything from the past, normally major events of history, and works that are well- known to most people like the Bible and Shakespeare ‘s authorship. Restricted intertextuality is when the writer is doing mention to something from one of his old plants ( Palencia- Roth 34 ) . An illustration of this would be a character originally from an earlier novel doing an visual aspect in an writer ‘s most recent novel. The concluding signifier of intertextuality is autarkical. This is where the writer is mentioning what he has already written in the same work ( Palencia- Roth 34 ) . In this instance, an writer may be mentioning back to something that he had explained earlier in the same piece of literature that will explicate what is presently traveling on. Examples of intertextualities can be found throughout Marquez ‘s novel The Autumn of The Patriarch.
One figure that Marquez like to cite in his authorship is Christopher Columbus. Columbus has been a portion of Latin American civilization since its beginning. He was at that place from the foundation, without him the Latino civilization would non be as it does today. To the people of Central and South America, even more so than in the United States, Christopher Columbus has become larger than life ( Palencia- Roth 41 ) . In The Autumn of the Patriarch, the character the Admiral of the Ocean Sea is based on Columbus. In the narrative, the Patriarch looks out onto the ocean and sees three ships geting which finally would go forth a great impact ( Palencia- Roth 43-44 ) . The reaching of these ships, of class, represents the three ships that Columbus took with him when he foremost arrived in the Americas. However Garcia tells the narrative otherwise, through the point of position of the autochthonal people ( Palencia- Roth: 46-47 ) . In this manner, Marquez may be utilizing intertextuality to parody the narrative of the reaching of Christopher Columbus. He is stating it from a point of position the western universe does non usually see.
A 2nd character that Marquez uses in his intertextuality is Ruben Dario. Dario was a Latin American author, one Gabriel greatly admired ( Palencia- Roth 48 ) . In The Autumn of the Patriarch Marquez ‘s love for Dario is evident throughout the full narrative in assorted facets. Marquez quotes Dario in the novel itself, and even uses “ Dariano ” scene and temper ( Palencia- Roth 48- 49 ) . In The Autumn of the Patriarch, the intertextuality Marquez uses is so utmost that he does non even utilize Dario to stand for a character in the novel, but alternatively inserts the existent writer Ruben Dario into the fictional universe. Within the narrative, Dario is non merely used as a character, but is a celebrated and good well-thought-of author. His work is read aloud in the streets, and the Patriarch even invites him to a expansive response ( Palencia- Roth 56- 57 ) . By making this, Marquez is doing a clear statement about how much he respects Dario.
A 3rd character that Marquez mentions, and a antic illustration of intertextuality, is Julius Caesar. Caesar is used as the footing of the character of the Patriarch. Caesar is doubtless a portion of the Patriarch ; to make the Patriarch, Marquez used the existent descriptions of Caesar written by Plutarch and Suentonius ( Palencia- Roth 36- 39 ) . Some of the similarities that the two portion are as follows: they both try to set up clip, are haunted by prognostications about the hereafter, suffer from insomnia, are famously great lovers, regulation as if their word was jurisprudence, are under changeless menace of blackwash, and are viewed as God- like posthumously ( Palencia- Roth 36 ) . With all of these similarities, it is undeniable that the great swayer that is the Patriarch is based on the great swayer that is Julius Caesar.
Another technique that Marquez uses to assist travel along his narratives is suspense. Suspense has become a favourite in modern amusement ; even turning so popular that it is its ain genre in movie. Suspense is a technique that Marquez uses to maintain his readers engaged in the narrative, to maintain them turning the pages.
In Chronicle of a Death Foretold, Garcia tells us right from the beginning, right at that place in the rubric, that there is traveling to be a decease. Although making may acquire rid of the enigma, it really heightens the suspense. Since we know there will be a decease, we are waiting for it, invariably believing it is right around the corner ( Montes- Huidobro 105 ) . Along the manner, Garcia uses antipathy, sympathy, and designation to coerce the reader to associate to Santiago, the adult male who is to be killed ( Montes- Huidobro 107 ) .By associating to the character, the reader become personally invested in him or her ( Montes- Huidobro 107 ) . This will maintain the reader turning the pages to happen out what is to go on to Santiago, or any of Marquez ‘s characters, because they care about him.
An creative person, like Gabriel, who wants to successfully make suspense in his work, will utilize three basic parts that together organize the suspense. These three parts of suspense are behavior, infinite, and clip ( Montes- Huidobro 113 ) . The first portion that an creative person will utilize manipulate is the behaviour of his characters. The reader does non personally cognize who the character is. Because a character is non person we have known our whole lives like a close friend or household member, we are non able to foretell how he or she will respond in a certain state of affairs under certain fortunes ( Montes- Huidobro 114 ) . This is something that people experience throughout their mundane lives. If person we do non cognize is in charge of something we are invested in, like a foreman keeping an interview for a new place, we get nervous because we do non cognize how the other individual will respond ( Montes- Huidobro 114 ) . Merely as in a existent life state of affairs where a determination is left up to person else, the reader can merely trust that the character will do the right pick ( Montes- Huidobro 114 ) . This capriciousness in a character is what leaves the reader in suspense.
The 2nd facet of that an writer may utilize to advantage to make suspense is infinite, the location of a peculiar event. When two things happen at one time in different countries, it adds to the suspense. That is, one thing may impact the other without it being known to the narrative ‘s characters ( Montes- Huidobro 119 ) . It may go forth the reader wondering ; believing that if what happened in one topographic point merely happened in another topographic point things may hold been wholly different. Another manner an creative person may utilize the scene to increase suspense is to exchange back and Forth between point of views ( Montes- Huidobro 120 ) . By exchanging back and Forth, quicker and quicker each clip, up to a polar minute between two characters, a degree of anxiousness is added to the authorship that the reader can pick up on.
The concluding facet of suspense is clip. Like with infinite, if an event had merely occurred at a different clip, things might hold turned out otherwise ( Montes- Huidobro 115 ) . Gabriel besides uses clip to do a premonition feeling in the narrative. In Chronicle of a Death Foretold, Garcia tells the reader the exact clip of Santiago ‘s decease. As the clock ticks closer to the clip, the reader becomes more dying about the looming decease of Santiago ( Montes- Huidobro117 ) . Even though the reader knows the decease of Santiago will go on, the suspense is still at that place because the reader is hankering to see the concluding consequence that the narrative has been constructing up to for so many pages.
Solitude is a theme Marquez explores greatly, both among single characters, every bit good as a subject of Latin America as a whole. In about everything he writes, whether it is obvious or elusive, purdah is present ( Pelayo 36 ) . In his book Leaf Storm, Marquez uses the character the Doctor to impart his message of purdah. When faced with a determination, the Doctor chooses to make what he believes is right, a pick that goes against public sentiment. Because of this, the Doctor is ostracized by his equals ( Pelayo 36 ) . Through the flowering of these events, Marquez may be stating that purdah sometimes is non brought approximately by our ain will. The physician lives a life of entire purdah. He lives by himself, with nil of personal value ; he does non even go forth his house for 10 full old ages ( Pelayo 36 ) . Finally, the Doctor will perpetrate self-destruction, the most extremist signifier of purdah ( Pelayo 36 ) . Marquez besides portrays purdah through the town of Mocondo, which is isolated geographically ( Pelayo 35 ) . Gabriel uses the interior soliloquy to farther attention deficit disorder to the subject of purdah, every bit good as thin existent duologue between characters ( Pelayo 36 ) . Marquez may make this to demo that many people could care less about the lives of others because they are excessively busy being concerned with their ain universe.
On a grander graduated table, Marquez is concerned with the purdah of Latin America as a whole. He addresses this in his suitably titled Nobel Prize credence address, “ The Solitude of Latin America ” . In his head, the lives of the Latin American people have been viewed as ‘different ‘ by westerners. He believes that this is because the civilizations and imposts of Hispanics are measured against a criterion that they themselves did non make nor one they actively wish to emulate ( Garcia Marquez 89 ) . Similar to this, he says that the great European metropoliss took old ages to construct ; it is unjust to judge the Latin universe which is so immature in comparing ( Garcia Marquez 89 ) . He is seeking to state that Latin America still needs clip to work itself out. Marquez is besides puzzled at the manner the West responds to Latin America ‘s wants to be left entirely, independent. The western universe allows it to be different in art, literature, theater, film, and the similar, but non to be different socially ( Garcia Marquez 90 ) . Latin America wants to portion many of the concluding consequences the western universe has, but wants to accomplish them otherwise ( Garcia Marquez 91 ) . This address is one of the first times that Latin America is able to be defended for what it is on the universe phase, before a extremely respected audience.
Marquez ‘s belief on purdah is that it solitude is an ineluctable portion of life. No affair who you are or what type of life you live, you will at some point be entirely ( Welch 86 ) . Marquez may be stating that because purdah is ineluctable, the manner we respond to it shapes who we are merely every bit much as any other of import life event. He besides believes that one ‘s linguistic communication and civilization may really impact how he responds to isolation ( Welch 86 ) . This means that person raised in a more independent environment may react better to being entirely that person who was pampered from childhood. Marquez besides believes that purdah strains obsessive behaviour and nostalgia ( Welch 86 ) . When left entirely for a long period of clip, it is about impossible to non look back to the yesteryear, thought of how things may hold gone otherwise and so on. For many, utmost periods of isolation can do person travel huffy ; they obsess about to past.
Marquez besides tends to hold a political message that seeps into his authorship. Although he says that any political stances in his authorship are unwilled, he besides acknowledges that they are still at that place ( Simons 6 ) . It may be even more hard for Garcia than it would be for most writers because he includes so much existent historical events in his authorship. Garcia besides had a background in news media ( Smith 1 ) ; this may hold been a ground why he chose to integrate non-fictional events into his authorship.
In One Hundred Old ages of Solitude, a chief constituent of the narrative is La Violencia, The Violence. La Violencia was an existent 10 twelvemonth period of civil war in Colombia between political parties ( Smith 1 ) . He depicts some of the effects of La Violencia on characters in a really negative manner ( Smith 1 ) . Although he may non be explicitly stating it was incorrect, he is at least seeking to direct a message that it has done more bad than good. This method of non straight stating anything about an event but merely portraying it in a certain visible radiation is seen in much of his work.
Another subject of Marquez that can be seen in One Hundred Old ages of Solitude is the apocalypse and human clip. He uses the apocalypse to direct and construction his authorship. He ne’er hides that everything will finally make its terminal ( Lamora 84 ) . In the book, the secret plan focuses on the Buendia household in Macondo ( the same town he used in Leaf Storm ) . The narrative relates human clip to the clip of the existence as a whole. He tells the narrative of the Buendia household and their town, their universe, from get downing to stop ( Lamora 84 ) . Marquez may be seeking to remind his readers that our lives and the things we find so of import are truly undistinguished in the expansive strategy of things.
Marquez is good known for non holding one specific manner that connects all of his authorship.
He says that his manner for a work is non chosen by him, but is instead determined as he writes by the topic and clip that he portrays ( Simons 2 ) . He has besides said that critics who analyze his composing attempt doing connexions that he did non deliberately set at that place ( Simons 2 ) . This similar to the manner that Marquez respects any political points in his authorship in that he did non be after on them being at that place.
One of the few manners of composing that Marquez does utilize repeatedly is Charming Realism. This is a manner of composing where the writer tells narratives of the charming and supernatural in a composure, prosaic manner. As if these events were normal, portion of mundane life ( Harth 83 ) . The manner of Magical Realism foremost came approximately in Latin America during the 1940s and 1950s. It was started by writers like Esteban Montejo ( Harth 85 ) . Today it is about its ain genre. It has spread across the universe and found its manner into all signifiers of amusement ( Harth 83 ) . Charming Realism has really been adopted across Europe for the ocular humanistic disciplines, particularly in Germany ( Harth 84 ) . Marquez really learned this manner of composing from his grandma. When he was a male child, Marquez ‘s grandma would state him narratives of thaumaturgy and phantasy in the same insouciant tone that Marquez uses in his authorship ( Harth 84 ) . Marquez was besides influenced by his location. He lived in the Caribbean, a topographic point that lent itself absolutely to charming pragmatism through the combination of its dwellers ‘ civilization: the imaginativeness of the inkinesss coming to the country from Africa, and the spiritual beliefs of the autochthonal people ( Harth 85 ) .
4. Charming Realism is the most effectual when the writer ( or manager, painter,
etc. ) depicts the world of the state of affairs every bit objectively as possible, while still
including the charming elements ( 10:84 )
5. Charming Realism in One Hundred Old ages of Solitude
a. There is a kid born with a hog ‘s tail.
( 1. ) Not seen as extraordinary. Rather, it is seen as a penalty
because he was conceived through incest.
b. Remedios the Beauty is carried up to heaven, while she is hanging
sheets out to dry.
( 1. ) In this instance, the thaumaturgy of the event is hindered because
Marquez includes realistic inside informations of what goes on as Remedios
is being carried up to heaven.
( a. ) Her sister waves adieu as she is lifted up to heaven.
Her sister is besides angry she did non acquire her sheets back.
( 2. ) There is about no attending paid to the existent premise into
heaven. ( 10:84-85 )
6. Charming Realism challenges the principle of Western literature.
a. Goes against many traditional European manners like romanticism.
( 1. ) While Romanticism exaggerates and focal points on little things,
Charming Realism does the exact antonym: it taking things that
would usually be considered extraordinary and trivializes
B. It expands on the manner of pragmatism, which is a western manner of
composing where things are stated really obviously. ( 12:184-192 )