Question 1

1. Introduction

Teamwork is the ability to work together toward a common vision. The ability to direct single achievements toward organizational aims. It is the fuel that allows common people to achieve uncommon consequences. Andrew Carnegie.

This study is traveling to be giving a study of a undertaking carried out by my squad in Project Management and Control ( PPMC ) category. The full category were divided into a group of eight to pull off a undertaking worth of ?100,000 and the undertaking was expected to be ?80,000 to be done with ?20,000 net income from it with a clip restraint of 140 yearss on the undertaking. Therefore I will be reexamining and critically measuring the public presentation of my squad on the undertaking.

Besides, this study will analyze my old on the job experience about a borehole boring undertaking which I was given along with a senior co-worker to pull off far back in my state at the beginning of this twelvemonth, though the company believe that it was a success since they achieve their purpose but I disagree with most of the major facet of the undertaking.

A category of 40 people were divided into a squad of eight utilizing Belbin ‘s squad functions ( A self-Perception Inventory ) , I happened to be one of the five members of squad 6, after we were grouped. Dr Meredith Belbin, an English Psychologist and his squad developed the Belbin ‘s squad function after carry oning a research for several directors from all over the universe at Henley direction college for a period of nine old ages. They came up with a nine Belbin squad functions viz. :

  1. Coordinator ( CO )
  2. Shaper ( SH )
  3. Plant ( PL )
  4. Resource Investigator ( RI )
  5. Monitor Evaluation ( ME )
  6. Implementer ( IM )
  7. Team worker ( TW )
  8. Completer Finisher ( CF )
  9. Specialist ( SP )

We were given a set of questionnaire comprises of 7 inquiries each with 10 options under each, and after we filled the questionnaire I happened to be one of the two specializers along with a Chinese lady, a coordinator which is a lady from China every bit good, a male resource research worker besides from China and a works which is a lady from Meleagris gallopavo as our primary penchants. Our secondary and third screens the other functions as we have 3 people as squad workers, 3 implementers, 1 proctor judge, 1 maker and 2 more coordinator but no completer finisher. We did non wasted clip since we all knew the importance of a completer in a squad, so we all agreed to do one the three implementers a impermanent completer closer. At the beginning at that place seems to be a sort of competitions among the squad members in the countries where there are extra functions like implementer and coordinator, so we called ourselves together, redefined each other ‘s function. The squad balance sheet is as follows:










( rows )

Coordinator ( CO )





Shaper ( SH )



Plant ( PL )



Resource Investigator ( RI )



Monitor Evaluator ( ME )



Implementer ( IM )





Teamworker ( TW )





Completer Finisher ( CF )


Specialist ( SP )




Table 1. Team Balance Sheet.

Excess functions ( over 50 % of the full squad ) : Coordinator, Implementer and Team worker.

Missing functions or spreads: Completer Finisher.



We have three coordinators in the squad, a lady and a male child from China and a lady from Meleagris gallopavo. They are all really effectual in taking the squad and advancing decisions-making, the Chinese lady ( primary coordinator ) is extremely emotional, She gives emotional response to others thoughts and she was even affected by linguistic communication, she find it so hard to show herself really good in English linguistic communication and these causes some jobs among the coordinators, particularly with the other lady to the extent that they ever have struggles. Most times she acquire a good construct and thoughts but presentations was bad, her nationality was of great aid to her as we got 3 Chinese in the group, so this leads her to state the other Chinese people to assist her translate better and present to the squad though this was blowing our clip but her thoughts are ever swearing and I enjoy working with her.

1.1.2. SHAPER ( SH )

As we got merely one maker in the squad, our shaper part was mean, she is rather disputing to some determinations and ever lament to cognize grounds for every actions taken but she hate force per unit area as she is ever concerned about clip and she took up an extra function by taking the records of all the operations traveling on for future mention.

1.1.3. PLANT ( PL )

In fact she is really good, a works so, really originative but at times seek laterality over the full squad and our primary coordinator is ever the first one to react but she subsequently come down after she realised that we are working as a squad. She besides play an of import function in execution phases.


Our resource research worker is a male from Chinese, he is really communicative and really active, he besides pay so much attending to clip and cost control every bit good. We worked together on cost computation, we give the result to the full before we take determinations on every purchase or resources.


Obviously I did non truly see the work of our proctor judge in her ( though it is her 3rd penchant ) but I can state she is really active as a coordinator and implementer. We all worked together as one.

1.1.6. IMPLEMENTER ( I )

There are three implementers in the squad and I am one of them. All of us were dependable and efficient, and after every determination made by the squad, we turn it into actions instantly.

1.1.7. TEAMWORKER ( TW )

Success or failure of a undertaking tends to depend on how good assorted member of the squad communicate with each other ( category faculty ) . Our teamwork was great as we all listen to ourselves and concerted and there was no struggle among the squad workers.

1.1.8. SPECIALIST ( SP )

Two specializer, myself and a Chinese lady. We were both effectual every bit good as we give some particular advice on choosing critical way, besides based on my old experience about buying stuffs and booking inspectors, we made our purchases every bit before as we can and at times makes some excess engagement for the inspectors.


No completer finisher in the group and we ab initio appointed the Turkish lady but as clip goes on we all work together to cover our losing function as we were all dying to complete what we have started.


1.2.1. FORMING:

cognizing ourselves was our first thing in the group, what we are expected to make and how we are traveling to accomplish it. We set a regulation which is run intoing ends. We did non truly hold much merriment at the phase as we set the ball turn overing instantly in order to run into up with the clip of the undertaking. We created extra functions apart from the Belbin function, we elected a clip keeper to ever maintain us on the path and a minute taker to maintain day-to-day records. At the phase, look of idea, single feelings and concern were non truly welcomed in the squad as we had no trust and assurance in ourselves in fact this phase was a scene of frantic activities.

1.2.2. STORMING:

At this phase things begins to hold form as we started holding trust in ourselves after gaining what and what we can offer the squad, people now feel free to speak as we now promote openness about feelings, all thoughts were good treated and taking earnestly, though some thoughts were non even set into pattern after treated in the squad but that does non halt the individual to convey more suggestion once more as there is trust. Every success were celebrated, we give handshakings and promote ourselves and take images. Conflict, ineluctable in the squad, peculiarly between the Chinese and Turkish ladies that happened to be both coordinator and implementer together, in fact we wasted excessively much clip in faculty 5 while comparing with faculty 1 to take our critical way but as a specializer I made them realised what is obscured to them and we rapidly resolved it.

1.2.3. NORMING:

strengths and failings of the squad are of import. As we have extra coordinators and implementers in the squad and the trust started turning among the squad member, this promote the determinations doing and the implementers creatively turn all the thoughts into practical to see how it works. It was at this phase that we started to gain the impact of the extra functions we have created in footings of clip and record after we all realised that we are blowing clip so the extra functions created came into usage from here. Our failing remain that no completer finisher, ab initio we appointed one of the implementers to move temporarily but at the terminal we all took up the function together. Our teamwork was great as no load was laid on no 1. We tried new ways of making things to see how it works, after chosen faculty 5 as our critical way in first twenty-four hours we so change it to module 1 on 2nd twenty-four hours.

As the faculty progresses, we did non clear up single function, we all worked as a squad but subsequently divided the squad maps into two groups unnoticed, the Cost control and determination devising. The two male childs working on the cost and the ladies taking determinations but we ever review every result together before seting into action and as we do these we continue to observe every success. And after each period we review the operations on board and analyze where we halt, where we are traveling and what to make.


we rotate leading ab initio but stopped along the manner and we had inspectors from outside beginning, we did non alter the everyday on occasion, we invite coach to look into what we are making for counsel and to cognize if we are on the right path. Our resource research worker was really effectual in this facet.


I can state we got two ways of doing determinations as our squad was divided into cost control and determination devising groups. The coordinators and implementers ever review together and come out with their ain position and we all look at it and discourse together to see how it works, we did non cast ballot in doing determinations but at the ulterior phase when there was no much clip single but convincing sentiment were followed.

1.4. Conflict WITH THE TEAM

As I said earlier on, we had adequate struggle in the squad, both functional and dysfunctional 1s most particularly when make up one’s minding the critical way there was struggle, besides when taking the providers and interior decorators we had struggles every bit good but I did non visualize any dysfunctional struggle, I did non noticed if there is one.


Initially we said we are traveling to revolve leaders but as clip goes on it did non work out like that. We appointed one of the coordinator to take the squad. We largely worked together as a squad and with strong trust in ourselves. We had emotional leader and makes life easier.

1.6. TEAM Result

We came 2nd at the terminal of the faculty with the entire disbursals of ?85,532.20, we made a net income of ?14,467.80, though deliberate cost for the undertaking is ?80,000, which shows we spent ?5,533 more than the estimated cost. Besides we finished the undertaking within the stipulated clip but we would hold done better than this and do more money if we concentrate better on both clip and cost. Initially we were witting of clip merely and non money and when we realised that we are passing more than the budgeted we tried to command our disbursement and be a small spot more concerned about the money but there was small we can make to command it and at the terminal of period we had to pass more seeking to run into up with the clip.

Question 5


This faculty gives me the privilege to discourse my past experience of a undertaking carried out in my workplace far back in Nigeria. Borehole concern is a fast growth concern in Nigeria as the Government provides really limited township H2O supply to the citizens. Persons and Companies, even communities have to supply H2O for their ain usage sing the importance and high necessity to human being. The high demand for H2O supply has prompted so many people that can afford the monetary value of settling up a borehole company to venture into it without equal cognition of the concern. A batch of persons, companies, authorities and even organizational organic structures like UNICEF have wasted a batch of money on boreholes due to failure of borehole boring companies.

After the construct phases, a community borehole undertaking worth of 1 million naira ( ?4000 ) was issued to my company at the beginning of this twelvemonth 2009 at Aba-Nla Area of Oyo province in the South-Western portion of Nigeria. The specification for the occupation is ( 75m ) 250 pess depth with 2 Equus caballus power ( 2 horsepower. ) submergible pump. The occupation is expected to be commissioned in two hebdomads.

The attack to boring of boreholes by and large depends on the geology of the country. Basically, we have sedimentary and cellar complex geology terrain in Nigeria with some transitional zones. It is the stone types that determine the terrain. Areas with sedimentary stones and deposits are referred to as sedimentary environment while the 1 with Igneous and metamorphous stones are referred to as cellar complex environment. The land terrain demands to be studied really good so as to cognize the right boring method and besides to adequately fix for the undertaking.

Rotary technique is used in boring sedimentary countries while both rotary and percussion are used for cellar complex countries. The undertaking country is basement complex terrain, therefore both rotary and percussion methods were applied.

I was called upon along with my senior co-worker to pull off the site and must be done in a period of 1week as the company has some other undertakings to make. The agenda of the occupation is as follows:

Signal-to-noise ratio




Pre boring geophysical study



Mobilization of forces, equipment and stuffs



Puting up equipment and other readying



Boring the overburden deposit



Run in hole to instance overburden deposit and cementing



Boring the cellar stone



Gravel wadding, good development and installing of submergible pump



Demobilization of equipment



Chemical and biological analysis of H2O





Table 2. Job Schedule

The written analysis of the undertaking looks so good and simple from starts to complete but a batch of concealed things lie at the operation phase of the undertaking.

The procedure involves three major phases:

  • Pre boring geophysical study of the land utilizing extremely sophisticated equipment design for groundwater informations aggregation, so package for informations analysis and reading.
  • Boring procedure which is the most of import portion of the undertaking and it includes boring the overburden and basement country, shell, grouting for healthful protection and good development to take all sand and atoms fallen during boring.
  • Installation and Test analysis which involves installing of appropriate submergible pump, pumping rate testing, entering the drawdown, discharge rate and H2O quality trial. Additional armored combat vehicle base, H2O storage armored combat vehicle and the fetching point was included.

The budgeted cost for the undertaking is # 750,000 ( ?3000 ) .


At the start of the undertaking I called my foreman and asked him the possibility of completing this occupation in one hebdomad and he said all we have to make is to maintain these cats busy. The purpose of the company is to minimise disbursement as we have to incure some disbursals on the forces on day-to-day footing. These are disbursals like adjustment and eating, logistic to site mundane from hotel. In order to minimise all these, the occupation was planned to be done in a period of one hebdomad.

The undertaking started on the first twenty-four hours with the geophysical study of the country. It took the company that did the study about 2 hours to get informations. The information was analysed same twenty-four hours with consequences obtained, interpreted at the terminal of the twenty-four hours. It was recommended to bore a borehole of deepness of about 75 meters, so the land was probed to 75 meters. This consequence besides contains some hazard alert about the land terrain in the community with the formation of stones in that part. The study revealed overburden deepness of about 60 pess followed by a extremely weather-beaten formation boulder clay around 90 – 100 pess. We were excessively much in a haste to finish the undertaking that we ne’er mind to transport out more research about that country in order to be after the undertaking. All we counted upon was our long clip experience in the borehole industry. And besides at this phase I ne’er knew the clip was unrealistic.

Equipments and purchased stuffs were all moved to site as planned on 2nd twenty-four hours. Decisions was taken to buy all stuffs that will be needed on clip particularly the 1s that will be needed for overburden/sedimentary subdivision of the borehole on the following twenty-four hours. The one hebdomad restraint is extremely considered as we are really clip witting and following the work agenda closely. The providers responded on clip and everything still seems perfect at this phase. We besides took determination on other providers every bit good as we made all the payment that twenty-four hours.

Drilling started on the 3rd twenty-four hours as planned. We drilled to 75 pess in less than 1hr without proper hole conditioning. At that 75ft, we discovered that the borehole was fall ining. Although it was mentioned in the study study that we have extremely weathered interval boulder clay about 90 to 100 pess but small attending was paid to that all in the procedure of clip and cost economy but the undertaking directors. We exhausted all the chemicals on site but the hole was still fall ining. The provider for the materials/chemicals needed to rectify the hole did non come on clip and we use the small 1s we had at site but it was non plenty to keep the holes from back-filling. it was excessively late by the clip the providers came as we tried all we could but we lost the hole. We had to give up on the hole despite all the money and clip spent, due to hapless planning, hapless hazard direction and cost control.

Another pre boring geophysical study was carried out. We already had a downtime of 1 twenty-four hours including running costs like adjustment and eating of forces. We moved to another borehole point as picked by new geophysical study, as we need to get down all over. Four yearss already gone.

The occupation started once more following twenty-four hours and there was no job when we got to that phase. We had adequate chemicals/materials to contend the backfilling but clip wasted ab initio due to proper planning can non be regained. The hole was cased decently as planned.

Second phase of the boring which is the chief boring procedure begins on twenty-four hours 6 and it was expected to last for upper limit of two yearss. At this phase I can state hapless communicating and deficiency of proficient accomplishments of the boring squad makes the occupation to be longer. They are supposed and were asked by the applied scientist to utilize 5”bit to bore from the overburden contact at 100ft to 150ft to hold wider diameter of the hole so as to be able to instance off the fall ining interval so go on with 4.5” spot to the concluding deepness of the borehole. This step was needed to be taken because of the demand to put in interior casing further than the extremely weather-beaten zone because there is high hazard of interior casing breakage when coercing through the part. The study specified the weather-beaten zone to about 100ft which was cased off but sometimes we can hold the formation still loose and indurating up as it goes deeper.

The ground for this measure was non communicated to the boring squad. They used 4.5” spot alternatively to bore the full cellar subdivision because they are used to it. They were besides deceived by their private and long clip experience believing they will salvage more clip and cost for the Company by utilizing a smaller diameter spot.

Boring continued till the terminal but the formation was still loose till 125ft so they spend extra 2 yearss to acquire to the concluding deepness. Inner shell of 4”was installed in the loose interval but the pick of pump has to be altered due to the concluding diameter of the hole.

The 2 Hp submergible pump specification was changed to 1.5hp because of the concluding hole diameter. Although the pump still worked but it takes longer clip to pump equal volume of H2O relation to the proposed 2 horsepower. Installation of submergible pump, Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes ( PVC ) , safety ropes, overseas telegram, good caput and good security was done and trial pumping was carried out instantly on twenty-four hours ten. There was no job with the subcontractor that constructed the H2O armored combat vehicle base as the occupation was good finished two yearss earlier than ours and the storage installations with the bringing points were channelled to the borehole.

The company did non enter the undertaking as a failure because they still run into up with the bringing clip but I believe the full procedure is incorrect. At the terminal of it all the money spent was over 150,000 naira more than the budgeted and even with 3 yearss tardily. Most of these excess costs were on the forces, hapless hazard direction and operating expenses and there was even adequate struggles among the squad members which besides affects the occupation. At the terminal of the undertaking, my foreman told me 3 yearss tardily is non bad in borehole concern in every bit much the borehole is productive and the bringing clip is still met. This is a little undertaking and it was hard to pull off good.

Some large boring companies in Nigeria besides record a batch of failures in pull offing their undertakings. We had a hapless planning from the start that affects the full procedure of the undertaking. The clip frame is non realistic with the type of planning we had which makes us to pass more on resources. Hazard was non good managed and the incriminations are ever on the undertaking directors. Therefore on these, borehole boring site demand to be decently managed. Below are the grounds why the borehole undertaking fails:

  1. Unqualified undertaking director.
  2. Lack of equal planning for little concern
  3. Time direction
  4. Human resources direction
  5. Company
  6. Technical accomplishments
  7. Hazard direction
  8. Cost direction
  9. Geophysical study reading
  10. Communication


2.2.1. UNQUALIFIED Undertaking Directors:

so many undertaking directors out there are non qualified, some are rawness and some did non even know about it or hold background cognition of undertaking direction. ( Gary hearkens 2002 ) called them Accidental undertaking directors. He subsequently defined them as people ( technicians, applied scientists, sales representative etc ) placed into the function of undertaking trough due to the necessity of the administration or needs instead than a trained or qualified 1s. This is really common in borehole concern as I was besides a one of them. Undertaking director need to be competent and inadvertent undertaking directors must be stopped. Right people for the right occupation. A undertaking director must be able to pull off clip, cost, range, human resources, hazard, quality, procurance and communicating, dialogue. Projects directors are responsible for incorporating the assigned resources to finish undertaking harmonizing to program ( Clifford F. Gray )


size of the undertaking besides contribute to its failure in some instances. Some little undertakings are complex to manage and people do overlook the complexness of the occupation. Lack of equal clip to garner information about land terrain of a peculiar country, place the hazard and do necessary readying for rectification besides affects borehole concern. Unlike on criterion undertaking that most people are trained and each occupation function is good defined to the persons involved. Most of import facet is the planning phase. ( Cleland D.I 1994 ) defined be aftering as a rational finding of how to originate, sustain and end a undertaking. Failure to program is the readying to neglect. The occupation needs to be defined, designed and good outlined. Critical way and Gantt chart of the undertaking demand can be helpful if figured out. What need to be done and when to make it, undertaking web, Task allotment, After budgeting and work breakdown construction ( WBS ) , the occupation demand to be defined to everyone involved, scheduling and determination devising so follows. For effectual and productive borehole I suggest that the equal planning demand to be done.

2.2.3. TIME Management:

unrealistic clip frame and undertakings affects many undertakings, many forget the volume of work needed to be done. When a undertaking is good outlined it makes it easier to apportion resources and continuance of each facet to it. Time direction is one of the competence needed by the undertaking direction. Real value of clip demand to be understood, equal planning brings work load under control. Time needs to be use efficaciously non merely expeditiously. Time need to be defined for each undertaking non the entireness of the undertaking


undertaking is about people, minor alteration may interrupt the whole program, good communicating must be done ; sing other options like providers, subcontractors, activities on the critical way must be done earlier. Pull offing struggles, motive, get bying with undertaking policy should be concerned.

2.2.5. Company:

In developing states, the procedure at which contract was awarded drama an of import function in the success of the undertaking. In most instances the contract is being awarded to the lowest bidder of which many of these companies may miss direction accomplishments required to transport out a successful undertaking and they pay less attending to planning, overall site direction and resources. Reputation and degree of experience of the company besides affairs. There should be a balance between the cost and effectivity. The ability for a company to manage a peculiar size of undertaking should besides be considered. This can be from company profile or old work appraisal. The freshly turning companies should besides pay more attending to company image instead than the net income facet merely.

2.2.6. Technical Skill:

this is another facet that needs to be improved. Technical facet starts from the Geologist/company that carries out the geophysical study. Accurate informations with right reading is really critical because anything incorrect from this initial phase can impact the whole of the undertaking. Besides the trifle of the applied scientist and drillers need to be considered as most of these people pay less attending to inside informations of the occupation, all they have in their head is to complete one site and move to another for the benefit of their pocket. Competence of the drillers is besides of import due to trifle of the occupation and if possible more preparation on different stone types and features.

2.2.7. Hazard Management:

As many people believe that there is a high hazard in borehole boring procedure, the hazard can be managed every bit good. To pull off hazard, after it is identified, so it has to be classified, analysed, and equal proviso should be made to supervise it. A hazard Log is extremely indispensable in borehole concern to do mentions to the history and contingent financess. Along with the undertaking program, there must be a hazard program and if it is fresh, it should be released back to net income.

2.2.8. Cost Management:

The best manner to pull off cost is when there is a good undertaking program ; otherwise a batch of money is traveling to be spent on the undertaking. Making a insistent occupation addition acquisition, analyze how much old undertaking cost and why is the sum, do the costing on work dislocation construction to the entire cost and non bing the undertaking as a whole. Cost of boring a borehole should be breakdown into mobilisation cost, boring cost, stuffs purchase, subcontractor cost, good development cost, pump cost, supervising cost and most particularly extra cost that screen hazard facets and operating expenses.


a incorrect nonsubjective means a incorrect undertaking. Well standardised equipment is needed for geophysical study and a good trained people to construe the consequences. Money is non everything ; both expertness and information about groundwater resources are besides required to avoid money being wasted on boring borehole. A standard geophysical study of any country demand to be done.

2.2.10. Communication:

poorcommunication between the applied scientist and the boring squad affected the occupation as undertaking director demand to travel along with the advancement of the occupation, redefined each individual function, proctor and reexamine the occupation clip to clip.


In order to hold a successful borehole undertaking, competence of the undertaking direction squad is the most of import thing. Work break down construction is needed, hazard analysis and control, clip and cost control and human resource control. In order to run into up with the 3 cardinal factors of undertaking which is clip, cost and quality, a really good be aftering demand to be done.

After this faculty, I learnt that if all these things listed above can be done, borehole boring undertakings will enter more success.

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