The American Redress Movement English Literature Essay

The Nipponese American Redress Movement of the 1980s signifies the chase of justness against the United States authorities ‘s constitutional misdemeanors during World War II. President Roosevelt ‘s Executive Order 9066 legalizes emptying and resettlement of Nipponese occupants and citizens of Nipponese descent from California, Oregon, and Washington. Following his order, military announcements enforces curfew limitations and removal orders of nationalists populating within critical appellations into assembly centres. Families lost existent and personal belongingss due from emptying and resettlement steps by prejudiced military forces and the media. The Nipponese American Evacuation Claims Act of 1948 efforts reparations for the internees ‘ economic losingss falls short in refunds. The Redress Movement encompasses assorted organisations seeking reparations, class-action cases, and buttonholing Congress. It recognizes the constitutional misdemeanors of the U.S. authorities. Originating educational plans and public outreach allows grassroots militant ‘s aid in actuating former evacuees in discoursing their experiences. These strong persons learned to contend back, addition damages, and reparations by grassroots militants. The Matsuoka narrative high spots his attempts in the community while deriving justness.

The interview of Jim Matsuoka, a Nisei[ 1 ]focal points on his political activism during the Redress Movement. It demonstrates his attempts in helping community members to talk out and stand up for justness. Born in 1935, Matsuoka lived in the outskirts of Small Tokyo in Los Angeles, California. He remembers the agricultural activity in the vicinity and particularly the odor of Zea mays everta as he walked along the pavement as a immature male child. His male parent worked in a drug shop and his female parent cared for the place. His emptying and resettlement took his household to the Manzanar Relocation Center.

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A­A­A­A­A­A­_______ ( __ ) : This is __________ questioning Jim Matsuoka sing his activism during the Nipponese American damages motion. Today is November 7, 2010 and we are at his abode in West Covina and, fundamentally the first inquiry, Jim, is when and where were you born?

Jim Matsuoka ( JM ) : I was born in Los Angeles, California in 1935 and I was born on what you would name the, I guess you would name it the outskirts of Small Tokyo. But at that clip, there was a residential portion of Small Tokyo because Little Tokyo was much larger than what exists today. Today you have a little subdivision confined to about two or three streets bordered by San Pedro and Alameda. But in those yearss, before the war, I would state the Nipponese residential community went reasonably much up to about 8th Street, all the manner. Many small places, individual household places, get oning houses and the whole country business district was one large J-town and really a batch of Nipponese lesion up in Boyle Heights, but kind of like a sleeping room community. And the whole country, the economic system of the whole country was non merely underpinned by the concerns that constitute Small Tokyo to this twenty-four hours with the full green goods market because the Japanese had a, I would n’t state a monopoly, but they were really, really active in green goods, little farms, the flower markets.

__ : Right.

JM: And all of that so, that whole flower market, produce market over there was a beehive of Nipponese work activity and it spread into that whole country.

__ : Oh ok, now were at that place, were similar small tonss for the community, small tonss for horticulture or agriculture or?

JM: No, non truly, because that whole country was reasonably much, downtown country and its really dumbly packed. So you had small houses backed, crowded together and the denseness was rather, people would be walking the streets and non merely Nipponese, but one large mix of people.

__ : Diverse?

JM: Yea, really much so.

__ : Sooner state, ok, alright, can you speak a small about your household life before the war?

JM: You know, the interesting thing about it is I do n’t merely cognize that much about my parents ‘ lives. One thing, I ‘m a Nipponese American ‘s generationally within households. They do n’t truly force out that to each other, non that I ‘m cognizant of. And, one of the things I guess is that my female parent and male parent both came here and this was their 2nd matrimony. So that means something happened to both of their matrimonies in Japan. They were from Hiroshima, Japan. And, of class, you know, as a kid, you would ne’er inquire your female parent or beget what happened, you know, “ Why are you married once more? ” Or, yea anything I learned about my household was merely through conversations here and at that place through the old ages with my female parent. And I do n’t cognize precisely why they came, but I do cognize they were merchandises of a divorce, which at that clip in Japan was a existent no-no, you know. So, something went drastically incorrect. When my male parent came over here, ab initio to, I think either to Vancouver and Seattle, down to San Francisco and eventually to Los Angeles. And female parent joined him around 1924, which was the last twelvemonth you could, Asian.

__ : Becoming citizens?

JM: Yea, could n’t really immigrate to America.

__ : Right, right, ok. Did they tell you what they did for a life?

JM: Well, my male parent was working at a drug shop. Now precisely what he was making, he was n’t a druggist, now that ‘s for certain. He was either a stock male child or making something along that line. But really, in those yearss one occupation was plenty to prolong a whole household. Like, we were populating in a house and my female parent ne’er had to work. So it ‘s non similar today, where you have to hold two occupations. It was an wholly different, you know environment, unhearable speech production.

__ : Yea, yea decidedly, unhearable programs do alter. How did your household react to the Nipponese onslaught at Pearl Harbor?

JM: Well, of class, there was a batch of fright involved because you do n’t cognize what ‘s go oning. You know something negative is traveling to go on. My male parent instantly got clasp of any images unhearable or anything holding to make with the emperor. And he burned those right off. Then we were instructed non to open the door unless we knew who precisely who was out at that place. And so, it was a really unsettling and a sense of terrorization clip because we all knew something was traveling to go on, we did n’t cognize precisely what.

__ : Right, right, now was he involved with any Nipponese schools or anything covering with the community where the FBI?

JM: No, no. He was, in footings of position, business, and what have you, reasonably low on the totem pole.

__ : Sooner state, all right and how did your household react to the Executive Order 9066?

JM: Well, all we knew were at that place was n’t much to truly speak about in a sense that you were merely ordered to travel, unhearable. The postings that you saw proclaiming people of Nipponese lineage, you know describe for resettlement as of this day of the month and so they listed the unhearable topographic points. That was that, you were told what to make, you know. You did n’t hold a pick in debating it or talking to anybody about it or there were n’t any mass meetings, any, no you merely, you know. This is what you do and you show up on that day of the month or else.

__ : Right, now did anybody inquiry the authorities authorization about this even though people were citizens?

JM: Well, my female parent and male parent were non citizens and they were they were lasting occupants is about it. But at that clip, America, once more, rather a different society, I mean it was a society of, it was a really unintegrated society, you know. You lived through the agonies of the bulk and peculiar countries and you reasonably much had to follow through. You did n’t hold a sense of our civil rights and our ain ability to strike out, so to talk, to kick or we did n’t hold the knowhow, the, any of things.

__ : Can you depict your vicinity before the war while turning up, a small spot more?

JM: Yea, it was a really interesting topographic point in a sense that I was traveling to the unhearable, I truly enjoyed my, I made three trips to New York late and it sort of reminds me of the Los Angeles I knew. From the older edifices and yea, it yea, I think there was a film called the Sting, I believe. Yea, attempt to see that and they serve the thing in the 1930s. You sort of get an feeling of the type of community we had, which was really, really, people walking about, it was, you know, trucks were drawing up in the streets selling green goods. The milkman came to your door. It was a whole economic system traveling out in the streets. The trucks and sellers would come by, it looked like something out of New York, you know.

__ : Truly?

JM: Yea. You ‘ll see the Godfather, you see the Little Italy.

__ : Right.

JM: Yea, it resembles our, small spot of that. They had these bars and barrooms that were unfastened and a batch of the work forces that were unemployed because that period was the depression, you know.

__ : Mm-hum.

JM: And a batch of people did n’t hold occupations. And you had people, you call them, good they call themselves tramp. These are immature work forces that would sit the tracks all over the United States, I mean 1000s of them. And that country business district, we did n’t hold the LAX or even the Union Station was n’t built. So, everything, the terminus of everything was called the Grand Central Station, Central Station. Fifth and Central, so everything pulled in at that place. That was LAX, Burbank Airport, Union Station combined. And so all the trams ended up, so you can conceive of the sound traveling on in the streets, you know. The bunco and hustle, people out at that place, trucks coming by, two unhearable, you know, one in the South, this and that. The bars unfastened, you could hear the music coming out of the bars. Drunkards turn overing out, you know.

__ : Yea, yea. Were at that place any similar street sellers?

JM: Ah yea, as I would walking out with my male parent, they would popcorn seller out at that place.

__ : Oh truly?

JM: Yea, they ‘d be starting the thing. So, you get this you know, this mix of noise and odors and fresh Zea mays everta and beer coming out, you know. They did n’t hold the hygiene, of, they did n’t hold these trucks cleaning the streets, and they had kind of a unhearable litre all the clip, you know. And you saw the work forces walking about, the tramps looking for nutrient, looking for work. It was really lively. I do n’t cognize how else to depict it.

__ : Lively sounds like a perfect description of it.

JM: It sort of reminds you of a 3rd universe state, which America possibly at that clip during the depression was a 3rd universe state. It reminds you of that, you know. You had an ice truck drawing up, you know. We did n’t hold those iceboxs, they literally brought you ice, you know.

__ : Now, before the war, was the Nipponese American community a closely knit community or was it more sort of like everybody kept to themselves?

JM: It was really closely knit, both through pick and or whether you liked it or non. I mean the manner the society is, the construction in those yearss, people reasonably much kept to their ain group. Because they were reasonably much a population of trade name new immigrants. And you did n’t hold the latitude of traveling to different countries because most of the countries in California were covered by restrictive compacts. Meaning that they listed who you could resell or could n’t sell or whatever, in the existent estate understanding. In fact, Richard Nixon was one time accused of, in his governor ‘s race, they said, “ Well, you signed a restricted compact, which excluded, you know so and so. ” Which is a really racist papers, but you know and the restrictive compact listed everybody that you could non sell to, get downing with Alaskan Indians, you know A through Z. And, good Nixon ‘s defence was everybody did, you know. So it ‘s a dual criterion. I was n’t anything different than what was go oning. He says, “ That was a standard papers. ” The more people thought about it, he ‘s right. So, in a sense, when you have a restrictive, there truly bounds to you to where you can populate and as such the Nipponese, here rather frequently, would look inward and develop their ain organisation. They had one organisation that was really inclusive, really comprehensive at, and inclusive and about every group. It was called The Central Association of Southern California. They had a Central Association in, I believe northern California, and cardinal California and southern California and our, I think we had about 26 chapters get downing in San Diego, Santa Barbara down to San Diego. And it was like a mini-congress, where you know they would hold a annual get together, meetings, they would hash out what the, could be done for the people and what have you.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: If you go back historically, some of the Nipponese American Central Association paperss, which I had, I used to be a history major myself. Yea, yea and so they would set out all these, the really get downing it was what the unhearable and Nipponese immigrants were coming in were all immature males. The Central Association put out these things stating stop gaming. All you ‘re making is chancing. And running around these houses of harlotry. You know, clean-up their act, you ‘re dishonoring our state and our, you know, what have you. Or because they could n’t acquire any support from American society as such because they could n’t vote. So, cipher in Sacramento or the Mayor ‘s office here would desire to listen to, you know. It ‘s like holding requests coming to you from illegal immigrants. You know, so what, hey, I do n’t desire to listen to you. So they would, the lone people that they could truly speak to would be the Nipponese Council. But these people would still be considered Nipponese citizens even though they ‘re here in America.

__ : Right.

JM: So, in the manner it sort of backfired against them during the war. When the war started up because they said good, the Central Association is really invariably linked with the Nipponese Consulate and as such unhearable they Asian, you know empirial Japan. In other words, after the war, the Nipponese disposal was put on this black book of organisations that were considered anti ; I ‘m non certain what they were. But it had all the anti-American Nazi groups, communist party, the Ku Klux Klan, Nipponese Central Association. In other words you could non acquire any, if you ‘re a member of that, at any clip you can acquire a occupation in any portion of the economic system that requires security cards.

__ : So, the Central Association was classified as the same as the Ku Klux Klan?

JM: And the Nazi, the Communist Party of America. There ‘s a whole scope of them.

__ : Wow.

JM: The standard papers of organisations that were considered un-American, the Central Association was truly put in tight topographic point. They realized and you ‘d hold to be a pretty encephalon dead at that clip to calculate out a war was non traveling to take topographic point because the United States put an trade stoppage on the oil, which meant that the Nipponese ground forces in China at which they were near to a twosome million strong, would come to a screeching arrest. I mean no oil. No armored combat vehicles, no nil.

__ : Yep.

JM: And the topographic points they were acquiring the oil inaudible so the United States and the Dutch East Indies and of class, when they put that trade stoppage on, the Dutch followed suit. So, in a sense, that was reasonably much like, you know. Anyone could calculate out what ‘s traveling to go on. I mean, if Saudi Arabia, tomorrow said, “ We ‘re closing down the oil, ” you know. And Qatar and the remainder of them, United Emirates unhearable, it said, “ That ‘s it turn it off. ” You know something ‘s traveling to go on, I do n’t cognize what, but I can vouch you.

__ : Something ‘s traveling to go on, you merely do n’t cognize.

JM: I can vouch you, it is n’t traveling to be nil, you know. Anyone could calculate that out. So, the Central Association got really panicked. They said you know, “ We ‘re between a stone and a difficult topographic point. ” And they reasonably much figured out those who are sympathetic to Japan and believe in the lucks of empirial Japan. We figured we ‘re traveling back, go to Japan, you know. You ‘re over here ; you know you ‘re projecting your lucks with the United States. I mean, reasonably much anyone that ‘s here reasonably much made that pick, you know. It ‘s I do n’t believe it ‘s anyone ‘s ; it had to be the most naA?ve individual in the universe to calculate out nil ‘s traveling to go on. You had to do a pick, if you stay here your lucks are with this state, good and bad. If you go, if it, you do n’t believe in that, so you ‘re traveling to Japan because this war ‘s traveling to interrupt out. The Central Association sent a deputation to Washington, D. C. and one of the things they offered was to, you know, how can we assist, what can we make. We ‘ll even traveling to, we ‘ll alter our name to merely the apparent Central Association and strike hard off Nipponese or you know, whatever you want. And they eventually were able to run into with Eleanor Roosevelt. She was a really progressive individual. And she was really sort but they could n’t acquire through to them because possibly at that clip, possibly he figured, he ‘s traveling to be composing out the EO 9066, you know what I mean?

__ : Yea.

JM: You know so. So, when the war broke out that was, when the FBI came through, the really first people they went after where the Central Association.

__ : Central Association.

JM: Chuo nippon-jin kai they call it. Chuo means cardinal. Nippon-jin agencies friend of Nipponese. Kai is an organisation. It was the formal name chuo Nippon-jin kai, 26 chapters.

__ : How do you spell that?

JM: C-h-u-o, chuo, n-i-p-p-o-n-j-i-n, nippon-jin, and so kai, k-a-i.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: Very few people knew of the history, but they ran Little Tokyo, they ran Nipponese American community. The president of this organisation was more less the, I would name the city manager of Small Tokyo in the Nipponese American community. The last city manager was unhearable Nakamura and unhearable was instantly seized and put a 1 of the prison cantonments and I believe in New Mexico. He was n’t able to reach his household for two old ages at which clip the married woman died. It was.

__ : Oh, adult male.

JM: I knew Mr. Nakamura personally, so yea. And the interesting thing was their fond regard, their willingness to be supportive to America. I believe it ‘s really unhearable because Mr. Nakamura was Okinawan in unhearable. In Okinawa, unhearable Nipponese history. The Okinawans are ever considered the stepchild of Japan. Until this twenty-four hours, their, their still a really strong group of younger people in Okinawa that want to talk Okinawan. They feel that they ‘re still harassing over at that place. Their still angry that of all states in Japan that fought the hardest in a sense, it was Okinawans, the lone 1 that was invaded. And yet, when it comes times to where they put the military bases, you know. It ‘s an Okinawan, they said, “ Why are we paying dual? We ‘ve put it all out at that place for empirial Japan. ” They got invaded, our people got killed, us Okinawans and yet when it comes, we ‘re willing to set these invasive Marine bases and what have you. It ‘s in our district. So, Mr. Nakamura was Okinawan and usually among Nipponese organisations, you would non pick an Okinawan. If they were true blue, empirial Nipponese types, you know.

__ : Right.

JM: Inaudible non outcastes, nah. No 1 likes, yea, I truly do n’t cognize, it ‘s what it would be, non officially, non officially. It would be more like a societal, possibly it ‘s more on the Okinawan people themselves, they feel discriminated against Lashkar-e-Taiba ‘s set it that manner.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: Were discriminated. Not considered pure Nipponese. A small spot, strictly among Nipponese, you know because they were, you know the chosen people of the empirial line. I mean, they had to in order to decease for the emperor, you know. You look back on it today and it sounds downright farcical. But in those yearss, to decease and all that.

__ : For the emperor, was a high award.

JM: Because he was the pure descendent of all the Gods of Japan, so anything you do that takes you off from the, it makes you lesser of something, you know. They look severely upon us because we left the state and we ‘re posterities of those that have left.

__ : Right.

JM: So, we ‘re kind of like second-class, you know. Okinawans are n’t rather Nipponese, good they ‘re Nipponese, but they have a batch of Chinese influence, you know. Yea, they inaudible, you know. Just like we look on Puerto Rico or something. Inaudible U. S. citizens but you know.

__ : Yea, ok, can you speak a small about your cantonment experience?

JM: Oh yea, I was at that place from 7 to 12 and it was n’t that much merriment, I mean geez! You know, we wound up, I wrote this narrative for the Nipponese Historical Society. I call it “ Stray Cats of Manzanar. ” I talk about some of my experiences mooching around the cantonments and we were reasonably much on our ain, you know. We, household life kind of broke down and I mean I, since we ate at the barracks, you know. We ate at the muss hall, you know. We did n’t eat at place, so. So, I called myself a isolated cat. We came about when we needed something. My parents did n’t cognize where I was most of the clip.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: Half the clip I was on the opposite side of the cantonment at the clip. Where was I? Well, we ‘d be down at supposed to be in school, half the clip I ditched, you know. I ‘d be over at the Bear ‘s brook, rolling around the brook. And even at dark, when it ‘s warm when it was warm, we ‘d interrupt out our torchs and travel rolling around the cantonments. And so it was for younger people like me. It was, we did what we pleased, you know. Of class, we we ‘re constrained by the barbed wire, but hey, you know. During the first twelvemonth at that place, the guards were really argus-eyed, but after that they merely gave it up, you know. They merely lost involvement.

__ : Right.

JM: So, the people were coming and traveling and you know. The thing was there was nowhere you could travel to. If we went west, we would be walking into Mt. Whitney. You could n’t acquire over that. You go the other manner, you go, I think the Panamint Mountains and Death Valley. You go the other manner, you wind up in Bishop and they ‘ll turn you in, in a minute. You go the other manner, you go to Lone Pine, and they ‘ll turn you in, you know. Self trapped.

__ : Yep, precisely, wow that ‘s non good. Now, while in cantonment, did you, or if you remember, was there any differences, non truly differences, but did the Nisei ‘s sort of isolated off from the household while in cantonment?

JM: What we do is really large division between the Issei and the Nisei and of class the issue was citizenship. The Nisei were citizens the Issei were n’t.

__ : Right.

JM: So, in each cantonment they had the citizen ‘s block councils.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: And I believe the lone people that were allowed to keep office were citizens, which were Nisei. So that sort of pitted the two groups against each other. There was a authorities, the block associations, of which merely the citizens were allowed to, which meant that they were Nisei, which meant that they came into, struggle with the older Issei, you know, so I mean.

__ : Now, how did the Issei and Nisei acquire along with the Kibei?

JM: The Kibei ‘s reasonably much an outcaste to get down with.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: So, they did n’t, in a manner, they sort of like stood out of a batch of things. So they did n’t experience they fit in before the war or even after the war. They were like the ultimate, I do n’t cognize what you ‘d name it, people that did n’t suit in.

__ : Out of topographic point?

JM: Out of topographic point, yea. There ‘s a batch of people like that. Maybe America ‘s made-up of people like that. Somewhere else and you did n’t suit to good over at that place so that ‘s why you ‘re over here.

__ : Now, how did you experience when you foremost heard about the damages motion?

JM: Well, I was one of first to, at first ab initio ; some of it was brought old ages before the damages motion got started. In most instances, it seemed like it was manner before its clip. It seemed like a merely a eccentric thought, you know. I remember sitting in a JACL run intoing one clip when it was brought up. It was one of those, “ Ok, what else is on the docket? ” Let ‘s acquire past this one, you know. You do n’t desire to pass excessively much clip on this 1. It was like, yea, we had universe peace on the docket, allow ‘s alright, move on. But yea, it took awhile and it truly was n’t until a presidential committee was established and we realized that possibly there is whether you like it or non, we ‘re traveling to acquire into some type of statement over the whole issue and allow ‘s see what ‘s what, you know. It ‘s all you could make.

__ : Ok, can you speak a small spot about the differences between the Issei and Nisei attitudes about damages?

JM: The Issei thought they were really sympathetic. They truly felt that they were more grieved in a sense that they wanted their voices heard. I do n’t believe they truly believed that there would be redress. In a sense, no 1 believed that damages could go on. So they were more or less cognizant that some unfairness has taken topographic point and they wanted their voices heard. Nisei on the other manus, took one of two attacks, either they became really, really agitated and active and wanted to go involved with this. This was non the bulk. This is minority. And the other was, do n’t blow my clip, you know. All you ‘re traveling to make is merely stir-up public sentiment and you ‘re merely, I guess, I ‘ll speaking over something, some unpleasant minute in my life and that ‘s the last thing I want to make is to drag up that topic once more.

__ : Right, ok. What was Small Tokyo ‘s People ‘s Rights Organizations ( LTPRO ) intent for forming?

JM: We were an branch of an Asiatic American militants of the 1970s, 60s and 70s. But of class we were to a great extent influenced by the civil rights motion. You could n’t assist but see all of it traveling on, on Television, you know, Martin Luther King and what have you, Rosa Parks, pushed for black surveies, black is beautiful. Peoples would inquire me, “ Well what about, what happened in the cantonments, ” you know. And it ‘s one of a few times you ‘re about forced to cope with the issue. Part of that, you merely sort of like blew it off. And of class, now everything, the civil rights motion lacked on top of the war in Vietnam, it was like a perfect storm, you know. You know how could you, you might desire to disregard one, but you ca n’t disregard the other because on the one manus, you ‘re traveling to be drafted or you know person ‘s traveling to be drafted. You know, you turn on the Television and you see napalm bombs blowing up and you see people shouting, you know. What are these people making in Asia and what have you. Black is beautiful. You see these, you know, impossible to remain out of the disturbance, so to talk. I mean, if you do, you ‘re like an ostrich lodging his caput in the sand, you know. You had to believe about it, you know whether you liked it or non.

__ : Sooner state, how did LTPRO affect the Japanese community during the redress motion or was LTPRO involved?

JM: One of these LTPRO inaudible when we realized that there was an premise that the Nipponese American community took attention of itself, which is false. There was a batch of senior citizens in desperate demand. Their demands traveling broken, Small Tokyo about physically falling apart, I mean there were so many different things, you know happening. LTPRO was a militant, non many of us really lived in Little Tokyo, I mean we come from other parts. We saw Small Tokyo as a kind of a link, our activity in community and we had different compartments in NCRR. We had a group that wanted to work with the new immigrants that were coming in. So, they want to see the same thing the older immigrants experienced. Housing, because lodging was critical to downtown country. And so similar, a kind of like a civil rights damages motion. That ‘s where I came in because anterior to that I was portion of a group that was a truly a working with the renovation of Little Tokyo, in a sense that, you know, lodging and what have you is being destroyed. We sort of fell apart and we drifted into LTPRO and so we joined into LTPRO damages commission.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: Which became portion of the budding Los Angeles Community Coalition for Redress/Reparations is portion of that.

__ : Ok, that makes sense, now from what Kathy was stating. Yea, very well, how effectual was LTPRO?

JM: Overall, I think we did a batch for the Nipponese American community because we spoke up for the people that had no voice at all, you know. Because whenever people, politicians are traveling to Little Tokyo, they speak to the concern people or whoever considers themselves a quote-unquote leader. But there ‘s no voice for the, you know the workers and people that live there are the general community as we see it. So, we sort of took over that voice. And we went to the, we call it LACCRR, at the clip, Los Angeles Community Coalition meetings. We would place unhearable organisations and practically three-quarterss of the people at the meetings were from LTPRO.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: So it became about like we, we about absorbed LACCRR.

__ : Sooner state, so its Los Angeles Community for Redress?

JM: Community Coalition for Redress and Reparations.

__ : Community, Oklahoma.

JM: L-A-C-C-R-R.

__ : That ‘s what it is, ok. Now what was LACCRR ‘s intent?

JM: Well, we wanted to happen out what was traveling on, basically. And this committee was formed the presidential committee was formed to analyze the intervention of American citizens during World War II. Particularly refering to internment. We were concerned that some whitewash would take topographic point, some academic bombast, bombast, bombast, you know and that they put into books, put away. They said, “ No, we did n’t desire that. ” We were afraid that that ‘s the way that people are taking. Which we want a, we want our voices to be heard. We want some damages for what happened, you know. And we want some justness, we do n’t desire this covered over and set away in some library, you know. We want hearings. So, that was our intent.

__ : Now, how did LACCRR affect the Nipponese American community?

JM: It was difficult work. That ‘s where people like me had to travel out and be willing to speak to anybody. I went all the manner down to San Diego to speak. I do n’t cognize how many people I was traveling to speak to. I wound up speaking to seven people. But those seven people developed the San Diego chapter of damages and reparations. I spoke to larger groups, any group truly and we fanned ourselves out. Initially, it was like, there was a twosome of people that were in the cantonments, some, everybody wanted us to make it ; I mean we could n’t manage it. So we says, “ Now, ” in our meetings, by now we had formed NCRR, which is much wider group, as opposed to Los Angeles, or whoever wanted to and we had to outline people like Kathy and so no you got to talk. So, we fanned out throughout the, wherever people wanted us to talk, we would demo up.

__ : Sooner state, alright.

JM: That ‘s how we did it and.

__ : That was fundamentally the footing for the instruction?

JM: Mm-hum, yea. We got really adept, you know I mean, particularly, we would hold activities, we would hold community meetings, we would hold certain juncture ‘s candle flame Marches. We would make these things that would pull attending. The media loved it. They truly liked coming to Little Tokyo because we were so close to the Television Stationss. You know, they ‘re all up at that place by Hollywood. Well, they can come down to Small Tokyo in half an hr, tape their narrative, and have a wrap, like that. You know.

__ : And have it on the 10 o’clock intelligence.

JM: Precisely. precisely, so we got truly, it got to be where they were waiting for us on the manner. Yea, they loved it. We got to be truly good at it. I mean, you know we knew precisely what we wanted to make. We would hold imperativeness ; we would ever choose a imperativeness who has unhearable choice a nice comfy topographic point that they could come. We would hold water/sodas for them, small bites. We would hold imperativeness packages.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: Hey, what non to wish. Good lighting, you know we would hold everything sitting and so we would hold talkers or internees or what have you.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: Yea. You know, they did n’t hold to travel trailing us down the street, you know and you know these world plans were they ‘re practically. We were ready and non merely that we knew how to compose letters, we knew how to, you know do things courteously. You know, we do n’t compose letters stating you stupid, you know, you bastard, you know. It would be their congresswoman so and so, you know we had to cognize the format, you know, you had to cognize how to compose, direct wires, or do all these things.

__ : Mm-hum, ok. Now how did the Nipponese American community react to the formation of LTPRO and LACCRR?

JM: Well, they were really loath to fall in. It seems that so we were similar loony that we were, they liked the thought in a manner, they were kind of ambivalent about it. They did n’t cognize what to make. For one, they could see the, what we were stating. On the other manus, one individual said, “ You ‘re brainsick, you ‘re inquiring for damages from your prison guard. ” You know and that made a batch of sense. It ‘s no accident.

__ : Ok, now how did the Nipponese American community overcome their negativist attitudes? Their defeatism that, I mean.

JM: I do n’t believe they of all time did to be honest with you. I mean, they cheered us on. That ‘s all I can state, good I had, say it openly to everybody. You cheered me on, you know. You sent me out at that place to make the combat and I volitionally did it, you know. Of class, you came in and you were thankful, you joined us and everything, but that ‘s when you smelled the darn money, you know. But we got a batch of aid ; we got a batch of aid. But, there ‘s a batch of them that sat on their butts and they merely became active when they realized, “ I ‘m traveling to acquire some vaulting horses and. ”

__ : And so that ‘s when they started going involved?

JM: All of sudden their eyes start acquiring broad and its ever like that.

__ : Yea, money ever does that.

JM: Yea, it ‘s ever whenever there ‘s some kind of active thing, you know. Peoples do n’t acquire involved, it puts them to much out at that place, you know. So, they will allow you make it and that ‘s all right, that ‘s all right I do n’t mind that. All I say is that give me the leeway to talk and merely do n’t disown me, you know. Just do n’t state me that he does n’t stand for me. Just say yea, good very well good, he ‘ll talk for me and that ‘s all right.

__ : Yea, precisely. Now, what were the differences between the JACL and NCRR every bit far as their ends to contend or derive damages?

JM: The JACL had an extended web of connexions in Washington which were really valuable, but they did n’t hold the ability to supply the crowds in the street. JACL merely had no mechanisms to set together a candle flame March or mass community meetings, that merely was n’t their manner. JACL did things within JACL. One of the grounds is of class there ‘s a batch of bad feelings left over from the cantonments. A batch of people consider them enu, treasonist, Canis familiariss. Enu means Canis familiaris, you know. Peoples that fingered other people out. So, but still none the less, there were most of their rank are professionals and like I said, they had the connexions, they had lobbyists in Washington. So, those are things you ca n’t disregard. So, really early on, one of the things NCRR and JACL did was to agitate custodies and figure out that we were traveling to work jointly, you know. And if we did n’t, were merely traveling to used against each other.

__ : Right, now the assorted Nipponese American organisations, such as JACL and NCRR, did they have the same techniques for educating the community?

JM: No, ours was, NCRR was much more grassroots. We had a talker ‘s agency traveling out. JACL ne’er had that. You know, they were making things through their publications, but that was all right. I mean we got together and we said we ‘ll grassroots mobilisation and you guys make the lobbying with the.

__ : It was a corporate attempt?

JM: Yea, it was corporate. Another organisation inaudible of class was the NCJAR.

__ : With William Hohri?

JM: Right, right that group, yea. They were really helpful in a sense that they brought up these assorted instances, you know. Every small spot helped.

__ : Yea, ok, alright so, all three NCJAR, NCRR, and JACL had different ways to contend for damages, all jointly?

JM: Yes.

__ : To assist the whole community?

JM: Yea, perfectly, perfectly! You know, that ‘s where the push for, say black reparations and they ca n’t unify, that ‘s one of the jobs, from what I ‘ve seen. Because we ‘ve been really supportive in footings of, you know motions for black reparations. There ‘s no integrity and whereas, we had entire integrity.

__ : Right, ok, makes sense. Now, what were the accelerators that brought you to get down NCRR?

JM: Well, once more, I mean, I think the chief accelerator was the civil rights motion. It ‘s difficult to disregard, set on Television and you had these inquiries being thrown at you, you know. Pretty basic inquiries, you know like, you know, why is n’t black beautiful? That ‘s a good inquiry, you truly think, it sounds really superficial, but when you dig into it, you know why is that? You know because when you start delving deeper, good because we have to, people of colour suffer are here and our criterions are n’t being determined by us. You of all time read Franz Fernand? He ‘s a really interesting author.

__ : I have n’t.

JM: Yea, he says, “ It ever comes on in Europe. ” He says, “ Parthenon. ” And it says, “ And in the settlements, ” he wrote about the African settlements. I think he was, I do n’t cognize. But anyhow, he says, “ The voice comes out of Europe stating Parthenon, but it echoes in the settlements thenon, thenon. ” In other words, that all of us have to, are nil more than, in this state. When we say black is beautiful, you know, when we think about all those things were nil but contemplations of person that sets the phase. The criterions for who we should seek to be and that sets up a whole, you know. You question everything after that, truly, you know. And the Vietnam War did n’t assist either, you know. Why are we in there? What are we making over, it ‘s merely like the stone. “ What the snake pit are we making, you know. ” Something like that.

__ : Now, was NCRR formed from LTPRO and LACCRR?

JM: Very much so because the planning for NCRR came from LACCRR.

__ : Ok, now can you speak about the founding conference of NCRR at Cal State LA?

JM: Yea, reasonably, it was interesting. We had people coming from the, Aleut Indians and we did n’t recognize that they had, they were taken and taken away of Privolof Islands and put into these dingy atrocious canneries in the Alaskan unhearable, so to talk. And one of things about, like in Manzanar, we were lucky plenty to hold the professionals out of Small Tokyo. We had physicians and nurses ; we did n’t hold to trust on the authorities to provide them because these were people coming out of the Small Tokyo community. So we had a certain sum of professionals that were at that place. Whereas the Aleut Indians had no such, you know they did n’t hold, I mean they were merely sort of left to their ain and these topographic points in Alaska could be really cold, dank and you know. So, but anyhow, they showed up and they said we, you know allow us fall in you and whatever, nevertheless you go we ‘ll travel with you. We had the whole thought of NCRR conference was to organize a individual group including the JACL, but it ne’er rather worked out that manner. Possibly the LTPRO influence was excessively strong. You know, everybody was equal strength and we could ‘ve seen NCRR as a true Congress. As it was, about every NCRR turned out to be an LTPRO meeting.

__ : Majority of the people were LTPRO?


__ : Yea, ok, you might hold answered this antecedently, but how did NCRR get the better of the little sums of Nipponese American citizens who opposed damages, how did you ridicule overcome the little sum adversaries of damages?

JM: Yea, good one of them, one of the, we had some little 1s, but they were rather vocal, like Senator Hayakawa. What do you make with person like that, you know. You merely allow them hold their say, you know. They sort of bury themselves, so to talk. You know, and they, I did n’t hold to state anything. Half the, in fact in a manner they were really helpful because they merely took a officially docile, benign Nisei ‘s and turned them into tormenting angry acrimonious individual desiring action.

__ : Right.

JM: Case in point is, run intoing we had in Gardena and we had some anti-redress people at that place. Oh and they were like, they did a beautiful occupation, they riled-up the Nisei so much, our contributions began to increase. We had voluntaries and we sort of want we had a whole caldera in at that place, running up and down, you know. And I ‘ve ever maintained that we should ‘ve direct a thank you note to some of these people, like Lillian Baker and all unhearable. Truly antagonize, I mean they did a occupation I could ne’er make, you know. Traveling at that place and stating them you should fall in us, bombast, bombast, bombast. And they look at me like, all yea, yea, you know. Mr. Radical College Kid, you know. But you got Lillian Baker expression, “ All good, you had a fantastic clip in at that place, ” you know. The Nisei ‘s hardball began to twirl. And this, the control and everything will lose and they ‘d be out at that place shouting, you know.

__ : Yea, now that ‘s the same as Shonin Yamashita. He was in one of the concluding studies from the authorities stating that camp life was truly great, you know. We had bacon every twenty-four hours and yea, that ‘s sort of good story.

JM: Yea, like I said, they served a great intent.

__ : Mm-hum, so you would state that the damages adversaries helped the cause?

JM: I think so because they brought the statement out and if anything, it showed how pathetic they were and how, you know. And the Nisei said, “ This is what happens if you do n’t talk up. ” If you shut-up, these are the 1s people are traveling to believe, all of a sudden.

__ : Oh, adult male, all right how did the Nipponese American community react to the forming of NCRR?

JM: Well, they, you know, they supported us and because they wanted person to take the manner and we were willing to make it.

__ : So, the community backed NCRR more than JACL?

JM: Not needfully, non needfully because it ‘s merely a affair of how you felt, you wanted the conflict won, you know.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: Not needfully.

__ : Sooner state, all right. Did you lobby anyone in Washington, D.C. ?

JM: Mm-hum, I went to the D.C. lobbying trip in 1987. I was a squad captain. I was the 1 that led a group of about five-six people and they gave me the assignments, what clip to demo up and so it was up to me to open the presentation. Then I would show each individual and maintain within the 15 proceedingss that were allotted. I had to read the background of each individual, so I knew who I was speaking to. It was really interesting, really edifying. First of wholly, a batch of people did a batch of work for me to even acquire to that place because person had to make their, you know. We had get to Washington, we had to hold meetings at that place and we had to make all these things. They did n’t merely go on. Once, I was given about seven congress people and it is n’t easy to acquire assignments. The manner we got assignments was, we worked through a spiritual office. It ‘s slightly unhearable of different spiritual groups and they have any say-so, they wanted to stop up into this group and they had plentifulness of juice and they could acquire you assignments with the congresswomans. Otherwise, you ‘re non traveling to acquire it on your ain. If you go on your ain, they said our organisation from so and so, I want to run into congresswoman so and so. Our assignment books are filled, sorry, you know. But you go through the spiritual office or you go through some office and evidently, this is where buttonholing comes in. You come through a same fabrication lobbying, yea. Then the doors open for you, you know. And you look in the hallways of Washington and adult male, it ‘s like a uniform of, they all looked the same. They talk, good looking work forces and silk, black silks, they ‘re all lobbyists, you know stand foring this industry, pharmaceutical, bombast, bombast, bombast. Then you look about and see us. It was pathetic. We were all over the topographic point really, but I worked excessively long on, more frequently than non you do n’t run into the congressperson. You run into his adjutant, but if you do n’t give it your all with the adjutant, you made a bad error because the congressperson does n’t hold clip to look through all the issues brought to him. He ‘s traveling to turn to his adjutant and says, “ What is it? What is this I have to cognize? How should I construct on unhearable? ” And it ‘s unhearable branching, so whatever you want to cognize. So, you have to throw your best, set your best pes forward with the Plutos and convert them. And I think we did a good occupation. We went through one adjutant, we needed to either win them over or neutralize them or maintain them from stating no, you know. One, it was really interesting. We did n’t believe we of all time had a opportunity to even because we did n’t hold spouse with this cat. Make you retrieve a cat named Robert Dorman from Orange County? He was a fire external respiration.

__ : The name sounds familiar.

JM: Conservative. And person merely walked into his office and asked to chew the fat with him. And Dorman says, “ I see your point, ” because I ‘m a republican, you know I ‘m a bombast, bombast, bombast. I tell what, he says, “ I ‘ll merely worsen to vote. ” Which is all right because otherwise he would hold voted. We went to, I think his name is Conti of New England, so one of the provinces, I remember that he had abstained and I went through records and I think he voted for us. And he ‘s republican. Another one, this was in Los Angeles, it was a congresswoman from Colorado and we went in at that place and he was really at that place, you know, he smiled, he says, “ Very glad to run into you folks, ” you know. “ Are you wholly from Denver? ” We said, “ No. ” He says, “ Where you from? ” “ We ‘re from Los Angeles. ” There was this intermission, you know, I said, “ We ‘re here, you know Congressman to thank you for your support of our measure, you know. And wanted to do it a point to see people that are back uping our, you know, our redress measure and be available to reply any inquiries that you might hold. ”

__ : Right.

JM: If non, we ‘re here merely to show our grasp, you know. We ‘ve come a long manner and we appreciate it. He sat at that place with this glassy expression and he knew nil about the measure, nil, nothing. We could ne’er calculate it out, I said, “ Hello, how could you back up our measure if he knows nil? ” Then I realized, what he ‘s making, he ‘s merchandising off.

__ : Trading off what?

JM: His ballot.

__ : For what?

JM: Some other ballot that person that wanted him to vote for damages, he would, willing to, you know, I ‘ll merchandise my ballot and you vote for this. Or you vote for that and I vote for you.

__ : Now, was that common with all the congresswomans?

JM: I think so. I think vote trading is really common. When we went into a meeting with some of the Spark Matsuyaga from Hawaii and we ne’er knew how we were traveling to make the Senate. We had no connexion to the Senate, no ties, no manner to speak to people. Senator Matsumara comes out and says, “ I do n’t desire you cats to trouble oneself with the Senate. ” He says, “ I have the ballots. ” He says, “ I have seventy-something ballots. ” “ Which will overrule a presidential veto. ” If there is any one individual that, there ‘s no one individual that won redress because if any one individual that could do a claim, could be him because he delivered the Senate. Deal cogent evidence. You know, but how did he acquire all those ballots?

__ : Vote trading. Trading ballots.

JM: He had to assure his ballot.

__ : For something else.

JM: For something else. Yea, so I mean, possibly a senator wanted some appropriations measure for, you know, as a naval station or something like that, you know and it comes up for a ballot. You know he has to vote for it.

__ : Yep, precisely. Did n’t cognize about that.

JM: I learned a batch in Washington. That ‘s why I decided, the working people and the common people have no opportunity because we do n’t hold lobbyists and each and every twenty-four hours, even to this well, this is Sunday, but Monday, the halls of Congress are traveling to be filled with these cats in suits stand foring, you know, BP Oil, the pharmaceuticals, wellness attention industries, on and on and on, farm anteroom ‘s. They ‘re traveling to be rolling the aisles and they got assignments. They have assignments. If you and I went up at that place and said we we ‘re from the people to, you know. Yea, I went to, he ‘s traveling to be because the Republicans won the House, this cat ‘s traveling to be up the ladder. Drier, I think his name is Richard Drier. We were supposed to hold a party, so I show up with my squad. So, like he ‘s Republican from San Dimas, he ‘s non at that place and the adjutant says, I said, “ Well, we ‘re supposed to hold a 1:00 assignment. ” and the adjutant says, “ Oh, yes, you were supposed to, were n’t you? But he ‘s non here. ” You know you feel like giving them the royal finger! But, you do n’t, you know. Play the game, you say good, you know.

__ : Reschedule.

JM: Hm.

__ : Were you able to reschedule?

JM: No, the chap really turned and walked off.

__ : Truly?

JM: Yea, he might every bit good merely give me the finger. Yea.

__ : Oh, adult male. Now how did the Nipponese American community react to the deficiency of appropriations after Reagan signed the measure?

JM: That was really chancy clip because on one manus we were traveling to acquire a certain sum of money, it was merely traveling to come out and each and every budget, you know, twelvemonth. It was truly amusing. Up until that clip, the Department of Justice was non our friend, you know if anything. And now all of a sudden, we were coming out on the scene of appropriations bundle as the Department of Justice. That means we ‘re on the same boat, you know. Office of Redress Administration was under the Department of Justice. And how much money can, in other words, we were traveling to acquire the same sum of dough, you know. So all of a sudden now, we became their great friends. They sort of like, “ Oh, these are the people we ‘ve been combating and bad mouthing and now we realize hey, we ‘ve, this is a fantastic thing. ” All of a sudden, they ‘re unhearable like their attitudes changed. So, they were, they came into the community, we ‘re the first 1s to go through out the cheques. I got a community citation. It was screaming, but the cat that got in the last minute, he should hold been involved a batch Oklahoman, was Inouye. And he said a batch to everybody, stating, “ I made a error, I stood out of it because my ethnicity. I realize I should n’t hold done that. I ‘m inquiring you now that it passed that we need to alter its support techniques so by the clip, it ‘s traveling at the present rate, most of the people we want to present will be dead and so I want to do this an entitlement, intending that it ‘s merely a regular, merely like Social Security payments. ” So, he put his cervix on the line and he won it through. But anterior to that, I talked to the Disneyland Hotel, at an educational conference. He was talking so I made it a point to travel up at that place and state, “ Senator Inouye, where are we on damages? ” and he shined me on. He says, “ You ‘ll necessitate to inquire my co-worker, Senator Matsunaga, ” you know. He had washed his custodies.

__ : Why was that?

JM: I have no thought.

__ : That ‘s a small Wyrd.

JM: Mm-hum. Yea, you know, yea. But he came on board, you know, during the, when unhearable so that was, stuck his whole, he sent a beloved co-worker missive to all the Senators.

__ : Better tardily than ne’er.

JM: Yep, that ‘s how I saw it and got it done.

__ : Mm-hum, yea. Now, what were some of the challenges you faced during damages? Either in Washington or Los Angeles or other organisations you were involved with?

JM: Trying to maintain the people ‘s moral high because the procedure of acquiring a measure passed in Congress is really, something like this can really boring clip. They put it into subcommittee and normally the subcommittees are considered the cemetery of measures. So, it sat in the subcommittee for old ages, you know. And we eventually managed to acquire it out but in the interim, you know when, say something like five-year base on ballss is really difficult to maintain the impulse traveling, you know. So, you had to truly fight, non with the general populace because they were really misanthropic to get down with. You know, you cats are n’t traveling to win. But, I mean we ‘re the true trusters to maintain them focused, to maintain them willing to go on, to travel the excess stat mi, to maintain them acquiring another request signed, to make that, that was really hard at times.

__ : Sooner state now, how did you experience about the hearings in Los Angeles? Did you help in prosecuting the interlingual rendition?

JM: Myself and Bert Nakano was in charge of acquiring the people to take part. And boy, we were lucky that catastrophe because we merely had about, well one of the things the procedure was you had to subject a written application. And you had to subject a written, you know, kind of an essay on what you were traveling to speak about, why you want to talk. Ok, you say, you know, none of them are great writes and you know a batch Nisei ‘s are really loath to compose. So, we had to had something like four or five people, you know from NCRR. And JACL did n’t look to hold that much more. So, we were lucky that a calamity.

__ : Why such a low turn-out?

JM: Precisely. We were similar, what happened? So, I could hold a party here and three people come walking through the door, there nutrients, you know. We were looking at a catastrophe. So, at one of the meetings, I said, “ We have a low bend, for whatever ground, I do n’t cognize. A really low turnout. ” We ca n’t hold that go on. So, everybody in this room is traveling to hold to subject an application. So, right so and at that place, I got 10 or 12.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: Now we got, I was n’t traveling, you know, that ‘s the last thing I want to make. I put on my ain, you know. Probably had about 10 or 12. Then we put out a through an option, in newspapers, workshops. Come to the workshops, we ‘ll assist you compose. So, we showed at the workshops, believing cipher would demo up, you know, how could the response unhearable. I do n’t cognize, something triggered it all. All of a sudden people kept coming, that darn door, six, eight, ten, twelve, you know.

__ : It kept on intensifying?

JM: Keep coming, right. So, I had to acquire unhearable on the line, “ Can you come down and assist? We need you to, you know. ” So, yea I, we were madly naming people, you know, fill out the signifiers, you know. They unhearable, like unhearable all of a sudden, there they were, up to 18-20, you know, merely NCRR, so JACL, they got this last minute haste. Yea, so all of a sudden, now we got about 40-47 people. Which is, you know.

__ : Still better than three or six. Now, Kathy sort of brought this up a small, but did n’t truly travel into item. The committee hearings at dark. Can you lucubrate on that a small spot?

JM: Well, it helps that it was being held in the afternoon at the California, I do n’t cognize the exact, it was like California, non a unhearable, kind of like a, medium house, something like that. It ‘s right business district, non that far off from J-town. But it was in the afternoon. It ‘s NCRR ; we felt that we wanted the hearings to take topographic point in the community. We do n’t desire to travel to you to, you come to us, now, you know. We were truly a tit-for-a cheapness with people, you know. Him and I were, you know, you bring it down to where we feel comfy, where we could acquire talkers and you know. So, we had it at the Little Tokyo Towers and we had people willing to talk from, you know that did n’t needfully state many things that merely was, we wanted an unfastened mic.

__ : Sooner state, how did your household respond to your activism?

JM: Well, I would wish to believe they were proud of me. Of class, my sisters were assisting me, one time they realized what was go oning. One of them went about and gathered signatures and did things like that. My female parent realized it was some hope for me after all. It was unhearable and of class when we were around what can you state? You win, you win.

__ : And that they were really enraptured?

JM: They got the $ 20,000.

__ : Now, did they lose a batch during the emptying and resettlement?

JM: Well, in a manner, the conditions were so desperate when they came out after the cantonments that, the whole state of affairs was different than we, when we came out after the cantonment. Nowadays everybody goes for higher instruction, we had California CSU ‘s, community college, you went to a trade school, or if you ‘re truly smart, you went to UCLA, that was it. Inaudible Cal State Long Beach, Fullerton, LA, none of them. And other than that, you went to work. And you went to work, in those yearss, it was, all work was reasonably humble. We worked in mills, we worked in infirmaries, making clean up and you work hard unhearable. And in the sense, they lost a batch of things. It ‘s merely they had to come out and work. Their whole lives were spent merely seeking to, you know maintain, seeking to, because we had the agencies of nutriment. They were back uping us and people did n’t hold the safety nets that you sort of have today. And I could see an atrocious batch at that place. We do n’t hold Medicare, we do n’t hold, we truly did n’t hold those things. So, you ‘re reasonably much on your ain. But I was at a university in those yearss, could n’t acquire a occupation. I mean, if you did n’t desire to work, it ‘s because you did n’t desire to work. You know, the aircraft mills are engaging three displacements. Inaudible. Make sense that they, for us, it was unhearable college instruction if you wanted it unhearable. But so they says they could n’t, but the worlds when they came out unhearable adversities at that clip.

__ : Right, what school did you travel to? Or university?

JM: I wound up traveling to LACC, Los Angeles Community College because it was near to where I was populating. And about four blocks off and I did n’t cognize what to make with my clip and I drove by there one clip and I saw a small bantam dance traveling on and state, “ Hey, that sounds great. I think unhearable, ” you know. It was sloping out into Vermont Street and I said, “ Darn, how long has this been traveling on? ” So, the following twenty-four hours I knew I showed up at LACC and they inaudible join us, you know.

__ : Sooner state.

JM: I went to one category and male child, the teacher was barbarous, golly. He told everybody, you know. He gave us an assignment and says, “ One of you traveling to do it, ” he told everybody that bluffly. He says, “ Judgment by the work I see here, person ‘s traveling to do it. ” He says, “ Inaudible, there ‘s one cat that ‘s traveling to do it. Merely one cat, though in here. Who ‘s Matsuki? ” I said, “ Oh, that ‘s me. ” He says, “ You ‘re traveling to do it. ”

__ : Is that where you got your history grade?

JM: I went to LACC so went to Cal State LA and I got a grade in societal scientific disciplines and so I got my Masterss in the societal scientific disciplines, besides concentrating on history and political scientific disciplines unhearable.

__ : Oh, all right alright and make you see yourself an militant?

JM: Oh, perfectly!

__ : And why is that?

JM: Ah, until this twenty-four hours, I merely battle for societal justness and I was like unhearable and in this society, you got to. I think you have to.

__ : I agree.

JM: Not a bad thing. It what makes this state travel because if you do n’t, you know awful things can go on.

__ : Is there anything you would wish to add, possibly that we have missed about your activism?

JM: Well, non truly, unhearable screens, yea like I do n’t repent anything, you know. I think, I merely hatred to state people beaten down is truly regretful. You know, I ‘ve been at that place all my life and or class, it comes from my experiences at Manzanar and things of that nature. Peoples have asked me about my activities in damages and all that rather frequently, many times. I ‘ve spoken to the public rather frequently unhearable, but one of things I ‘m really proud of and I ‘m unhearable portions my clip is in the brotherhood. I was a brotherhood steward besides for unhearable for approximately ten old ages, which is really unusual for an Asiatic adult male, at the clip. I was the lone Asiatic stand foring unhearable. I ne’er saw anyone else around and my base group, the people that voted for me into office were, it was n’t Asians, there were n’t any Asians working in the aerospace industry at the clip. It was adult females and inkinesss and unhearable, what have you. I would ever win, 26 to 1, which is non bad. I had the privilege of talking up for, you know, these people and found that we were all descent human existences. But they had these, prejudices and privileges, you could n’t believe. They were absurd, but because they believes it, some of these protests and merely lax and all of that and yet each and every individual was descent individual. You know. They were bird of Joves or something like that. They merely were, merely take the incorrect manner and I could see that really clearly. And so, whenever I ne’er regretted any of things I ‘ve done. I do repent some of it but in footings of working for the community, for societal justness and for the general good of the people, you know unhearable.

__ : Right, would you make it all over once more?

JM: Absolutely! In a pulse!

__ : Good, good. That concludes our conversation with Jim Matsuoka on November 7, 2010 sing his activism during the Nipponese American Redress Movement.

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