This thesis researches and analyzes the comparings between two great dramas Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion, which have much influence in the history of literature, in order to comparing their constructs of love, which is chief intent of this thesis. The ground why I write this sort of thesis is that they lived in different states and had different linguistic communications and civilization, but the epoch they lived are similar, particularly they dead in the same year-1616 BC-that is so charming. For this ground, I checked a batch of stuffs about their plants and read their dramas several times. In this thesis, I will seek to happen their constructs of love, and experience about the wonderful and glorious clip they lived. In the procedure of finishing my thesis, there are many troubles: at foremost, the theses about Shakespeare ‘ s plants are easy to happen and many of them are so mature that I can larn a batch from them, nevertheless, the figure of Tang ‘ s dramas is merely four, and there are a few of documents speaking about his dramas, so I read tonss of old books about The Peony Pavilion. As the popularisation of analyzing the surveies of Chinese ancient civilisation, the books and works approximately Tang ‘ s dramas are going increasing. In add-on, the ancient manner prose are difficult to understand the connotation significance, non advert the interlingual rendition into English. Finally, I overcome the troubles and larn more cognition about literature in that age.
Tang Xianzu, the most talented dramatist of the Ming dynasty, best-known for his chef-d’oeuvre Mudan ting [ The Peony Pavilion ] , was born at 1550, BC and died at 1616, BC. At the same twelvemonth, an English great maestro in play, William Shakespeare ( 1564-1616 ) , was died every bit good. Judging from the position of the history of universe ‘ s literature, they are two most superb stars on play in the South and the East at the same clip. Meanwhile, there are two romantic love narrative dramas, which sound like each other, written by these two uninfluenced writers- ” Romeo and Julie ” and “ The Peony Pavilion ” . They have many similarities in subject, drama ‘ s struggles, images of characters, etc.
They sometimes are similar, and sometimes are different: they have same feelings on love, and they are both romantic, nevertheless, they are non same. The grounds are, to a great extent, linked to their different natural and societal environment. The same parts are besides concerned with the environment they lived and be influenced. Then, it is utile, and even of import to compare their backgrounds and analysis them for farther reading of their dramas and these two Masterss.
This thesis consists of four parts, the first portion introduces the backgrounds of Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion, the 2nd portion surveies these two dramas themselves analysing about their alone subjects, dramatic struggles, separating characters and the beautiful linguistic communications, the 3rd portion explores their constructs of love, which is the chief portion of this thesis, and the last portion is decision.
a…? . The comparing between backgrounds of these two dramas
2.1 The backgrounds of Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet was written in the earlier phase of Shakespeare. At that clip, with the consolidation of Elizabeth and the initial comfortable capitalistic economic system, the Renaissance reached the height, though it started in Britain tardily. Therefore, Romeo and Juliet is a calamity so far as to the terminal of a personal love narrative is concerned, but sing its secret plan look, ideological tendency and love procedure, this play full of people-oriented humanistic spirit and uplifting optimism feelings. In this civilization background, the love between Romeo and Juliet, which is an effusion of enthusiasm, pure and inexperienced person has spread all over the universe in existent, warm and consecutive ways.
2.2 The backgrounds of The Peony Pavilion
On the east side of Earth, where lived a dramatist named Tang Xianzu, he lived in the same period of Shakespeare, which was the period of unwanted development by the centralised feudal monarchy of bossy China. In Song Dynasty, there were two waies researching the Confucian dreamer doctrine, one belonged to Cheng Yi and Zhu Xi who standed for nonsubjective idealism way, the other belonged to Lu Jiuyuan and Wang Yangming who represented the subjective idealism way. But at the age Tang lived, Cheng and Zhu had become dogmatic and stiff, meanwhile, Lu and Wang had topped their ideas. That is to state that the characters of The Peony Pavilion, Liu Mengmei and Du Li’niang could non prosecute their ideal love and felicity through existent universe merely like the manner of Romeo and Juliet, the lone manner they could utilize was through semblance and in the shade universe. Traditionally talking, in the kingdom of Chinese literature and art, it is an ageless subject to execute the love up to fondness and sexual. If this beautiful sincere fondness is non merely destroyed and dissimilated by the feudal moralss, societal political relations and external environment, but besides unable to postulate against doing the fondness free, people ‘s emotion and chase are frequently revealed with the aid of semblance and shade universe.
a…? . The comparing between Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion
In 1959, a celebrated composer Tian Han, who composed China ‘s national vocal, visited the memorial of Yuming Tang Hall of Tang ‘s in Lin Chuan, Jiangxi Province, the hometown of Tang Xianzu. He composed a verse form, which expressed that Tang and Shakespeare were matched in accomplishment and strength about dramas, and besides Du and Juliet, the two heroines, were a Roland for an Oliver.
3.1 The comparing of subjects between Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion
Pulling the stuff of their dramas from predecessor ‘s rich literature heritage and induing progressive ideas, that is the common features of Tang and Shakespeare on the subject dealing.
Romeo and Juliet had drawn its stuffs from an Italian antediluvian fable and consulted the long verse form The Tragical History of Romeus and Juliet which was inserted from the fable by English poet Arthur Brooke. Shakespeare made procedure and reformed this legend narrative, turned this pure love calamity into a celebrated drama embodied the Renaissance and profoundly dag the societal roots of the calamity: the ultimate ground doing the lovers dead were the persecution of feudal codifications of moralss and feudal hatred filled with inundation and guilts. Therefore, Shakespeare made this ancient fable narrative go a new arm to propagate humanitarianism.
The Peony Pavilion, another name the notes of returning life, drawn its stuffs from the story-tellers ‘ book The Notes of Li’niang ‘ Returning Life of Ming Dynasty. Through the narrative ‘s heroine Du ‘ s calamity in existent universe and amusing in semblance, The Peony Pavilion written by Tang profoundly exposed the ruthless of feudal ethical codifications, displayed the finding of Rebels to interrupt the cyberspaces of feudal ethical codifications and sang the congratulationss of the dogged battle for release and ideal matrimony. It was the first drama that exposed the require of personal release in Chinese ancient literature. To analysis these two dramas ‘ procedure of subject fluxing distortion, it is clear that Tang and Shakespeare are both good at pulling nutriment from each state ‘s rich literature heritage and transporting frontward the progressive ideas and successful literature experiences. Meanwhile, they did good in pull offing the old subjects with ain ideas to reflect the societal world and contradictions. The subjects of these two dramas are ancient and distinguishable, but they to the full reflect the spirit of epoch when Tang and Shakespeare lived-that is praising the release and love freedom, faulting the hypocritical and cold-hearted feudal traditional construct and moralss.
3.2 The comparing of dramatic struggles between Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion
As we all known, struggles reflect subject. These two dramas ‘ struggles are diverse for the ground that life and ideas of Tang and Shakespeare were different.
The struggles of Romeo and Juliet are the contradictions between humanistic love ideal and feudal household hatred and matrimony thoughts. Romeo and Juliet were born in two feudal household with deathly feud. For the household ‘s benefit side, they were sworn enemies, for the personal love side, they were lovers. After Romeo was exiled, Capulet counted on his authorization of the leader of the household seting his girl ‘s wish and emotion aside and autocratically arrange Juliet ‘s matrimony. Confronting with the imperativeness of feudal forces, Romeo and Juliet fought sagely and courageously against as the terminal of decease for love. The basic ground caused this brace dead was the feudal household hatred and feudal matrimony thought. Shakespeare assailed the medieval feudal system product-family hatred and feudal matrimony. At the terminal of this drama, the male parents of two households rapidly waked up to their mistake when confronting with their kids ‘s dead organic structures, so they became reconciled. Finally, love wined that means the triumph of humanistic love ideal.
Since Tang was profoundly influenced by Yangming School of Mind, which became one of the dominant Confucianism schools in the mid, late Ming period and Qing period China and Taizhou School, which went to leftism of Wang Yangming, he put frontward his theory of up to fondness, utilizing fondness as ideological arm numbering against the Orthodox doctrine of Zhu Xi and Cheng Yi. It is people ‘s love and desire that the fondness means, which divided into good and bad. The chase of broad love in The Peony Pavilion belongs to the former. While, it is Orthodox doctrine which means feudal moralss that fatter and contain this good fondness. In The Peony Pavilion, it showed as the control of Du Li’niang by her parents and her instructor, every bit good as the heavy psychological burden shaped by the feudal ethical codification herself. The Peony Pavilion profoundly revealed the struggles between fondness and Orthodox doctrine to the full corroborating the consequence of fondness. As the forward of The Notes of The Peony Pavilion said, Peoples who are like Li’niang are lovers. The love comes out from unknown ways, but since it appears, the love will go deep in bosom. The love can do unrecorded people dead and dead people alive back. Whoever can non alter unrecorded to decease or decease to populate, he is the 1 that non love to the top.i??a¦‚a??a??eˆ…i??a??a??e°“a?‹??‰??…a??eˆ?aˆ‚??…a??cY??‰ˆeµ·i??a?ˆa?ˆeˆ??·±i??c”Yeˆ…a??a»??»i???»a??a»?c”Yaˆ‚c”Yeˆ?a??a??a?Z?»i???»eˆ?a??a??a¤?c”Yeˆ…i??cs†e?z??…a?‹e‡?a?Yaˆ‚ — ?‘?e‡??±¤???c?-aˆSaˆ?c‰?a??a?e®°aˆ‰e??e®°aˆ‹i?‰It was the triumph of fondness that it could do decease alive back.
3.3 The comparing of characters between Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion
The subject ( anti-feudal and fighting for the release ) of these two monumental plants are chiefly embodied by the heroes, particularly their heroines-Du Li’niang and Juliet. They both suffered more than heroes in order to demo richer interior universe, more courageous spirit for contending, and more perfect characters. Even there are similar procedure of love awaken, they have separating characteristics.
William Shakespeare regarded Juliet as the incarnation of love, demoing his humanistic love ideal. At the mask, Juliet and Romeo meeting, she fell love in him and felt how fantastic the life is. However, when she knew the one she loved is boy of Montague, she worried, My merely love sprung from my lone hatred! Too early seen unknown, and cognize excessively late! Colossal birth of love it is to me, That I must love a loathed enemy. As for her, it is nonmeaningful for the rank of aristocracy, whereas, what is of import is Romeo who is regarded as the perfect individual. It means that she had broken the ironss of old ideas and a quenchless forces raised up from her hot bosom. Regardless of the oppose of her household, they pledged to get married with the aid of Friar Laurence ; after Romeo killing her brother, she was angry, but did n’t alter her fondness ; she was forced to get married Paris and played dead against her parents ‘ order ; when she waked up, she found Romeo has been dead for her, so, she died for love to show show her great and unchanging trueness. In the procedure of revolting her feudal household and control, she grew up to the repel of this period.
Du Li’niang ‘ s male parent was one of feudal authorities functionaries. He purely educated feudal when Li’niang was kid. For case, Li’niang would be blamed if she took a walk in garden, or she dressed apparels which had braces of flowers and birds. Li’niang lived as a bird fettering in a coop named feudal. Merely in dreams could she satisfied her down desire. Her first measure from self-awaken to contending against the feudal moralss and prosecuting for the release of love was sing the garden. Seeking the dream stressed Li’niang looked frontward to the ideal of love. She sang a vocal of freedom, If I were free to pick my bloom or grass, If I were free to take to populate or decease, I would vacate to destine without a suspiration, which is the farther development of her rebellious character. Then, she got lovesickness to decease. For the interest of outstanding her character and chase for the felicity, Tang made Li’niang ‘ s shade meeting with her lover, Liu Mengmei. In the terminal, she become alive marrying Liu Mengmei. The procedure of traveling to decease and so returning to life to the full expressed the rebellious character of this girl of the high household.
These two heroines are both the Rebel of feudal moralss and the searcher of freedom and felicity. But they are typical, for the ground of the manner of rebelling-Juliet put it into pattern, stand foring the energy of life, which was come from the Renaissance of the new and developing middle class and the spirit of the times believing oneself ‘ s strength ; Du Li’niang had the yearning of love every bit much as Juliet, but she could n’t reach with immature work forces merely like Juliet, because she lived in the boudoir isolated off from the outside universe. All she could make was finishing her love ideal via dreams and the action of shade. Judging from this, she had the inclination towards via media. It is natural and right that Du Li’niang is modest and reserved ; and Juliet is warm and open-minded, which was formed by the differences of times and personal ideas between Shakespeare and Tang.
3.4 The comparing of linguistic communications between Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion
These two dramas non merely shaped the immortal images of two braces of lovers, but besides impressed us with the unique and characteristic linguistic communications. Both of two dramas had the poetic linguistic communications. That seems to turn out a jurisprudence that superb dramatists must be first-class poets foremost.
There are many sentences holding verse form characteristics in the book of Romeo and Juliet, such as the graceful duologue when Juliet was waiting for Romeo ‘s assignment, and the classical duologue between Romeo and Juliet in Scene II, Act II. In Romeo and Juliet, Shakespeare applied varied sorts of figures of address, such as rime ( initial rhyme, vowel rhyme, consonant rhyme, dual rime of antitheses, quatrain every rime, eight lines rime, sonnets rhyme and end rime ) , beautiful metaphor and wordplay. In this paper, I will take wordplay as a brief analysis. Pun is the clever or humourous usage of a word that has more than one significance, or of words that have different significances but sound the same, which is one of chief figures of address Shakespeare must utilize in every drama. In add-on, it is Romeo and Juliet that has the figure of wordplaies most amounting to 175. These wordplaies can play a better map of uncovering subject, depicting characters, demoing the relationship between characters, advancing the development of secret plan, foretelling characters ‘ destiny and the construction every bit good.
e.g. At the mask, Romeo refused to dancing and said with Mercutio,
Not I, believe me: you have dancing places
With agile colloidal suspensions ; I have a psyche of lead
So bets me to the land I can non travel. ( William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet Scene IV Act I )
In the three lines, there are two sorts of address, one is pun ; the other is contrast.
Pun-soul and sole Here used the latter usage: sole has same sound with psyche, holding the significances of the underneath of places and the religious portion of a individual.
Contrast-soul and sole It is caused by wordplay ; there are two ways:
( 1 ) You have dancing places, with agile colloidal suspensions ; I have a psyche ( exclusive ) of lead. That means that others have light places that can dance easy, but my places is so heavy ;
( 2 ) You have dancing places, with agile colloidal suspensions ( psyches ) ; I have a psyche of lead. That means that others dance merrily, but I am with a heavy bosom.
These sentences vividly describe Romeo was worried a batch. This sort of sentences is like a bead in the pail. Shakespeare ‘s plants are filled up with address which makes eternal.
The Peony Pavilion wins its triumph by another characteristic-a hazy beauty. Tang created a set of images about the paeony marquee which incorporating abundant significances. This set of images composed chiefly of the paeony marquee in dreams, including the side of lake and rock, the bank of the paeony marquee, the fount of the paeony railing every bit good as workss such as withy and prune tree. The images of the paeony marquee were the catalyzer and the foil of their love. The paeony is both dignified and graceful, elegant and poised. Tang applied the image of paeony for reflecting Du ‘ s beauty and young person. In this drama, withy and prune tree were their love items, the things that poets love to show in poetic signifier every bit good as the paeony. These images were filled with the beauty of poetic spirit. Furthermore, they besides changed as the development of secret plan enriching the content and signifier. That is a great ground for passing down a good repute to a 100 hereafter coevalss.
a…? . The comparing between their constructs of love from their dramas
4.1 Similarities of their constructs of love from their dramas
No affair England or Chinese feudal matrimony system, many immature people were confined by the feudal moralss. Harmonizing to the regulations of traditional matrimony, a matrimony should be of equal rank and arranged by parents ‘ order and on the matcher ‘s word. Tang and Shakespeare both opposed this sort of matrimony. Shakespeare displayed all sorts of battles prosecuting the matrimony freedom in his dramas and the mentality of matrimony values. The outstanding representative of anti-rationalism Tang Xianzu emphasized that the theory of up to fondness. He extremely praised the spirit of romanticism and the true feelings. He besides regarded the fondness was one of most natural things in humanity. He showed loving attention for humanity by the congratulations of love and the cherish and chase for the fugitive clip.
Both Shakespeare and Tang praised aloud the changeless love, sneering the false fondnesss. In Shakespeare ‘s plants, he maintained that pure love should non attach to count things. And Tang wrote The Peony Pavilion as a romantic love narrative through life and decease. This sort of love should be honored by worlds non simply Shakespeare and Tang.
These two dramatists all held a construct of humanitarianism love and against asceticism. Shakespeare expressed his progressing sentiment towards females ‘ celibacy. Owing to the influence of Yangming School of Mind, Tang affirmed the reason of sexual passion. This drama described Du met in secret with Liu and had a good clip prompted by her natural sexual passion. ( An Amazing Dream, Scene Ten ) The thought of poeticizing the sexual passion was advanced at that clip.
4.2 Differentiations of their constructs of love from their dramas
Shakespeare ‘s construct of love was optimistic, which was influenced by the developing comfortable of England capitalist category. The cardinal factor was the Renaissance humanitarianism environment that was good to his plants. Shakespeare ‘s construct of love had a spirit of optimism that love was so great that it could crush all barriers. In add-on, Shakespeare was so optimistic that bad adult male could alter by the justness and love, and he was tolerant to human ‘s defects.
Tang ‘s construct of love was via media. Compare with Shakespeare, Tang lived in Ming Dynasty that feudal system was excessively strong to agitate it, though capitalist economy had been developing. He was seeking to happen a new manner to equilibrate the love and traditional moralss. In his head, official calling was the mark whether life values realized or non. As The Peony Pavilion described, Du and Liu lived together eventually because Liu had the scholarly award and His Majesty helped them. Tang would compromise to accomplish his ideal via dreams when the traditional moralss was so strong. Therefore, his plants had some sort of tragic spirit.
a…¤ . Decision
Populating in the similar clip, Tang Xianzu and William Shakespeare both had the construct of love against the traditions. They all eulogized the pure and loyal fondnesss and besides criticized false fondnesss and asceticism. However, due to the different civilization environment and societal ranks, their construct of love had features. Regardless of Tang Xianzu in East and William Shakespeare in West, they made a bold test for the free-based fondnesss, and ruthlessly criticized the feudal ethics-that was progressing and modern at that epoch. Their humanistic ideals and appeals of personality benefit all of worlds, which is deserving reading once more and once more.
Through these braces of comparing, we can by and large experience the alone Literature appeals of Romeo and Juliet and The Peony marquee, and besides we can happen the great accomplishment they had made. These two dramas are brilliant eyeglassess reflecting in the river of universe literature.