Since Christopher Columbus found America, people have moved to this continent with so called American Dream. Early colonist of America dreamt about freedom from swayer, holding sensible life which is that as they work, as they get. However this significance of American dream eventually transformed into more material manner as clip went by. Peoples started to hold more mercenary dream which is holding a bigger house, a nicer auto etc. The pure significance and intent of ‘American Dream ‘ corrupted because of philistinism. Furthermore, as American dream more focussed on success of material life, this becomes unreal for normal people. In other words, American dream has become ‘illusion ‘ which ca n’t be come true existent life.
Through this paper, I will see how the corrupted American dream appears in two modern American novels-The great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald and Death of a gross revenues adult male by Arthur Miller. The great Gatsby was published 1922 in United Sates which is called the ‘Roaring mid-twentiess ‘ . This clip, all people in America enjoy the utmost mercenary lives, they turned into excessive before they ran into deep slack. So in this novel, reader can see how affluent people Acts of the Apostless and thinks in this clip of period. And Death of a salesman is a drama written in 1949 when a somewhat after the period of deep slack. Though there ‘s little clip spread in these two plants, both trade with societal context in early 20th America and people in that period who pursue alleged ‘American dream ‘ . Then show the destiny that their dreams could n’t assist going an semblance in that societal context.
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In many facets, tonss of similarities can be found in these two novels. The chief character, Willian Loman and Jay Gatsby have lots in common in footings of their vision and end of their life, how they conceive others. And non merely these supporters, but besides environing of two and societal background have tonss of similarities. However, differences can be found between two plants when profoundly analyze their intent of prosecuting their dream and how encompassing character influences and respond to their supporters. So, I will see these similarities and differences in three aspects-characters, secret plan, societal background and subject through this paper. Then answer a inquiry ‘why both characters failed to prosecute their American dream ‘ .
2. Fictional characters
2.1 Supporters: Jay Gatsby and Willy Loman
In both narrative, supporters have been seeking for American dream for a life clip. Jay Gatsby and Willy Loman were non from upper category, they made their ain luck. They both have strong belief of going successful at the terminal. For both, American dream they pursue is entirely focused on going wealthy and popular. This perceptual experience becomes debatable and finally leads them to neglect.
Willy is a salesman who merely consider about being a successful and popular salesman in his company. These sorts of end of life were formed of influence from his male parent who was the success salesman. And his desire of being a rich and his mere belief of going affluent adult male came from success from his older brother who made a luck from the diamond mines. His male parent and brother were typical American who achieved their American dream by acquiring a opportunity in the comfortable clip of America. This fact made Willy to believe he can besides go one of them and this belief became even a load to him. As Willy believes that accomplishing American dream is being rich like his brother and male parent, he put these sorts of belief into his boies, Biff and Happy. He keeps promoting them to go outstanding figure in the society, he failed to inquire them about what these childs truly want to be and how they want to set up their lives, and this became debatable at the terminal.
GatsbyA is a immature adult male, who is perfectly one of the richest work forces in the town ‘West egg ‘ . His figure described as marvelous in the early portion of the novel. However, he is non the 1 like Tom Buchanan who was borned and raised from affluent household. He was in poorness in his young person which made Gatsby to set up desire to go wealth. He longed for his new life for his life clip and he decided to do him by himself. He gave new name ‘Jay Gatsby ‘ and besides made new history of Gatsby. Not merely made up his yesteryear he besides made himself to believe what he made was existent. In this facet, Gatsby was more proactive and aggressive to do his dream to go existent compared to Willy in “ Death of a salesman ” .A Willy devoted his life to accomplish his dream, nevertheless, Gatsby changed his whole individuality to do himself to suit in his dream. Gatsby besides view himself as the hero of the great love narrative by doing Daisy into perfect and pure lady in his narrative of life. Daisy Buchanan is married woman of Tom Buchanan and besides cousin of Nick Caraway who besides from upper category. When they foremost met, Gatsby fell in love with her. And he says all the things he made have merely one intent, to love Daisy and get married her. Though he emphasizes his love which can warrant all his behaviour, this love ca n’t be determined like a true love of Romeo from ‘Romeo and Juliet ‘ . The esteem toward her was made because of her background- rich, grace and luxury. He admire affluent aura of Daisy non Daisy herself and had though that she can be a perfect lady of his ain novel. He believed he plays a function of knight who saved lady-Daisy-from evil character-Tom.
He keeps stating himself that the ground why he wants to acquire rich and popular is merely for his love Daisy, and warranting all behaviour he made-A administering intoxicant and trading in illegal securities. In short, the motive of Gatsby ‘s dream was based on false belief.
So Willy and Gatsby both have dream to go successful but how they create their dream and why they had that sorts of dream were different. The ground that Willy want to go wealthy was inspired by his surrounding, male parent and his brother. And Gatsby ‘s dream was made superficially because of the love toward Daisy. Willy literally devoted his whole life to accomplish his dream to go rich and popular gross revenues adult male, but he failed. Out of his attempts, he found unseeable wall to forestall him to make end. On the other manus, Gatsby partially become what he wanted to be. He eventually became ‘The rich and great Gatsby ‘ by altering his yesteryear and even his individuality to do his dream true. However, it ca n’t be said that he accomplish his American dream successfully as he failed to acquire love of Daisy and all the admiration land he built revealed to be fake at the terminal.
As Gatsby made up his individuality and construct his ain wonderland, he tries to do himself to looks like an guiltless immature adult male to others. However, these attempts made Gatsby something unnatural and leery. When Nick foremost met Gatsby, Nick realizes unnatural manner of Gatsby speaks. “ His luxuriant formality of address merely missed being absurd. Some clip before he introduced himself I ‘d acquire a strong feeling that he was picking his words with attention. “ ( 40 ) This line shows that Gatsby tries to do himself in a certain manner. He wants to make himself as great, immature, outstanding figure.
To carry through his figure, he adds romantic image by loving Daisy with passion. That is Gatsby makes Daisy an idealistic perfect lady who ca n’t non suitable for existent. Daisy is non a perfect figure to carry through the phantasy of Gatsby. That is, Gatsby does n’t love Daisy herself but he loved the thought of misss like Daisy. He was seeking for a figure who acts like an object to be loved by him. Then she found Daisy as a perfect one. Or he wants to happen a good ground to warrant all the morally corrupted behaviours.
This self-justifying can be besides seen in Willy. Willy, even though he is no longer any outstanding salesman, tries to do himself as renowned salesman. He one time a professional salesman when he was immature, but after he got older, he is no longer in the topographic point he used to be. Though he was one time a successful adult male, he ca n’t be said as a good male parent or good hubby. His two boies were under the force per unit area of Willy ‘s outlook which made them to prosecute their dreams. And her married woman, though she stands by Willy for a life clip, Willy merely ignored her and even cheated on her faithful married woman. However he does n’t desire to acknowledge that he made errors in the relationship with his household. To warrant his behaviours, he sticks to the fact that he was and is a successful sale adult male. Even after, he acquire fired from his office where he perpetrate his whole life, he keeps stating himself that he is still renowned and successful. This self-justifying and strong but false belief leads these two hero make tragic consequence at the terminal of the narrative.
2.2 Other Fictional characters
2.2.1 Nick Carraway.
The of import character in the Great Gatsby is Daisy Buchanan and Nick Carraway. Nick is the novel ‘s storyteller and at the same clip merely beloved friend of Gatsby. Nick is the 1 who describes the cryptic character Gatsby. As a storyteller of The Great Gatsby, every Gatsby ‘s behaviours view through Nick ‘s eyes. So, readers merely know about Gatsby from his point of position. Since he met Gatsby, he wants to see him in a good manner. He tries to understand Gatsby ‘s behaviour, though others suspects approximately him as times goes by. He expresses understanding of him after he learns about Gatsby ‘s history. So, readers who merely learn Gatsby from Nick ‘s voice, of course have commiseration toward Gatsby.
And non merely Nick plays a storyteller in this novel, he is besides an of import environing character of Gatsby. He is the 1 who made a opportunity to reunite Gatsby with Daisy. Besides, Nick is merely 1 who stay Gatsby ‘s funeral. Nick become understanding Gatsby ‘s state of affairs and have sympathy of his life. Though Gatsby was the great figure who is ever in the center of public eyes, he ends up being entirely. Nick was the 1 who unfeignedly cares about Gatsby and takes attention of him after his decease.
2.2.2 Daisy Buchanan
Daisy is a beautiful immature adult female from Louisville. The chief function of hers is the object of Gatsby ‘s love. Daisy was the popular immature miss who was born in affluent gamily. This equity was the ground to Gatsby fell in love with her. Though they loved each others, Daisy decided travel and acquire married Tom after Gatsby gone for military service. So, Gatsby devoted his whole life to win Daisy back from Tom. To accomplish this end, he decide to go rich and popular, In the world, nevertheless, Daisy is non the 1 that Gatsby imagine. She is far short of Gatsby ‘s ideal type of lady. She is yes, beautiful and charming, but she is timeserving and has shallow thought. Nick characterizes her as a perfect animal, merely like a lady in the typical heroic narrative, but Daisy was merely ordinary adult female who has deficiency of moral sense. She hit adult female without a sense of guilt, and leaves Gatsby without vacillation when he is in needed.
That is who Gatsby loved as non Daisy herself, but the image of her. That means, Daisy can be shifted by other figure. Nick says that “ there must hold been the minutes even that afternoon when Daisy tumbled short of his dreams-not through her ain mistake, but because of the prodigious verve of his semblance. It had gone beyond her, beyond everything. He has thrown himself into it with a originative passion, adding to it all the clip, adorning it out with every bright plume that drifted his manner. “ ( 87 ) Though this portion, it turns out that Daisy is non love of his life like a authoritative love affair, she was the great semblance that Gatsby made by himself to adorn his life more attractive or to do some alibi of what he done to derive his life. Gatsby tries to warrant himself from faulting of his immoral life by concealing under truly traveling love narrative.
2.2.3 Biff Loman
Biff Loman is one of Willy ‘s boies. Biff represents high outlook of Willy at the same clip he shows how Willy had tragic errors in his personal life. Though Biff ever had immense outlook from his male parent, he failed to carry through Willy ‘s outlook. Willy believes he was kid of his proud, he making absolutely good in the school and even popular among others. The ground why Willy put load of outlook to Biff is that he desire to acquire vicarious satisfaction from his boy. As Willy knows inside himself that his life ca n’t be said successful and there ‘s rare opportunity for him to do immense return, he want to be satisfied by seeing his boy ‘s life. However this program besides failed because what Willy believed about his boy is really non existent. There ‘s obvious grounds that show Biff is non the distinguished kid in his school, Willy keeps stating everything is oaky every bit long as Biff stay popular which is the of import value to Willy. Biff was really a normal pupil who failed travel acquire scholarship because he got failed in math category. Finally Biff tells Willy that he is non the one Willy imagined, and moves out West to happen his work by his custodies. This thing makes Willy to acquire frustrated in the terminal. And this plays immense influence of his self-destruction.
Punch can be compared to Daisy in the manner that both dramas function as an ideal image by Gatsby and Willy. Though Biff and Daisy was non perfect animal, Willy and Gatsby made them hone which are deserving to look up to or give outlook. Willy believes Biff can go great figure like his older brother. Giving excessively much outlook into his boy, besides gives a immense load to Biff. Willy want to Biff carry through his unrealized American dream. In this sense, Daisy plays a function as perfect image for Gatsby. By utilizing her as loveable lady in Gatsby ‘s narrative, he fulfills his dream and makes his life more romantic.
However, Biff and Daisy ca n’t play their function. Not like outlook of Willy and Gatsby, they were far from semblance of Willy and Gatsby. Biff ran off to West and go ordinary husbandman in the terminal. And Daisy chose to run from Gatsby and travel back to go Tom ‘s married woman. For her, the love with Gatsby was merely an matter. Or she does n’t desire to take a hazard to run away with Gatsby who eventually turns out as leery individual. After holding a talk with Tom, Daisy decided to take world instead than semblance which Gatsby gave to her. Sadly, Gatsby stay all dark in forepart of her house believing that she will come out for him and two will run manner.
3.1 Meaning of American dream for two
Willy believes that he can accomplish American dream like his brother and male parent. The job of Willy was pretermiting little success from his milieus. For him accomplishing American dream and going a successful American can be merely done by going mighty and popular figure. He considers the significance of the American Dream is that going attractive and celebrated adult male in concern. And he believes he can get the material thing from this popularity. The debatable point of his belief is he had misinterpretation of true significance of American dream. That is when American dream is defined, difficult working should be put before going successful. Willy ‘s reading American dream was incorrect. This misinterpretation occurs because he formed his ain American dream by seeing success of his brother and male parent. Becoming rich from gold or diamond mine has the rare opportunity like winning a lottery. As understood American dream without difficult working, his failure was obvious. And the other job of his understands of American Dream is that his end is based on unsure perceptual experience. For him ‘popularity ‘ and ‘attractiveness ‘ are the chief thing as he says about success. He emphasizes merely these things when mensurating others. This is why he ignored Bernard who is boy of Charley when he was in the school and believed his boy, Biff will be better off in the hereafter. His belief turns out to be incorrect. Bernard becomes successful attorney when Biff lost his manner after high school. Willy ‘s unsighted perceptual experience of the American Dream leads to him to set himself suffering life.
Gatsby understand American dream as going wealthy, so he can play function as a soft adult male. When it ‘s compared to Death of a salesman, The great Gatsby focal point more on corrupted American dream in the whole society. Through this novel, readers can see different types of corrupted American dream among upper category and working category. Readers can happen corrupted portion of society early twentieth period in America. Upper category which represented by Daisy and Tom, people in this statue does n’t hold moral sense. Though they have immense luck, they spend this by throwing fancy parties everyday. Tom thought he can purchase a adult female and had matter with Mrs. Myrtle. For him, faithful vow of matrimony was useless. Daisy was the 1 who lacks of morality. She hit Myrtle by auto and drove off without guilt.
3.2 Desire toward the yesteryear
As Gatsby and Willy dissatisfy their world, they long to animate yesteryear. Gatsby longs to animate past-his clip in Louisville with Daisy. He believes he can return Daisy easy because Daisy is in the same topographic point like him. In the yesteryear, when he had in poorness, he dreamed of Daisy, but after he become rich adult male, he think he can be the one for Daisy without obstruction. So, Tom ca n’t be a obstruction to forestall him to win her once more. But, as Daisy confesses, she one time loved Tom with great passion. That is Gatsby believed Daisy besides though him as the lone one, but Gatsby was merely another 1 for Daisy. Though Tom has an matter with Myrtle Wilson, he does n’t hold any purpose of interrupting his matrimony. And possibly Daisy does n’t desire to interrupt their matrimony either when seeing that she returns to her statue at the terminal. So the program that Gatsby had to recover Daisy was merely his want.
As the lone end of his life was regain Daisy, turning back clip when Gatsby and Daisy love each other, and do love merely like what they had in Louisville. He has strong belief that he can recover his love once more, because Daisy still fell in love with him. This belief makes him fall into deep depression after he realizes that belief was merely his want.
Merely like Gatsby, Willy has strong desire of the past. Now, Willy is old salesman who seldom makes net income. He was one time on the axial rotation as a salesman. He has tonss of people know and was one of the cherish salesman in his office. However, clip passed, boss changed who is boy of Willy ‘s foreman, and he no longer makes net income. His boy who was the hope for Willy ‘s life turns out to nil, Happy and Biff are no longer prominent in their school, and even failed to acquire scholar. Biff was one time a popular participant in his school squad, which makes Willy proud of him more than anything-for Willy, popularity is the most of import value. However, these male childs ca n’t carry through Willy ‘s dream in current state of affairs. This fact makes Willy to look back yesteryear and has desire to travel back to his glorious yesteryear.
3.3 The relationship
For Willy and Gatsby, relationship is really of import value of their life. As Willy is salesman, he knows tonss of people by sight. He believes this relationship will last for good, and believes these people are true friends for him.
“ Miller introduces in Death of a Salesman who shows Miller ‘s tragic vision. In the drama, Willy Loman lives to the rule of close human relationship in a new form of consumer society. Willy theoretical accounts his salesman rule on Dave Singleman whose popularity brought “ 100s of salesman and purchaser ” to his funeral. Willy believes that a salesman ‘s success in the local markets of the 1920s where assurance in a salesman counted more than net income motivation. However, the consumer tendency of the post-World War 2 America was altering as the rapid economic enlargement produced urbanised mass markets. “ ( Moon 5 )
Willy ‘s pride as salesman was popularity and true relationship with them. However, as clip changed, this salesman and consumer relationship changed. Willy ca n’t accept this changed and do himself to believe that he still have uninterrupted relationship with his past consumers. He says “ 100s of salesman and purchaser ” ( 32 ) will come to his funeral and his one dream and belief is that his funeral will be brilliant. But in the terminal of the scene, in the funeral, merely his married woman, boies and merely one beloved friend came. This scene makes more tragic of him.
Gatsby has similarity with Willy that he wanted true relationship but failed to hold any. Early portion of the novel, there ‘s many fabulous and epicurean parties that Gatsby clasp in his place. The scene of the party clip is good described in this portion. “ The visible radiations grow brighter as the Earth lurches off from the Sun, and now the orchestra is playing xanthous cocktail musicaˆ¦ ” ( 34 ) However, people in the party are anon. . Nick says that “ I believe that on the first dark I went to Gatsby ‘s house I was one of the few invitees who had really been invited. Peoples were invited-they went there ” ( 34 ) . Though party was immense and many people enjoy clip in the Gatsby place, they were non invited and they even do n’t cognize of host of the party they are in. The relationship is so delicate. Peoples are attracted by immense wealth of Gatsby, non himself.
Not merely anon. invitees of the party, Gatsby failed to construct true loving relationship with Daisy. For him, all the pubic repute he built was to do himself as a great figure, so that Daisy is attracted by him once more. Though Daisy and Gatsby have a opportunity to do love once more, this does n’t last long. After the existent Gatsby revealed, Daisy merely run off from him and travel back to her topographic point. For her, love with Gatsby was non that large and sincere which can be altered easy. The fact that she even non look in the funeral makes this relationship more vain. Just like Willy ‘s funeral, the funeral ceremonial of Gatsby is shabby. The terminal of the novel, funeral finished with a few people, out of all the attempt Nick made to convey big invitees.
However, this fragile relationship was the consequence of Gatsby ‘s behaviours. Gatsby want to go a figure, non individual, so he does n’t demo the existent him to anyone. Every his words and Acts of the Apostless were collected by him with deep idea. Like he is have oning mask of ‘The great Gatsby ‘ , his every moves show the desire to go the certain figure. So this playing makes him so unnatural and unreal. When Nick met Gatsby at the first clip, this clumsiness showed. “ Sometime before he introduced himself I ‘d acquire a strong feeling that he was picking his words with attention ” ( 40 ) And when Gatsby confess his yesteryear to Nick which was perfectly non-sense, his words are unnatural. Nick says “ he looked at me sideways-and I knew why Jordan Baker had believed he was lying. He hurried the stage ‘educated at Oxford ‘ or swallowed it, or chocked on it, as though it had bothered him before. And with this uncertainty, his whole statement fell to pieces, and I wondered if there was n’t something sinister about him after all. “ ( 42 ) The confession was all prevarication, and Gatsby was non good at lying which makes Nick to detect at the early topographic point. After Nick know the truth that Jay Gatsby was invented by James Gats. So if was James Gats, at least true relationship with Nick was possible and they will portion personal connexion. However, as it was Jay Gatsby which was merely semblance of James Gats, the true relationship was ne’er built.
Furthermore, non merely the relationship with other character but besides the relationship with his true and merely love, Daisy was built on the sham. Though Gatsby attempts to convert others that everything he does is for Daisy and he is ever willing to give himself for her. However, this loving relationship is besides built on his bogus belief. He convinced himself that he love Daisy, but what he truly love is non Daisy, merely an semblance of Daisy. So, the true trust and love could n’t do between him and her.
4. Social Background
4.1 America in 1920s
4.1.1 Blooming of philistinism.
Horton says that the driving force of America to develop modern civilisation is Idealism and Materialism.
“ Harmonizing to the former ( Turner ) , the greatest individual factor in finding the character of American life has been the democratising consequence of a continually spread outing frontier. The chance of chance for all caused the United States to drive due west, and this enlargement brought the innovator into contact with a crude environment which, while promoting individuality, at the same clip had a grading consequence which tended to wipe out differentiation of birth, societal position and instruction. “ ( Horton & A ; Edward 3 )
Turner argue that in ‘The significance of the Frontier in American history ‘ , Frontier of America get and individuality, optimism and idealism in the manner of developing west. In this sense, philistinism was non used in negative signifier in the first topographic point. This was of course followed by infinite opportunity in the land of chance. The one great motive to develop West was made from the belief that as they work, they will acquire. This is the basic thought of philistinism in the first topographic point. However, as clip changed, philistinism became in corrupted manner that merely prosecute affluent life. In the 1920s in the America, which is the chief background of The great Gatsby was the extremum of this philistinism. All significance of the American dream turns into useless and people in this period merely desire to derive more and more wealth. Arthur Mazener describes this period like this.
“ The mid-twentiess were a cockamamie, happy age when everyone was busy get drunk in speakeasies or out of silver-lasks at Yale-Princeton game in the Bowl, or dancing to the pretentiously bad “ Jazz ” of Paul Whiteman and George Olson, though no one of any intelligence in the period itself took this facet of its life earnestly ” ( Mizner 5 )
This cockamamie life of royal household appears in the great Gatsby, particularly when Nick describes about epicurean parties that Gatsby clasp.
Not merely the royal people, people in the in-between category of the West besides has this philistinism in their head though they are difficult to accomplish their dream in world. But attempt to copy upper category behaviour is shown by Mrs. Myrtle. A desire of Myrtle to go one like upper category can be shown in the manner she display her flat. “ The flat was on the top floor-a little dining room, a little sleeping room, and a bath. The life room was crowded to the doors with a set of tape-stried furniture wholly excessively big for it, so that to travel approximately was to stumble continuously over scene of ladies singing in the gardens of Versailles. “ ( 25 ) Mrs. Myrtle is a adult female who has an matter with Tom Buchanan who is hubby of Daisy. Mrs. Myrtle is from low category whose hubby runs little auto fix store. However, she has great aspiration to travel upper category someday. And this dream makes her to copy upper category where Tom lives, though her circumstance is non appropriate to hers. She wants to go hostess like Daisy, and throw party in really little flat. Though there ‘s non adequate topographic points, she keep purchasing excessively big furniture for her flat. Furthermore, when she has party, she invites so many people that there ‘s no topographic point to even stand in her topographic point. These acts show the desire of Mrs. Myrtle to go upper category.
4.1.2 Corruptness of American dream
Over the centuries, many immigrants from Europe escaped their state for free and happy lives. They ran from their place from political and the spiritual favoritism which does non the job in the new world-America. They could be whoever they wanted to be in the new universe. In the land of the chance, they can re-start their life. As they work, as they get. This makes the basic thought of American Dream in the first topographic point.
The American Dream is a national truth of the United States, which can continue societal mobility by single. In the other words, they can derive affluent and comfy life through difficult working. In the definition of the American Dream by James Truslow Adams in 1931, “ life should be better and richer and fuller for everyone, with chance for each harmonizing to ability or accomplishment ” .
However, this American dream acquiring changed after America got through World War 1 and 2. Young American merrily get involved in war under the great mean that as the new experience and romantic chance to demo his encourage. However, world was different. As they gone through the barbarian and barbarous war, they come back to their state depressed with sorrow. Those who went through dejecting war started to bask their life with excessive ingestion. At that clip, economic system was roar, and American does n’t necessitate to worry about pecuniary job. They get whatever they want. This lead to people stuck into convenience and felicity to philistinism. They enjoyed the life that stuff can give.
The Great Gatsby shows this corrupted philistinism which can be shown in every category of society. Lower category yearns to hold wealth, yet those who already have wealth and position are unhappy and dissatisfied with their lives. In the novel, the elitist group displays features of being bored and unmotivated merely like a dead organic structure. The first scene that Nick went into the Tom ‘s house shows the deficiency of energy in upper category. “ The merely wholly stationary object in the room was an tremendous sofa on which two immature adult female were buoyed up as though upon an anchored balloon. They were both white and their frocks were rending and fliting as if they had merely been blown back in after a short flight around the house. “ ( 10 ) Daisy and Miss Backer were in the white frock and were motionless. No energy is found in them. Daisy easy acquire bored and seek to happen new thing which lead Tom and Nick go to New York sometimes, but ever they failed to happen exciting experience and verve. However, compare to this upper category people, Mrs. Myrtle described as the adult female with verve. Gatsby devoted his life into belonging to the sole group, but he approved that his life was unhappy by killing himself. So, though upper category has everything they want, they ne’er get happy but acquire bored with morally corrupted atmosphere.
Willy besides lived in the period when the significance of American dream changed as ‘A limitless desire of material wealth ‘ . He adds more value on that which is the popularity. For him, American dream besides means being ‘a celebrated figure ‘ in the society. This is non the profound job that should be defined as corrupted dream. However the chief ground that his dream defined as corrupted American dream is that the ground of accomplishing his dream is driven non from his inner head but from others. He merely wants to demo off his popularity and wealth to others and acquire satisfaction by comparing them to himself. Furthermore, He justifies what he does to accomplish his end. He neglects his life of boy, how they think and which life they want to populate were non the affair for Loman. He destroys the religion for his married woman by holding matter with secretary. All the immoral things he made were justified by his strong belief of dream.
4.2 Hierarchy in society- Invisible wall to travel upper category
American ever represented as the universe of freedom, the society with tremendous chance. However this is non ever true when you look deep inside it. The great Gatsby and decease of a salesman shows the bound of traveling upper category, there ‘s unseeable war that makes people to travel upper degree. Willy spends his life clip to acquire affluent and popular. Traveling upper degree was his life-longed dream. The tragic terminal comes from the fact that he was merely a common adult male. Harmonizing to Joseph Odd Hruth, the tragic destiny of Willy was made by the society.
“ Willy Loman is the victim of an unfair competitory society. He was foremost corrupted by the false ideals and so exploited by those more pitiless than he. Society made him what he was and in a better society his destiny would hold been better ” ( Joseph 328 )
This is the mistake of Willy small, and the existent ground why he failed can be blamed that of the society. System of society is non appropriate for Willy to accomplish his dream. There ‘s a certain restriction for him to travel upper, and this makes Willy ‘s life wretchedness. Miller argues that tragic affair occurs, because of that fact that Willy was merely a common adult male.
“ I believe that the common adult male is as disposed topic for calamity in its highest sense as male monarchs were. On the face of it this ought to be obvious in the visible radiation of modern psychopathology, which bases its analysis upon authoritative preparation, such as the Oedipus and Orestes composites, for cases, which were enacted by royal Begins but which apply to everyone in similar emotional state of affairs. “ ( Miller 1 )
Miller thinks the factor that makes him the tragic hero is societal background of him which makes difficult to common adult male to mount the ladder. In the Death of a salesman, Willy do anything to go successful salesman. He become immoral as he become more like a successful salesman in his filed. He starts to hold inappropriate relationship with secretary. Social success leads him to moral corruptness. However, though he devoted his life into mounting societal ladder to travel upper degree, he failed. There ‘s unseeable war above his manner in this societal ladder. This defeat makes him so depressed that he had no pick but putting to death himself.
The Great Gatsby shows the unseeable wall to travel upper category in society by demoing Mrs. Myrtle life and that of Gatsby. Gatsby and Mrs. Myrtle has in common that they both from working category but hankering to belong upper category. And they besides found some to take them to upper universe, for Gatsby that cat is Wolfsheim who made him rich. Mrs. Myrtle besides found Tom who can assist her to travel upper category, nevertheless, she failed to accomplish that end.
The attempt of lower category to travel upper but punished by society is clearly shown in the life of Mrs. Myrtle. She lives in vale of ashes where represent of poorness. She was besides secret lover of Tom. This lady attempts to utilize Tom to do her belong to his societal statue. Though she now lives with hubby who does n’t hold any power or energy in himself, she possesses verve. Unfortunately for her, she chooses Tom, who treats her as a mere object of his desire. Tom was attracted by her in physical manner and love ca n’t be shown between them. There ‘s all about desire, desire of Myrtle to travel upper category by Tom ‘s wealth and desire of Tom to hold her organic structure. As Myrtle want better life and attempts to acquire wealth, she eventually die of the auto accident which Daisy was thrusts. In this scene, a clear deduction can be found. Daisy who represents the lady in the upper category prevents Myrtle to acquire into her category. So Myrtle ‘s verve and energy ca n’t be used to acquire into upper category. This defeat of dream is shown in the description of Myrtle ‘s decease organic structure. “ The oral cavity was broad unfastened and ripped a small at the corners, as though she had chocked a small in giving up the enormous verve, she had stored so long ” ( 108 )
Though individual in the low category slightly achieve his dream, there ‘s still strong restriction that he can be entirely become the portion of upper category. This is shown by Gatsby ‘s instance. He achieves wealth by himself and now he can afford to hold the most epicurean party in the town. However, he ca n’t affect in royal category. Peoples who invited into his party ever look down on him and has suspicious of his wealth. Even before Gatsby turns out to make illegal concern to gain money, Tom and other invitees of Gatsby ‘s party ever susurrations about his wealth and background.
Furthermore, the topographic point where Gatsby live and apparels he wears shows the clumsiness to go the elect category. He wears excessively dressy suits and colourful apparels which Tom normally makes merriment of. Ann though Gatsby ain tonss of old-timer books which were perfectly existent one, these are clean and orderly like no 1 of all time touched before. This shows that though he imitates behaviours of category he want to belong, he got leery of his individuality. Finally, every his secret is revealed, people around him apart, and even the love of his life ran off from him. Daisy who represents of his desire to travel upper category ran off to her universe, and Gatsby lost everything including her and his dream. So last thing he made was merely decease.
5. Why American dream failed?
Death of a salesman and The Great Gatsby shows the corruptness of American dream in early 20th by demoing two ordinary men- Jay Gatsby and Willy Loman. Both are victims of society which has unseeable but clear wall to forbid them to accomplish their dream. Though first thing to fault their failure of accomplishing dream goes to the corrupted society, characters themselves besides have job.
Gatsby and Willy misunderstood significance of American dream. Gatsby says all his attempts are made to hold his loving lady Daisy, which turns out the faith belief of him. He merely wants to warrant all the immoral behaviours he made to acquire rich by concealing romantic narrative. He even deceives himself that Daisy is the lone one intent which lead him to hold false belief that Daisy besides waited for him to salvage her from Tom ‘s universe. This is perfectly non true, and after recognizing this belief was false, Gatsby has no longer ground to populate.
Willy besides has incorrect thought of American dream, for him American dream is all about acquiring rich and popular. This mistake makes his life wretchedness. He ca n’t acquire satisfaction from his ordinary life and happen felicity from his household. Family was mere object to fulfill his dream for Willy. And this thought finally made all the struggles between him and his boies, and eventually leads him to kill himself. As lone thing he has was this false belief, he tries to convert himself that though he is non profitable, he is still popular among other. However, this belief turns out non true at the terminal of the scene that there ‘s no 1 came to his funeral.
So, to reply the inquiry I made in the first portion of this study, “ Why these work forces failed to accomplish their American dream ” , two facets need to be considered. Their failure was consequence of corrupted society which ne’er allows them to accomplish their dream and distorted thought of American dream of these work forces.
A. Primary Beginnings
F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, Charles Scribner ‘s Sons, April 10 1925. Print
Arthur Miller, Death of a salesman, Morosco Theatre New York City, 10 February 1949
B. Secondary Beginnings
Moon Sun-Jung. Death of a Salesman and Modern Tragedy: Revisited ( 2005 ) . Surveies on English Language & A ; Literature, P5
Rod W. Horton and Herbert N. Edwards ( 1967 ) , Backgrounds of American Literary Thought, P3
Arthue Mizner, Introduction in F. Scott Fitzerald: A aggregation of Critical Essay, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1963, P5
Joseph Wood Krutch, The American Drama Since World War 2, New York: George Braziller, 1978, P 328
Arthur Miller, Tragedy and the common adult male, New York Times, 1949 Fen 27, Chapter 2 P1