The Demand Side Factors For Uk Housing Economics Essay

To understand UK lodging market growing over the period of clip with regard to past and future tendencies and prognosiss. What changes in house monetary values may happen in footings of demand and supply position. UK lodging market is scattered into parts and so metropoliss so we need to discourse each metropolis or part to acquire over all image of the market in mention to growing, demand and supply. There are two facets of market to act upon demand and supply with regard to UK lodging market, purchasing & amp ; merchandising and purchasing and rental. When we consider purchasing we need to see mortgage industry and involvement rates. Market information is available through different beginnings like mortgage loaners ( e.g. Banks and edifice societies ) , belongings bureaus and fiscal institutes. This survey will see these beginnings as medium of information and analysis UK house monetary values change over the last three old ages and convey us to calculate hereafter of house monetary values by using economic sciences theories and patterns about demand and supply rules. Harmonizing to informations publish through Halifax, indicates UK house monetary values have aggressively fall more than 20 % from the extremum of August 2007 and during the recession about mean autumn of 15 % for the UK lodging market and 25 % for London. Here we will seek to happen out future market growing ( up to 2012 ) on the footing of available information over the last three old ages.

The Demand Side factors for UK Housing.

The alteration in demand and supply of proprietor occupied lodging market is sensitive. It can take to house monetary value rising prices and demand can be consider on the footing of willingness and ability of purchases. Most common factors of demand are as follows.

Average monetary value Supply

D1 D2

Q1 Q2 Quantity Demand

Incomes: if income additions average living standard improves and more people think to purchase their ain house. The entire demand of houses besides increases. On the other side if income lessenings demand besides decrease ( needed capital to finance a house is decrease so people move to leasing houses ) . Income Demand Price of house ( displacement in demand ) .

Consumer Assurance: If future outlooks of economic system are deteriorate, people think to detain for their ain house and this will convey low demand. On the other side when economic system is stable and sustains growing. The lifting prosperity will better assurance on lodging market. There will be rise in demand and displacement in demand outward. Consumer Confidence Demand Price of house ( displacement in demand ) .

Occupations: A long term committedness requires through a mortgage loaner to finance a house purchase and occupation is an of import factor to see. Unemployment can trip low lodging demand. For illustration if unemployment remains relentless above the national mean employment, there will besides low mean incomes, and negative purchasers capacity. Employment Demand Price of house ( shift demand upward ) Above mentioned three factors can place way of house monetary values upward or downward.

Expected Future Monetary value: If expected future monetary value additions, people think to purchase today and in the short tally demand will increase. On the other side if future monetary value expected to drop people stop purchasing today and wait demand for houses lessening. Expected Future Price Demand ( today ) ( shift demand upward )

Mortgage Finance Availability: In the clip of easy available mortgage finance, more people willing to purchase houses and demand for houses increase but if there is a deficit of finance ( tight ordinances or slum money market ) people unable to purchase and demand lessenings. Finance Availability Demand ( shift demand upward )

Tax and Subsidies: There is another of import factor of Government policies affect lodging market e.g. benefits claims ( council taxpayers on low incomes ) and payment of cast responsibility ( most expensive belongingss ) .

Interest rates: The cost to pay for a mortgage can be affected because of involvement rates. Home proprietor ‘s biggest concern is involvement rate to pull off their monthly spends after high mortgage refunds. Most of UK place proprietors committed to variable mortgage, any alteration in involvement rates will besides alter the mortgages cost. So higher involvement rates increase cost which so decrease affordability and demand lessening. Interest Rates Affordability Demand ( shift demand downward ) .

The monetary value of rented adjustment: Although UK house monetary values have increased faster than rising prices, rental has besides become expensive which is the chief replacement to purchasing a house.

Inherited wealth: Many people use familial wealth toA bargain houses. This might explicate why there have been lifting ratios of house monetary value to incomes. It is besides going more common for parents to impart kids a sedimentation to assist acquire their first house. In other words higher house monetary values are non discouraging people from purchasing a house – people are happening ways around it.

Social factors: There have been a lifting figure of families in the UK. The figure of families can lift faster than the population if the mean household size diminution and there are more individual people populating entirely. Demand can besides increase due to the undermentioned grounds.

( I ) . an addition in divorce rates.

( two ) . an addition in net in-migration from Eastern Europe.

( three ) . Addition in life anticipation and more old individual people.

( four ) . Children left place early.

( V ) . Less matrimonies

Supply side Factors of UK Housing Market

There are two scenarios ‘ which can outdo describe supply of lodging in the UK.

Short Run Supply: In the short tally supply remains same due to clip spread to construct new houses. In the short tally demand of houses affects monetary value instead than supply. There besides a crisp addition in monetary value when supply is inelastic and demand addition at its ain.

Long Run Supply: Following factors can find long tally UK lodging market supply.

Planing permission for new buildings, which is about impossible in rural countries.

Constructing industry with regard to investing opportunities/ menaces.

Old houses need to strike hard down and supply border for new lodging building.

If cost of building new houses increases supply will be shift to the left.

In the UK, it is argued there is a important deficit of lodging is this explains why house monetary values have risen much faster than rising prices and net incomes. However, in the US, the supply of lodging increased in the period up to 2008 and hence, the extra supply and falling demand led to a large autumn in demand. However, it is of import to observe that house monetary values can still fall, even if there is a deficit of supply. In 1992, house monetary values in London fell over 20 % , even though we can state supply is inelastic. A deficit of supply merely means they will be on mean higher. It does n’t intend they are incapable of falling.

Demand and supply Relationship

Whatever local or regional lodging markets house monetary values comes under macroeconomics. There is a relationship between purchaser and marketer with regard to offered and agreed monetary values. Demand & amp ; provide side factors can assist to sabotage market value of belongingss. House purchasing or selling market depends on the followers.

( a ) . The marketer ‘s willing and agreed ( belongings ) monetary value with the purchaser.

( B ) . The purchaser ‘s willing and able to pay the existent monetary value.

3.1. Sellers and Buyers Market: If demand of houses in a specific part is high and good quality houses handiness is low ( low supply ) so market balance displacements to the marketer, it ‘s because higher demand for good belongingss. Sellers can wait to acquire offers on their belongings to make ( or exceed ) their minimal merchandising monetary value. On the other side if demand for new and old houses is low and there is a big supply of belongingss available so market balance displacements to the purchasers. Due to wider pick of available lodging, purchasers can negociate to a lower monetary value so sellers offer.

3.2. Elasticity: Population addition into the country demand besides increase displacement in demand from D1 to D2 and change by reversal if population lessening or people move to other country demand besides decrease displacement from D2 to D1 and motion along the supply curve. If incomes rise and/or unemployment degree autumn people more interested to purchase their houses so demand will increase and upward force per unit area on market monetary values. If incomes fall and/or unemployment degree addition as a consequence demand will besides diminish and fall in market monetary values. In such a state of affairs supply of available lodging in the market is inelastic. It ‘s due to clip spread to construct new houses which bring alteration in monetary value and increase supply, or other householders decide to sell their belongingss.

Average monetary value inelastic supply Supply1

P2 Supply2

P3

P1

D1 D2

Q1 Q2 Q3 Quantity Demand

When supply is inelastic and demand displacements outwards the consequence will be a big rise in house monetary values, there is besides a little addition in measure of houses demanded. Over clip supply becomes elastic, sing demand remains same, there will be downward force per unit area on monetary values. There is besides an equilibrium between measure of houses buy or sold.

UK Housing Market Background

To analysis UK lodging market it ‘s extremely of import to look back over at least decennary of period to acquire market overall image to understand UK lodging market growing or diminution. This will besides assist us to happen any future tendencies and prognosiss or what ‘s most likely traveling to go on with UK lodging market in the coming old ages. In 2007 UK mean house monetary value make its peak degree and so all of a sudden fall to its worse degree due to deep recession in the UK economic system ( planetary recession ) in 2008, where as involvement rates brought to 0.5 % during the 2nd half of 2008. Interest rates cut by 5 % after UK lodging market declined. There was a low growing for 2008 and 2009 in UK economic system until the recovery begins in December 2009.

UK Housing Market Growth 2007

As predicted in grand 2007 Forecast mean UK lodging market 15 % diminution expected during the following 2 old ages and London lodging market is expected to fall 25 % . There is a opportunity of involvement rates further rise in October 2007 therefore it has been predicted that involvement rates remain either at or near to top out. Credit market continually decline from its extremum ( maximal increased rate ) in summer and widens the spread between the sterling and base rate. In August 2007 recognition crunch known to Market participants which indicated no farther rise in the lodging market under these conditions. Following table illustrates the UK lodging market growing in 2007.

Region

Average Monetary value

1st Quarter % alteration

second Quarter % alteration

3rd Quarter % alteration

fourth Quarter % alteration

Annual % alteration

North

?133,202

-0.4 %

2.3 %

0.7 %

1.2 %

3.7 %

Yorkshire & A ; Humberside

?154,695

1.1 %

0.7 %

1.4 %

-0.2 %

2.6 %

North West

?159,062

0.2 %

1.7 %

0.4 %

1.3 %

3.5 %

East Midlands

?155,141

1.3 %

1.5 %

0.2 %

0.4 %

2.8 %

West Midlands

?164,855

0.9 %

1.6 %

0.2 %

1.8 %

4.4 %

East Anglia

?183,598

2.0 %

1.3 %

1.3 %

1.2 %

5.7 %

Outer South East

?214,634

2.4 %

2.7 %

1.6 %

0.6 %

7.2 %

Outer Metropolitan

?259,160

2.7 %

2.0 %

2.5 %

1.0 %

8.5 %

London

?303,739

4.4 %

3.1 %

3.4 %

1.2 %

12.8 %

South West

?203,049

2.8 %

1.7 %

1.9 %

0.3 %

6.4 %

Cymrus

?154,947

0.8 %

2.6 %

-0.3 %

1.5 %

4.2 %

Scotland

?151,178

2.7 %

2.9 %

2.5 %

1.8 %

10.1 %

Northern Ireland

?224,816

14.6 %

7.8 %

3.6 %

-0.2 %

24.2 %

United kingdom

?183,959

2.2 %

2.1 %

1.6 %

1.0 %

6.9 %

Table 1.1: UK Housing Market Growth 2007 ( www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi )

Recession start Fig 1.1: UK Housing Market Average % Rise/Fall 2007

Fig 1.2: Annual Rise/Fall in ( % alteration ) UK House Prices 2007

Fig 1.3: Quarterly Rise/Fall in ( % alteration ) UK House Prices 2007

Credit Crunch

The first thing of the lodging market traveling to its extremum in February 2007 following the subprime mortgages were defaulting in of all time greater Numberss in the United States. This premise of carry trade leads to unravelling and trigger cause of the recognition roar. Initial fiscal markets unsteady in February 2007 and failed to supply outward grounds of a recognition crunch on the other manus UK lodging market continually lift careless involvement rates lifting ( forecasted in November 2006 ) to a extremum of 5.7 % by September 2007 even the Bank of England ‘s conflict with rising prices in 2007. Harmonizing to observers the lodging market enters into a new stage of its concluding extremum province. There are no of grounds in a short tally, those stop lodging market to fall.

Price P D

OR

Qd Qd

Fig 1.1.2 if demand additions first Price will increase and quantity demand besides increases.

I ) .Immigration: A big inflow of over 800,000 migrators from the developing states contributed the bargain to allow lodging market.

II ) .Lack of Home Building: Building and building for semi-detached and traditional patio belongingss was non earnestly addressed before 2007. There was a concealed bad rise in the building of semi-detached, 1 & A ; 2 bed flats and flats that could assist to transform many metropolis Centre developments due to completed in 2007 and 2008.

III ) .Strong Economy: United Kingdom strong economic system continually outperform in mainland. There was already dark clip started over the UK lodging market in summer 2007 and headed towards a belongings clang.

UK Housing Market Growth 2008

UK economic system start confronting recession which left many effects on all markets from retail to production and service industry to public sector. In 2008 lodging market range to an mean one-year diminution in house monetary values to 14.7 % regardless of the 6.9 % addition recorded in December 2007. There is ever difference in UK lodging market growing from town to town, county to county and part to part so down autumn and rise in the market recorded consequently. Following table illustrate UK lodging market growing by bespeaking an mean % alteration of house monetary values, quarterly and yearly.

Region

Average Monetary value

1st Quarter % Change

second Quarter % Change

3rd Quarter % Change

fourth Quarter % Change

Annual % alteration

North

?118,525

-0.7 %

-3.0 %

-3.5 %

-2.4 %

-11.0 %

Yorkshire & A ; Humberside

?133,632

-0.9 %

-4.5 %

-3.2 %

-4.1 %

-13.6 %

North West

?136,090

-2.3 %

-3.2 %

-3.2 %

-5.2 %

-14.4 %

East Midlands

?133,102

-0.8 %

-4.2 %

-3.7 %

-4.6 %

-14.2 %

West Midlands

?141,783

-2.5 %

-3.1 %

-3.4 %

-3.8 %

-14.0 %

Outer South East

?181,477

-0.8 %

-4.3 %

-5.1 %

-4.8 %

-15.4 %

Outer Metropolitan

?218,150

-1.4 %

-2.8 %

-5.8 %

-5.3 %

-15.8 %

London

?257,963

-1.5 %

-3.8 %

-3.9 %

-5.1 %

-15.1 %

South West

?172,789

-2.5 %

-1.3 %

-6.4 %

-3.9 %

-14.9 %

Cymrus

?136,174

-1.8 %

-5.7 %

-1.9 %

-2.4 %

-12.1 %

Scotland

?138,941

-0.1 %

-1.8 %

-5.0 %

0.1 %

-8.1 %

Northern Ireland

?147,833

-10.0 %

-9.0 %

-10.8 %

-7.4 %

-34.2 %

United kingdom

?156,828

-1.7 %

-3.4 %

-4.6 %

-4.4 %

-14.7 %

Table 2.1 UK lodging market growing 2008 ( www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi )

Fig 2.1: UK Housing Market Average % Rise/Fall 2008

Fig 2.2: Annual Rise/Fall in ( % alteration ) UK House Prices 2008.

Fig 2.3: Quarterly Rise/Fall in ( % alteration ) UK House Prices 2008

.

UK Housing Market Growth 2009

House monetary values continue to lift after worse 2008 in all parts except Northern Ireland. Southern parts remain on strong growing than northern parts and London has strongest growing at the terminal of 2009. This brings back the consumer ‘s assurance and market growing continues to better. There was a little displacement in demand in 2009

Region

Average Monetary value

1st Quarter % Change

second Quarter % Change

3rd Quarter % Change

fourth Quarter % Change

Annual % alteration

North

?116,154

-4.4 %

-1.9 %

3.5 %

0.4 %

-2.0 %

Yorkshire & A ; Humberside

?137,275

-3.9 %

1.7 %

1.8 %

2.5 %

2.7 %

North West

?139,811

-3.2 %

-0.8 %

1.9 %

2.0 %

2.7 %

East Midlands

?136,492

-4.5 %

1.8 %

2.3 %

2.8 %

2.5 %

West Midlands

?144,748

-3.9 %

-0.2 %

3.0 %

2.1 %

2.1 %

East Anglia

?159,989

-5.6 %

5.2 %

4.1 %

1.8 %

4.5 %

Outer South East

?191,397

-4.5 %

3.5 %

4.7 %

2.4 %

5.5 %

Outer Metropolitan

?232,198

-3.7 %

1.5 %

3.8 %

2.7 %

6.4 %

London

?276,088

-5.3 %

4.8 %

4.9 %

3.4 %

7.0 %

South West

?179,425

-2.9 %

-0.8 %

0.1 %

1.0 %

3.8 %

Cymrus

?135,776

-8.3 %

7.7 %

3.4 %

0.9 %

-0.3 %

Scotland

?140,352

-5.1 %

0.1 %

-5.0 %

1.9 %

1.0 %

Northern Ireland

?137,949

-4.1 %

-4.7 %

9.7 %

-6.8 %

-6.7 %

United kingdom

?162,116

-4.2 %

1.1 %

3.7 %

1.6 %

3.4 %

Table 3.1 UK lodging market growing 2009 ( www.nationwide.co.uk/hpi )

Fig 2.1: UK Housing Market Average % Rise/Fall 2009

Fig 2.2: Annual Rise/Fall in ( % alteration ) UK House Prices 2009

Fig 2.3: Quarterly Rise/Fall in ( % alteration ) UK House Prices 2008

UK Housing Market 2007 To 2009

As we seen over the last three twelvemonth belongings market suffer deep recession and gone through different scenario ‘s. During the start of 2007 UK lodging market was at or near to its extremum, economic system crashed in June 2007 and lodging market start diminution from its extremum about mean 15 % to -14.5 % in Aug 2008. UK went through a deepest recession ; Government put money to salvage Bankss from money deficit. On the other manus Government bead involvement rates from 5 % to 0.5 % to salvage place proprietors from high mortgage refunds. In the last one-fourth of 2008 market get down recovery and terminal of 2009 about mean 10 % alteration forecasted which indicates UK is coming out of recession.

Fig 4.1: Annual Rise/Fall in ( % alteration ) UK House Prices 2007 to 2009

UK Housing Market Future Growth

House monetary values move upward in Jan, 2010, and increase a seasonal accommodation of 1.2 % on monthly footing but harmonizing to Feb, 2010 prognosis lodging market diminution to 0.5 % after a good start in January 2010. There are besides menaces when bank of England Chancellor of the Exchequer announced deadline for UK Bankss to pay back Government money at the start of following twelvemonth. If market grows in such a bad environment ups and downs are most common characteristic to happen with market growing and slum remains unless future uncertainties lost. Economy ‘s continuously improved and coming out of recession. There is besides smooth advancement in the labor market and unemployment figures fell down first clip after recession. There is another diminution in no of idle and benefit claimants. There is record low growing in the UK earning degrees during 2009. Many employers moved to be decrease policies through wage freezing or cut downing wage.

‘According to economic experts and recognition experts there will be a 2nd mortgage recognition crunch which brings UK house monetary values to a new underside line. Lenders are due to payback ?319bn ( 1/4 of UK ‘s ?1.3 trillion mortgage stock ) in Jan, 2011 their browed Government capital ( during existent crisis in 2007/ 2008 ) . Recognition evaluation bureaus already inform UK Bankss and edifice societies to restrict their loaning through tight recognition demands. Banks have to do mortgage expensive and cut down handiness ‘ there will be deficiency of assurance on lodging market stableness. ( telegraph.co.uk/finance dated Tuesday 16, 2010 )

Decision

UK lodging market growing

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