“ I think it ‘s about clip we started to acquire a small exercising about here, do n’t you? ” he said, cocking his caput at me. Then we slowly looked around at the others with the look of stunned finding he used when the object was to transport people along with his latest thought. He blinked twice, and so said, “ We can ever get down with this ball. ”
“ Let ‘s do it hold something to make with the war, ” suggested Bobby Zane. “ Like a blitzkrieg or something. ”
“ Blitzkrieg, ” repeated Finny dubiously.
“ We could calculate out some sort of blitzkrieg baseball, ” I said.
“ We ‘ll name it blitzkrieg ball, ” said Bobby.
“ Or merely blitzball, ” reflected Finny. “ Yes, blitzball. ” Then, with an anticipant glimpse about, “ Well, allow ‘s acquire started, ” he threw the large, heavy ball at me. I grasped it against my thorax with both weaponries. “ Well, tally! ” ordered Finny. “ No, non that manner! Toward the river! Run! ” I headed toward the river surrounded by the others in a hesitating herd ; they sensed that in all chance they were my antagonists in blitzball. “ Do n’t hot it! ” Finny yelled. “ Throw it to person else. Otherwise, of course, ” he talked steadily as he ran along beside me, “ now that we ‘ve got you surrounded, one of us will strike hard you down. ”
“ Make what! ” I veered off from him, hanging on to the gawky ball. “ What sort of a game is that? ”
“ Blitzball! ” Chet Douglass shouted, throwing himself around my legs, strike harding me down.
“ That of course was wholly illegal, ” said Finny. You do n’t utilize your weaponries when you knock the ball bearer down. ”
“ You do n’t? ” mumbled Chet from on top of me.
“ No. You keep your weaponries crossed like this on your thorax, and you merely border the ball bearer. No elbowing allowed either. All right, Gene, start once more. ”
“ I began rapidly, “ Would n’t person else have ownership of the ball after- ”
“ Not when you ‘ve been knocked down illicitly. The ball bearer retains ownership in a instance like that. So it ‘s absolutely all right, you still have the ball. Go in front. ”
There was nil to make but get down running once more, with the others treading with stronger will around me. “ Throw it! ” ordered Phineas. Bobby Zane was more or less in the clear and so I threw it at him ; it was so heavy that he had to lift out my throw up from the land. “ Absolutely all right, ” commented Finny, running frontward at top velocity, “ absolutely okay for the ball to touch the land when it is being passed. ” Bobby doubled back closer to me.
“ Knock him down! Are you brainsick? He ‘s on my squad! ”
“ There are n’t any squads in blitzball, ” he yelled slightly testily, “ we ‘re all enemies. Knock him down! ”
“ I knocked him down. “ All right, ” said Finny as he disentangled us. “ Now you have ownership once more. ” He handed the dull ball to me.
“ I would hold though that ownership passed- ”
“ Naturally you gained ownership of the ball when you knocked him down. Run. ”
So I began running once more. Leper Lepellier was loping along outside my margin, non detecting the game, labeling along without ground, like a porpoise escorting a passing ship. “ Leper! ” I threw the ball past a few caputs at him.
“ Taken by surprise, Leper looked up in anguish, shrivel off from the ball, and voiced his first idea, a typical one. “ I do n’t desire it! ”
“ Stop, halt! ” cried Finny in a referee ‘s tone. Everybody halted, and Finny retrieved the ball ; he talked better keeping it. “ Now Leper has merely brought out a truly of import all right point of the game. The receiving system can decline a base on balls if he happens to take to. Since we ‘re all enemies, we can and will turn on each other all the clip. We call that the Lepellier Refusal. ” We all nodded without speech production. “ Here, Gene, the ball is of class still yours. ”
“ Still mine? Cipher else has had the ball but me, for God sakes! ”
“ They ‘ll acquire their opportunity. Now if you are refused three times in the class of running from the tower to the river, you go all the manner back to the tower and start over. Naturally. ”
Blitzball comes as another physical signifier of the evident lawlessness in Finny ‘s personality. In fact, that is the ground this expert was chosen – to indicate out one of Finny ‘s properties. With the innovation of the game, Finny defies Devon authorization and creates his ain game to play, alternatively of the school-wide badminton. As the game unravels, blitzball seems to go around largely around Gene acquiring hit with a medical specialty ball and repeatedly tackled by the other participants, called “ enemies. ” Meanwhile, Finny excels at his ain game, because he plays the game the same manner he plays life. It besides appears that Finny invented the game of blitzball as an effort to keep the “ separate peaces ” between athleticss and war. The other characters seem to link athleticss and war into one, but he does n’t desire to because he does n’t understand the construct of an enemy in many ways.
Along with the above grounds, blitzball besides highlights Finny ‘s beliefs on what athleticss are how they ‘re supposed to be played: non one squad put against another, but the physical challenge that one individual overcomes ( Gene in this instance ) . This game is besides one of the major events constructing in Gene ‘s interior conflict-his green-eyed monster and bitterness toward Finny. It ‘s obvious that even in the minutes where the two male childs are closest that Gene seems to happen himself threatened by Finny whether it is by his athletic ability, natural grace, defiance, or artlessness. Gene seems to ever detect that Finny is better than him at something, which could ache their friendly relationship subsequently.
Chapter 8, page 115-116:
“ Have you swallowed all that war material? ”
“ No, of class I- ” I was so committed to rebuting him that I had half-denied the charge before I understood it ; now my eyes swung back to his face. “ All what war material? ”
“ All that stuff about there being a war. ”
“ I do n’t believe I get what you mean. ”
“ Do you truly think that the United States of America is in a province of war with Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan? ”
“ Do I truly thinkaˆ¦ ” My voice trailed off.
He stood up, his weight on the good leg, the other resting lightly on the floor in forepart of him. “ Do n’t be a sap, ” he gazed with cool self-control at me, “ there is n’t any war. ”
“ I know why you ‘re speaking like this, ” I said, fighting to maintain up with him. “ Now I understand. You ‘re still under the influence of some medicative drug. ”
“ No, you are. Everybody is. ” He pivoted so that he was confronting straight at me. “ That ‘s what this whole war narrative is. A medicative drug. Listen, did you of all time hear of the ‘Roaring Twenties ‘ ? ” I nodded really easy and carefully. “ When they all drank bathtub gin and everybody who was immature did merely what they wanted? ”
“ Yes. ”
“ Well what happened was that they did n’t like that, the sermonizers and the old ladies and all the stuffed shirts. So so they tried Prohibition and everybody merely got drunker, so so they truly got despairing and arranged the Depression. That kept the people who were immature in the mid-thirtiess in their topographic points. But they could n’t utilize that fast one everlastingly, so for us in the mid-fortiess they ‘ve cooked up this war sham. ”
“ Who are ‘they, ‘ anyhow? ”
“ The fat old work forces who do n’t desire us herding them of their occupations. They ‘ve made it all up. There is n’t any existent nutrient deficit, for case. The work forces have all the best steaks delivered to their nines now. You ‘ve noticed how they ‘ve been acquiring fatter recently, have n’t you? ”
His tone took it exhaustively for granted that I had. For a minute I was about taken in by it. Then my eyes fell on the edge and cast white mass pointing at me, and as it was ever to make, it brought me down out of Finny ‘s universe of innovation, down once more as I had fallen after rousing that forenoon, down to world, to the facts.
“ Phineas, this is all reasonably amusive and everything, but I hope you do n’t play this game excessively much with yourself. You might get down to believe it and so I ‘d hold to do a reserve for you at the Funny Farm. ”
“ In a manner, ” deep in statement, his eyes ne’er wavered from mine, “ the whole universe is on a Funny Farm now. But it ‘s merely the fat old work forces who get the gag. ”
“ And you. ”
“ Yes, and me. ”
“ What makes you so particular? Why should you acquire it and all the remainder of us be in the dark? ”
The impulse of the statement suddenly broke from his control. His face froze. “ Because I ‘ve suffered, ” he burst out.
The novel has painted a clear image that Finny is self-involved ( take Finny ‘s training Gene more for his ain interest than for Gene ‘s as an illustration ) . So, Finny ‘s motive to label the war as a fraud are obvious. Everybody who attends Devon School is expected to enlist in the military. Finny knows that the twenty-four hours will shortly come when everybody goes off to war – except for Finny, who has a broken leg. He feels that his hurt has separated him from holding the same experiences that his schoolmates have ; therefore “ a separate peace ” ( mention to the rubric and ground this transition was chosen ) . So, Finny thinks that if the war ca n’t be a portion of his life, it ca n’t be a portion of his equal ‘s lives either. So when Gene takes Finny ‘s “ account ” for the war as a gag, it upsets him and causes him to flog out at the others.
What Finny does n’t recognize is that the theory he created is a batch like his ain job. He is similar to the fat old work forces, doing up different things to maintain the younger people in their topographic points and let the older work forces to maintain their occupations. They changed the job every decennary because they got more despairing as the old ages went by. But now Finny is despairing ; all of his schoolmates will travel to war and leave him behind, merely as the old work forces are afraid they will be left behind if the immature people are n’t in their topographic points, so, he tried to manufacture something ; merely as the old work forces did.
Chapter 12, page 190-191:
“ I ‘ll detest it everyplace if I ‘m non in this war! Why do you believe I kept stating at that place was n’t any war all winter? I was traveling to maintain on stating it until two seconds after I got a missive from Ottawa or Chungking or someplace stating, ‘Yes, you can enlist with us. ‘ “ A expression of pleased accomplishment flickered over his face momently, as though he had truly gotten such a missive. “ Then there would hold been a war. ”
“ Finny, ” my voice broke but I went on, “ Phineas, you would n’t be any good in the war, even if nil had happened to your leg. ”
A expression of astonishment fell over him. It scared me, but I knew what I said was of import and right, and my voice fou8nd that full tone voiced have when they are showing something long-felt and long-understood and released at last. “ They ‘d acquire you some topographic point at the forepart and there ‘d be a letup in the combat, and the following thing anyone knew you ‘d be over with the Germans or the Japs, inquiring if they ‘d wish to field a baseball squad against our side. You ‘d be sitting in one of their bid stations, learning them English. Yes, you ‘d acquire baffled and borrow one of their uniforms, and you ‘d impart them one of yours. Certain, that ‘s merely what would go on. You ‘d acquire things so scrambled up cipher would cognize who to contend any more. You ‘d do a muss, a awful muss, Finny, out of the war.
His face had been fighting to remain calm as he listened to me, but now he was shouting but seeking to command himself. “ It was merely some sort of blind urge you had in the tree at that place, you did n’t cognize what you were making. Was that it? ”
“ Yes, yes, that was it. Oh that was it, but how can you believe that? How can you believe that? I ca n’t even do myself feign that you could believe that. ”
“ I do, I think I can believe that. I ‘ve gotten terribly huffy sometimes and about bury what I was making. I think I believe you, I think I can believe that. Then that was it. Something merely seized you. It was n’t anything you truly felt against me, it was n’t some sort of chapeau you ‘ve felt all along. It was n’t anything personal. ”
“ No, I do n’t cognize how to demo you, how can I demo you, Finny? Tell me how to demo you. It was merely some ignorance inside me, some brainsick thing inside me, something blind, that ‘s all it was. ”
He was nodding his caput, his jaw tightening and his eyes closed on the cryings. “ I believe you. It ‘s all right because I understand and I believe you. You ‘ve already shown me and I believe you. ”
The beginning of this extract points out Finny ‘s purposes of doing the full war sound like a fraud: It would stay bogus to him until he was accepted into a military service. This proves my earlier response true, and moreover explains how despairing Finny was, by using about everyplace possible. Gene besides points out that athleticss is all Finny knows, and he would seek to unite them with the war and muss everything up. Surprisingly, Finny did n’t deny this, but alternatively changed the topic to his autumn.
Gene ‘s openness to Finny that dark challenged him to return trust to his friend. Gene ‘s guilt had ever been in inquiry, and Gene ‘s two earlier efforts to acknowledge his guilt ended severely. However, his current attitude allowed the topic to come out without the choler antecedently at that place. Without even inquiring “ Did you do me fall? ” or “ Why did you do me fall? ” he offers his trust, merely carefully inquiring if Gene acted out of a “ blind impulse. ” This was more of an offer of an account, alternatively of a demand for one.
Gene accepted the inquiry appreciatively, adding that it must hold derived from some “ ignorance interior. ” This understanding brought back the male child ‘ friendly relationship.
English 1 Pre-IB/5th Time period
August 16, 2010
Significant Passages of To Kill a Mockingbird
Chapter 9, page 85 – 87:
“ Do you support niggas, Atticus? ” I asked him that flushing.
“ Of class I do. Make n’t state nigger, Scout. That ‘s common. ”
“ ‘s what everybody at school says. ”
“ From now on it ‘ll be everybody less one- ”
“ Well if you do n’t desire me to turn up talkin ‘ that manner, why do you direct me to school? ”
My male parent looked at me mildly, amusement in his eyes. Despite our via media, my run to avoid school had continued to one signifier or another since my first twenty-four hours ‘s dosage of it: the beginning of last September had brought on sinking enchantments, giddiness, and mild stomachic ailments. I went so far as to pay a Ni for the privilege of rubbing my caput against the caput of Miss Rachel ‘s cook ‘s boy, who was afflicted with a enormous tinea. It did n’t take.
But I was worrying another bone. “ Do all attorneies defend n-Negroes, Atticus? ”
“ Of class they do, Scout. ”
“ Then why did Cecil state you defended niggas? He made it sound like you were runnin ‘ a still. ”
Atticus sighed. “ I ‘m merely supporting a Negro-his name ‘s Tom Robinson. He lives in that small colony beyond the town shit. He ‘s a member of Calpurnia ‘s church, and Cal knows his household good. She says they ‘re clean-living folks. Scout, you are n’t old plenty to understand some things yet, but there ‘s been some high talk around town to the consequence that I should n’t make much about supporting this adult male. It ‘s a curious case-it wo n’t come to test until summer session. John Taylor was sort adequate to give us a postponementaˆ¦ ”
“ If you should n’t be defendin ‘ him, so why are you doin ‘ it? ”
“ For a figure of grounds, ” said Atticus. “ The chief 1 is, if I did n’t I could n’t keep up my caput in town, I could n’t stand for this county in the legislative assembly, I could n’t even state you or Jem non to make something once more. ”
“ You mean if you did n’t support that adult male, Jem and me would n’t hold to mind you any longer? ”
“ That ‘s approximately right. ”
“ Why? ”
“ Because I could ne’er inquire you to mind me once more. Scout, merely by the nature of the work, every attorney gets at least one instance in his life-time that affects him personally. This 1 ‘s mine, I guess. You might hear some ugly talk about it at school, but do one thing for me if you will: you merely keep your caput high and maintain those fists down. No affair what anybody says to you, do n’t you allow ’em acquire your caprine animal. Try contending with your caput for a changeaˆ¦it ‘s a good one, even if it does defy larning. ”
This extract was chosen to foreground the first clip for an grownup state of affairs, such as racism, to come into Scout ‘s life. Because Robinson is a black adult male accused of ravishing a white adult female, the occupants of Maycomb are upset that Atticus, who is the town ‘s “ head ” attorney, would assist him. The townsfolk are so outgaged, that they ca n’t to direct their choler to merely Atticus, nevertheless, as Scout and Jem have become marks every bit good as the racialist roots of the south expose themselves ( this contradicts how the people of Maycomb have been portrayed before, who have been described largely positively. ) This hatred toward the household forces Scout to seek to understand grownup state of affairss as she confronts her male parent about it.
Even members of Atticus ‘s ain household, Alexandra and her grandson, disagree with his determination to support Tom Robinson. The struggle besides reveals Atticus ‘s parenting manner, concentrating on learning moral values in Jem and Scout ; most of import being justness and honestness. He tells his kids to avoid acquiring in battles, even if they ‘re talked to severely, and to seek “ quiet bravery ” alternatively. I think this means that he wants them to remain soundless, but strong.
Chapter 18, page 204 – 205:
Mayella sat mutely.
“ Where were you at twilight on that eventide? ” began Mr. Gilmer patiently.
“ On the porch. ”
“ Which porch? ”
“ Ai n’t but one, the forepart porch. ”
“ What were you making on the porch? ”
“ Nothin ‘ . ”
Judge Taylor said, “ Merely state us what happened. You can make that, ca n’t you? ”
Mayella stared at him and split into cryings. She covered her oral cavity with her custodies and sobbed. Judge Taylor let her call for a piece, so he said, “ that ‘s plenty now. Do n’t be ‘fraid of anybody here, every bit long as you tell the truth. All this is unusual to you, I know, but you ‘ve nil to be ashamed of and nil to fear. What are you scared of? ”
Mayella said something behind her custodies. “ What was that? ” asked the justice.
“ Him, ” she sobbed, indicating at Atticus.
“ Mr. Finch? ”
She nodded smartly, stating, “ Do n’t desire him doin ‘ me like he done Papa, tryin ‘ to do him out left-handedaˆ¦ ”
Judge Taylor scratched his thick white hair. It was field that he had ne’er been confronted with a job of this sort. “ How old are you? ” he asked.
“ Nineteen-and-a-half, ” Mayella said.
“ Judge Taylor cleared his pharynx and tried unsuccessfully to talk in comforting tones. “ Mr. Finch has no thought of frightening you, ” he growled, “ and if he did, I ‘m here to halt him. That ‘s one thing I ‘m sitting up here for. Now you ‘re a large miss, so you merely sit up consecutive and state the-tell us what happened to you. You can make that, ca n’t you? ”
I whispered to Jem, “ Has she got good sense? ”
Jem was squinching down at the informant base. “ Ca n’t state yet, ” he said. She ‘s got adequate sense to acquire the justice sorry for her, but she might be just-oh, I do n’t cognize. ”
Mollified, Mayelle gave Atticus a concluding terrified glimpse and said to Mr. Gilmer, “ Well sir, I was on the porch and-and he came along and, you see, there was this old chiffarobe in the pace Papa ‘d brough in to chop up for kindlin’-Papa told me to make it while he was away in the forests but I wad n’t feelin ‘ strong plenty so, so he came by- ”
“ Who is ‘he ‘ ? ”
Mayella pointed to Tom Robinson. I ‘ll hold to inquire you to be more specific, please, ” said Mr. Gilmer. “ The newsman ca n’t set down gestures really good. ”
“ That’n yonder, ” she said. “ Robinson. ”
“ Then what happened? ”
“ I said semen here, nigger, and break up this chiffarobe for me, I got ta Ni for you. He coulda done it easy plenty, he could. So he come in the yeard an ‘ I went in the house to acquire him the Ni and I turned around an ‘fore I knew it he was on me. Merely run up behind me, he did. He got me round the cervix, cussin ‘ me an ‘ sayin ‘ dirt-I fought’n’hollered, but he had me round the cervix. He hit me agin an ‘ agin- ”
Mr. Gilmer waited for Mayella to roll up herself: she had twisted her hankie into a sweaty rope ; when she opened it to pass over her face it was a mass of folds from her hot custodies. She waited for Mr. Gilmer to inquire another inquiry, but when he did n’t she said, “ -he chunked me on the floor an ‘ clogged me’n took advantage of me. ”
“ Did you shout? ” asked Mr. Gilmer. “ Did you shriek and battle back? ”
“ Reckon I did, hollered for all I was deserving, kicked and hollered loud as I could. ”
“ Then what happened? ”
“ I do n’t retrieve excessively good, but following thing I knew Papa was in the room a’standin ‘ over me hollerin ‘ who done it, who done it? Then I sorta fainted an ‘ the following thing I knew Mr. Tate was pullin ‘ me up off the floor and leadin ‘ me to the H2O pail. ”
This extract was chosen because this is the lone clip that Mayella appears in the book, where it seems she ‘s taking on the common function as the white adult female attacked by the black adult male, who needs protection from the white work forces. In order to convict Tom, the jury had to believe that Mayella was a incapacitated adult female who got taken advantage of by Tom, alternatively of a desperate, lonely adult female who wanted him. And to make this successfully, Mayella tried to do the work forces of the courtroom think that she is a incapacitated victim in demand of protection, so that they will take her word over Tom ‘s in order to protect the female victim, despite her “ white rubbish ” position. She managed to make this, judgment by how weak and immature she sounds in her testimony.
It besides appears that Mayella is covering with her ain jobs for holding a desire that everybody tells her is incorrect. So, she says that she ‘s non the 1 with the desire, and Tom is, and she likely thinks that by destructing him the desire would be gone. Or, possibly that is n’t the instance at all, and she does n’t see anything incorrect with what she did, merely that she got caught, and is now seeking to command the harm by stating whatever her male parent tells her to state. Either manner, he testimony sounds like it has many defects that should hold been better addressed.
So, this begs the inquiry: “ Why does n’t Mayella state the truth in the first topographic point? ” I think it ‘s likely because she ‘s frightened of her male parent, who may hold abused and/or crush her in the yesteryear. That, and she ‘s making something everybody has done: distancing herself from the grounds in a instance that is n’t merely approximately race, or merely about gender, but about the combination of both ( which has turned out to be a large instance in the populace ‘s oculus ) .
Chapter 25, page 275 -276
Maycomb was interested by the intelligence of Tom ‘s decease for possibly two yearss ; two yearss was plenty for the information to distribute through the county. “ Did you hear about? … No? Well, they say he was runnin ‘ tantrum to crush lightnin’aˆ¦ ” To Maycomb, Tom ‘s decease was Typical. Typical of a nigga to cut and run. Typical of a nigga ‘s outlook to hold no program, no idea for the hereafter, merely run blind first opportunity he saw. Amusing thing, Atticus Finch might ‘ve got him off Scot free, but wait — ? Hell no. You know how they are. Easy come, easy go. Merely shows you, that Robinson male child was lawfully married, they say he kept himself clean, went to church and all that, but when it comes down to the line the veneer ‘s mighty thin. Nigger ever comes out in ’em.
A few more inside informations, enabling the hearer to reiterate his version in bend, so nil to speak about until The Maycomb Tribune appeared the undermentioned Thursday. There was a brief obituary in the Colored News, but there was besides an column.
Mr. B. B. Underwood was at the most acrimonious, and he could n’t hold cared less who canceled advertisement and subscriptions. ( But Maycomb did n’t play that manner: Mr. Underwood could holler till he sweated and compose whatever he wanted to, he ‘d still acquire his advertisement and subscriptions. If he wanted to do a sap of himself in his paper that was his concern. ) Mr. Underwood merely figured it was a wickedness to kill cripples, be they standing, sitting, or get awaying. He likened Tom ‘s decease to the mindless slaughter of songsters by huntsmans and kids, and Maycomb thought he was seeking to compose an editorial poetical sufficiency to be reprinted in The Montgomery Advertiser.
How could this be so, I wondered, as I read Mr. Underwood ‘s column. Senseless killing-Tom had been given due procedure of jurisprudence to the twenty-four hours of his decease ; he had been tried openly and convicted by 12 good work forces and true ; my male parent had fought for him all the manner. Then Mr. Underwood ‘s significance became clear: Atticus had used really tool available to free work forces to salvage Tom Robinson, but in the secret tribunals of work forces ‘s Black Marias Atticus had no instance. Tom was a dead adult male the minute Mayella Ewell opened her oral cavity and screamed.
The name Ewell gave me a nauseating feeling. Maycomb had lost no clip in acquiring Mr. Ewell ‘s positions on Tom ‘s death and go throughing them along through that English Channel of chitchat, Miss Stephanie Crawford. Miss Stephanie told Aunt Alexandra in Jem ‘s presence ( “ Oh pes, he ‘d old plenty to listen ” ) that Mr. Ewell said it made one down and about two more to travel. Jem told me non to be afraid, Mr. Ewell was more hot gas than anything. Jem besides told me that if I breathed a word to Atticus, if in any manner I let Atticus cognize I knew, Jem would personally ne’er speak to me once more.
I chose this extract, because Tom ‘s decease goes about unnoticed because the townsfolk thought it was typical of a black adult male to run from his jobs. They thought it was typical of him to run without a program other than to acquire off while he can. The lone reference of his decease was a short necrology in the “ Colored News, ” and an column written by a apparently racist adult male, where Tom is characterized as a mocker ( hence “ aˆ¦to the mindless slaughter of songsters by huntsmans and kids ” ) . However, it was while reading this quotation mark that Scout realized her male parent did n’t hold a instance against the Black Marias of the work forces in the courtroom. They felt bad for the adult female and wanted to protect her, non Tom. This shows the mentality of many people in these yearss. They truly did n’t care if a black adult male got shot. They merely cared that “ one of their ain sort ” was spared.
At this clip, Alexandra and Scout stand together as Finches, every bit harmless as mockers ( since they were on Tom ‘s side of the instance ) , forced to cover with the white community ‘s ignorance toward justness. Tom Robinson ne’er hurt anything, yet he was convicted and waiting for his entreaty in gaol. They believe the emphasis of being in gaol for a offense he did n’t commit and holding to travel through another test is what led Tom to run and finally be shot.