Vampires In The Knight Azzo English Literature Essay

The Knight Azzo appears to be a adult male of about 40 old ages of age, tall and highly thin. His characteristics are bold and make bolding, although his look is non in the least benevolent.

There is great disdain and irony in his cold grey eyes, and his glimpses are so piercing that no 1 can digest his stare for long. His skin color is even more curious than his eyes: it is neither pale nor xanthous, but instead grey, and it is rendered even more singular by the inkiness of his face fungus and short cropped hair.

He resides in Castle Klatka, situated in the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The Castle is reputed to hold been abandoned by human life but haunted for centuries, within the lands belonging to the Knight of Fahnenberg, the descendent of a baronial Austrian household. The rubric of the Fahnenberg household is inherited along with lands and ownerships both in Austria and abroad. Every clip the new knight of Fahnenberg visits his palace in Romania he meets the strange and alien Knight Azzo, who has been populating at that place and rolling the wild environing woods for hundred of old ages.

He dresses in knightly apparels, but old fashioned and neglected ; there are great musca volitanss of rust on the neckband and breast-plate of his armour. He carries a sticker and blade, as do all proper knights. Although Knight Azzo is unfastened to accepting supper invitations from his neighbors, the Knight of Fahnenberg and his household, he ne’er eats, claiming that his digestion is rather fresh to solid nutrients and that he lives wholly on liquids.

The Knight Azzo loves everything that is curious and uncommon ; he talks to wolves, and even those ferocious beats obey him and go like docile lambs in his presence. He claims that all things are likewise ; life and decease, this side of the grave and the other have resemblance, in his position, than we might otherwise conceive of. He amuses himself with hunting and has been known to pass many a moonless dark rolling in the dark wood and fen environing Castle Klatka. He loves to sit on a Equus caballus that ne’er tires in the pale moonshine over hills and dales, through woods and forests.

The Knight does non have or see anyone unless the Moon is reflecting brilliantly. With aliens he is in cold blood polite and tends to talk in monosyllabic words. But from his manner of speaking, one can observe a deep hate, a cold abhorrence of all world.

In one of the transitions of the book, Franziska awakens one forenoon picket and exhausted. She remembers her dream:

“ A kind of mist filled my room, and our if it stepped the knight Azzo. He gazed at me for a clip so allow himself easy down on one articulatio genus, imprinted a buss on my pharynx. Lond did his lips remainder at that place, and I felt a little hurting, which ever went on increasing until I could bear it no more. With all my strength I tried to coerce the vision from me, but succeeded merely after a long battle. She awoke merely after she gave a little shriek. Even after she awoke, she declared, “ it still appeared as if Azzo ‘s figure were still by my bed, so bit by bit it disappeared into the mist, and vanished at my door. ” Bertha now discovers Markss on Franziska ‘s pharynx. ” These lines give intimation on where this is taking.

An oculus informant history: Narrative of Peter Plogojowitz

Peter Plogojowitz had died in 1725. He had been buried harmonizing to proper Raetzian usage, a local spiritual rite of the clip. This history was witnessed by German Military functionaries stationed in the small town of Kisilova, in the Rahm District now Slavia. Plogojowitz was a provincial of this small town. It had been 10 hebdomads since his decease when it was revealed that during a period of a hebdomad, nine people both old and immature had besides died enduring a 24 hr unwellness. Each of them had declared publically, “ that while they were yet alive, but on their death-bed, the above mentioned Plogojowitz, who had died 10 hebdomads before, had come to them in their slumber, laid himself on them, and throttled them so that they would hold to give up the shade. ” Peoples were farther distressed when Plogojowitz ‘s married woman told everyone that her hubby had come to her and demanded his places. Unanimously it was decided to open the grave of Peter Plogojowitz to see if marks of vampirism were present i.e. organic structure good, the tegument, hair and face fungus. The storyteller goes on to state that he went to the small town of Kislova and viewed the exhumed organic structure of Peter Plogojowitz. He did non observe the olfactory property that is characteristic of the dead and the organic structure was fresh except the olfactory organ seemed fallen off. The hair, face fungus and nails had grown on him. He even saw fresh blood on Plogojowitz ‘s oral cavity which by common observation he had sucked from the people killed by him. All the indicants of a lamia were present. The people grew more indignant than hard-pressed and sharpened a interest at high velocity. They plunged it into his bosom and fresh blood spurted out from his oral cavity and his ears. As by the beliefs, the organic structure was burned.

The thing that strongly binds these two texts together is their beginning i.e. Beyond Twilight by Manuela Dunn Mascetti. Both of them associate to the Gothic creative activity that has surpassed popularity charts: Vampire antecedently known as Vampyre. The first is fictional and the 2nd is an oculus informant history. The former is blue, elegant, and glamourous with a elan of grotesque. It was foremost published in “ Odds and Ends ” in 1860 and is German in beginning. The latter is more terrific, the manner possibly was employed to drive the point place. These two histories are merely randomly selected illustrations of the literature available on lamias. Vampires are non a recent phenomena but due to the dusky compulsion that engulfed the reading universe. Vampires are on the chart once more. From Dracula to Edward, it has been rather a journey. Anne Rice and Stephen King have contributed vastly to the horror side of lamias but the love affair has come about due to the dusky phase. Making the read a true Gothic experience. Vampires at the minute are the high spots of the Gothic genre, easy replacing ‘gothic ‘ with ‘vampire literature. ‘ Before we venture into niceties of this, we need to larn more about lamias.

Specifying lamias is the first undertaking. Harmonizing to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word lamia can be traced back to the early 1700s. It calls lamia “ a cadaver supposed to go forth its grave at dark to imbibe the blood of the life. ” Since a long clip lamias were undead animals that escaped from their coffins. Many believed that this was caused by an evil spirit possessing the victim ‘s corpse. A lamia is a uncanny being of a malignant nature ( in the original unusual signifier of the belief an alive cadaver ) , supposed to seek nutriment and make injury by sucking the blood of kiping individuals ; a adult male or adult female abnormally endowed with similar wonts.

The word itself carries with it an alien aura. When you hear vampire you imagine the impossible. Most etymologists agree that “ lamia ” is from the Slavic “ vampir ” or “ vampyr ” and foremost appeared in the 1600s in the country of what is now Bulgaria and Yugoslavia on the Balkan Peninsula. One of the popular theories is that “ vampir ” came from “ upir ” , which foremost appeared in print in a 1047 CE East Slavic ( Old Russian ) manuscript in which a Novrogordian prince is referred to as “ Upir Lichy ” ( Wicked Vampire ) . The theory is widely accepted. The established fact is that it is a Slavonic word but the beginnings are a small murky still. Vampyre as a word was preponderantly used during 1700s and 1800s. It can besides merely be taken as on older spelling of the word. One should retrieve that there is no difference between a “ lamia ” and a “ vampyre. ” In Croatia, the lamia is called “ pijauica ” which means one who is ruddy faced with drink.

Folklores have been banging parts to the kin of lamia literature. They have been passed on from coevalss to coevalss like a familial disease. Vampires were given birth to by literature and ironically it is literature that provides the common adult male with ways to kill one. The beginnings of a lamia are non clear yet. One universal theory has non been adopted and propagated. But a head wanders and it is natural to believe about how the animals originated. Where did they come from? The inquiries are clear plenty but the replies are non crystal.

In older traditional knowledge lamias were people who died unnaturally and could n’t confront the fact that they were genuinely dead. The most common manner of going is of class being bitten by a lamia. From here on the going is really eccentric. To get down with some of the sensitivities ; being conceived on a holy twenty-four hours, being weaned excessively early, being born the 7th boy of the 7th boy or having a expletive in the uterus or at birth. Harmonizing to South Slavic beliefs, kids born or conceived between Christmas and Epiphany are more likely to go lamias. Bing born the illicit kid of parents who were themselves illicitly conceived can render one a lamia. In Romania, being born the 7th kid is adequate to do one a lamia if the old six kids were the same sex.

Folklores have besides specified some physical marks that indicated people were fated to go lamias. Harmonizing to Slavic folklore, kids with ruddy hair and bluish eyes would go lamias. Children who possessed any of the following traits upon birth were intended to go lamias:

Teeth.

An excess mammilla

Extra hair.

A tail.

A typical ruddy nevus

Two Black Marias.

Missing gristle in the olfactory organ

A split lower lip

A membrane, known as a greater omentum, covering the caput.

Harmonizing to Romanian beliefs, a pregnant adult female had to guard herself from specific things that could do her unborn kid a lamia. These things included:

Having a black cat cross her way.

Not eating adequate salt.

Bing looked upon by a lamia or enchantress.

Giving birth prematurely

Common beliefs in older traditional knowledge held that one could turn into a lamia upon decease include if the individual was cruel or evil being or a enchantress or were-wolf. Committing self-destruction, being murdered or being the liquidator were offenses every bit good and could turn a individual into a lamia.

Workss that could fate you to a hereafter of darkness are

Eating sheep killed by a wolf

Leading an immoral life. a individual who gives in to surpluss is susceptible for going a lamia.

For a priest stating mass while in the province of mortal wickedness.

Practicing black thaumaturgy or witchery.

For the Europeans after decease things to avoid into turning into a lamia include ; wind from the Russian Steppe blowing on the cadaver and being buried face up in the grave, the latter of the two believed in certain parts of Romania.

Other after decease causes of the going are ; holding a cat or other carnal leap or fly over a cadaver, holding a shadow autumn on a cadaver, no entombment or improper entombment rites, slaying that is non revenged, decease by submerging, deceasing in childbearing, and stealing the ropes used to bury the cadaver. Harmonizing to South Slavic beliefs, the psyche must stay on Earth for a specific period of clip before turning into a lamia. They besides believe if deceases happen between Christmas and Epiphany so the opportunities of that single turning into a lamia are really high.

One would be surprised to larn that lamias have non ever been opposed by the church or faiths. A reader in this century will happen it harder to believe. The church everlastingly playing the function of ‘good ‘ and devils, lamias, thaumaturgy and progressively anything against the beliefs of the church would be evil. In some of the earlier plants while church and lamias did non travel manus in manus, they were non in denial of their being. It can be read that people perpetrating self-destruction were at hazard of going lamias ; the church ‘s influence is apparent as self-destruction is an offense now lawfully but so merely in the eyes of the church. The church of class was the jurisprudence at that point of clip. As we venture further into the beginnings of lamias we encounter two theories with their roots in spiritual texts.

Judaic texts tell a narrative harmonizing to which Eve was non the first adult female created by God. Alternatively it was Lilith.A She was made for Adam. This narrative is non mentioned in the Bible or the Torah but it can be referenced in the narrative of Beowulf. Unhappy with her life, she left the Garden of Eden. Lilith went out to the Red Sea, where she made a deal with the angels who had been sent to bring her dorsum to Adam. She so made a trade with the angels who were sent to recover her. She was allowed to remain out on her ain, as a enchantress, female parent of all devils. She was allowed to kill babies. She subsequently paired up with Cain. Cain was the eldest boy of Adam and Eve. He was banished, with a grade, from the land of his parents because he killed his brother in a covetous fury. Cain wandered until he found Lilith by the Red Sea. She took him in and showed him the power of blood. Some say that lamias are the progeny of Lilith and Cain. Lilith killed human kids in revenge for the 1000s of her ain demon kids who were killed in the wars between good and evil. From Cain and Lilith came a host of devils and lamias in the obscure myths. Cain is mentioned in the Bible as holding a figure of legitimate kids, with an nameless woman/ married woman. Some of his kids are even extremely regarded, as they are listed with their innovations, such as the harp and metal working. But, past Gen. 4:26 there is no more reference of Cain ‘s kids or his line. Cain himself is referred to merely twice more, in the New Testament, as “ the paradigm of the wicked adult male. ” Lilith herself appears merely in Judaic Apocrypha texts — she is in neither the Torah nor the Bible. But both appear in the heroic poem verse form Beowulf, and with much more reference than he of all time receives in the Bible. Nora Roberts used the name Lilith for the queen of lamias in her Circle Trilogy every bit good. It could be a happenstance or an writer ‘s cleverly crafted move.

Judas Iscariot forms the 2nd narrative. Derived from equivocal myth, folklore holds that lamias originated with Judas Iscariot. Chiefly because he committed self-destruction which harmonizing to lamia folklore was a certain ground for the individual to come back as a lamia. Bible holds that Judas committed self-destruction because of his guilt. Judas was the informer of Christ. Because Judas had betrayed Christ to the Romans, he and his household were cursed. This narrative of Judas has been used to explicate other myths as good in the folklores. Vampires descended from Judas were normally identifiable by their ruddy hair. This can be taken to indicate to the beginning of the myth among the Greeks, as they believed ruddy hair to be a grade of vampirism. As Judas betrayed Christ for 30 pieces of Ag theoreticians have cited that as the ground for the lamia ‘s antipathy to silver. Ironically, the usage of Ag as a hindrance for lamias is more widespread than the Judas myth.

Every state that we studied about in 7th class geographics is alone in every manner. Each state has its ain culinary art. Their ain festivals and frock codification. The manner of life is different. Their civilizations differ every bit good. Christmas is a bigger jubilation in New York, USA than Lahore, Pakistan. Similarly, each part has its ain set of lamia beliefs and narratives. They have been molded harmonizing to texts, myths and narratives but they so exist.

Polynesia

Polynesia has “ tu ” or “ talamur ” in its part. This lamia eats balls from his victims. His favorite wont is to eat the flesh of a freshly dead individual and therefore absorb the concluding verve from the organic structure.

India

India is rich in its myths, superstitious notions and folklores. It merely could n’t be that it would n’t hold its ain version of the lamia. The most celebrated one which pertains to our subject of involvement if the narrative of “ Vikram and Baital ” . This narrative reached the text edition of school kids all over the state and it increased its popularity. In, Vikram and Baital the monster is called “ Baital- Pachisi ” and arises from an ancient Hindu beginning. The following extract from the narrative is a translated version and clearly points out that Baital was a lamia and non merely a slackly created monster. “ Blood it appeared to hold none, or at that place would hold been a distinct finding of that funny juice to the caput ; and as the Raja handled its tegument. It felt icy cold and clammy as might a serpent. The lone mark of life was the whisking of a ragged small tail much resembling a caprine animal ‘s. Judging from these marks the brave male monarch at one time determined the animal to be a Baital ( a lamia ) . ” Vampires in India can be dated back to this age. This is non the lone one, theA Bhoot orA PretA is the psyche of a adult male who died an early decease. It wanders around inspiring dead organic structures at dark, assailing the life like aA ghoul.A In northern India, there is BrahmarA?kAzhasa, a vampire-like animal with a caput encircled by bowels and a skull from which it drank blood. This indicates that he killed people to devour blood.A The Brahmaparusha of India is a lamia who drinks the blood of its victim and eats its encephalon before wearing the unfortunate individual ‘s bowels as some kind of ritualistic closet. It bears resemblance to the narrative of BrahmarA?kAzhas. Another lamia, Jigarkhwar eats the liver merely. Chedipe is another name that comes up during lamia folklore in India. Chedipe means “ cocotte ” , this vampiric adult female supposedly rode a tiger naked, and at dark she would come in a family into a deep slumber. Then she would come in indoors and so suck the blood from the adult male through his large toe.

PHILLIPINES

There are two chief vampire-like animals in the Philippines theA TagalogA mandurugoA ( “ blood-sucker ” ) and theA VisayanA manananggalA ( “ self-segmenter ” ) . The mandurugo is a assortment of theA aswang. Aswang of the Philippines is said to populate a absolutely normal life among worlds during the twenty-four hours, looking as a beautiful maiden. Aswang prefers to feed on kids. Mandurugo as indicated takes the signifier of an attractive miss by twenty-four hours. It develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like lingua by dark. The lingua is used to suck up blood from a kiping victim. TheA manananggalA is described as being an older, beautiful adult female capable of break uping its upper trunk in order to wing into the dark with immense bat-like wings and quarry on unwary, kiping pregnant adult females in their places. They use an extended lingua to suck foetuss off these pregnant adult females. They prefer to eat visceras ( specifically the bosom and the liver ) and the emotionlessness of ill people. Philippines has a few narratives about psychic lamias. The Babarlangs are hat they are known as. These existences merely run out away the victim ‘s life force or psychic energy, go forthing the victim physically and emotionally weak. The Babarlangs was really a apogee of tribal liquors sent out to pull energy from its victims.

Malaysia

In Malayan fables, lamias have been referred to as The Penanggalan. TheyA may be a beautiful old or immature adult female. The belief goes to state that they obtain their beauty through the active usage ofA black magicA or other unnatural agencies, and is most normally described in local folklores to be dark or diabolic in nature. She is able to detach her fanged caput which flies around in the dark looking for blood, typically from pregnant adult females. Malaysians would hangA jerujuA ( thistles ) around the doors and Windowss of houses, trusting theA PenanggalanA would non come in for fright of catching its bowels on the irritants.

Africa

Assorted parts of Africa have assorted folkloric narratives of existences with vampiric abilities. The Eastern Cape part has the impundulu, which can take the signifier of a big clawed bird and can wave boom and lightning. In West Africa, the Ashanti people tell narratives of the iron-toothed and tree-dwelling asanbosam. The lamia Adze can take the signifier of a fire beetle and it hunts kids. The Betsileo people of Madagascar speak of the ramanga, an criminal or life lamia who drinks the blood and eats the nail cuttings of Lords. Obayifo lamias of Africa are described as life lamias who out of the assorted types who became lost in the transition of clip. Obayifo are believed to come in the organic structures of animate beings to assail worlds. They can suck the life from the land and weaken harvests. It is said to go at buoy uping velocity.

China

Jiang ShiA literally means “ stiff cadaver ” , they are reanimated cadavers that hop about, killing life animals to absorb life kernel from their victims. Harmonizing to old folklores they are said to be created when a individual ‘s psyche fails to go forth the deceased ‘s organic structure. The most unusual characteristic of this lamia is its green-white furry tegument possibly derived fromA fungusA orA mouldA turning on cadavers. Purportedly a 15cm piece of wood nailed to the breadth of the underside of the door can halt a Jiang Shi from come ining a family. The Jiang Shi goes by many different names, such as Chiang Shi, Kang Shi and Geungsi.

HUNGARY

In Hungary, the belief in lamias has existed since the Middle Age, and blood-thirsty animals are mentioned all over the Inquisition ‘s notes. In the Twelve century, Magyar interrogators interrogated a heathen priest-doctor during a test in the metropolis of Sarospatak. He claimed the being of a devil which was called “ izcacus ” which means blood drinker. The Magyar experts estimate that this word ‘s beginning dates back to the period before the Hungarians geting Europe in 896. The word has its roots in the ancient Turkish linguistic communication, with which the Hungarians made contact during the late VIII century in the parts between Asia and Europe.

Romania

No route in the universe of lamias non hold a bend in Romania. Vampire literature has its root in Romania. We can look at Bram Stoker ‘s Dracula or at historical histories Of Vlad The Impaler, the consequence would be the same: Romania. It has been the background for the drab, Gothic and its animal i.e. lamias. Due to Romania being surrounded by Slavic states on closer surveies similarities can be found. Rumanian lamias were known as Moroi. Moroi is a Slavic word which means “ incubuss ” . Strigoi is another categorization and it is farther classified as either life or dead. Live strigoi were described as life enchantresss with two Black Marias or psyches, sometimes both. Strigoi were said to hold the ability to direct out their psyches at dark to run into with other strigoi and devour the blood of farm animal and neighbors. Live strigoi became revenants after their decease, but there were besides many other ways of a individual going a lamia. Dead strigoi were described as revived cadavers that besides sucked blood and attacked their living household. Rumanian lamias were said to seize with teeth their victims over the bosom or between the eyes, and sudden deceases could bespeak the presence of a lamia. Graves were frequently opened five or seven old ages after entombment and the cadaver checked for vampirism. Although Romania saw its first published transcript every bit recent as 1990, they have preserved the tradition good. The touristry industry for one is decidedly developing more.

Ireland

Ireland the state of turn overing Highlandss and Giant ‘s Causeway is non merely celebrated for those. Dearg Du is Ireland ‘s female lamia. Dearg-dueA translates asA ruddy blood chump. A Gaelic fable tells all that a celebrated female called Dearg-due is buried following to Strongbow ‘s Tree in Waterford. It is believed that Dearg- Du frequently appears in the signifier of a enchantress.

There are excessively many that deserve a reference. Every state has its ain fables and intriguing folklores to portion. Myths and folk tales from all points of the Earth speak of existences that feed on the life. From the Nipponese Kasha to the Tlaciques of the Mexican Nahautl Indians and the Arabic Algul they exist. Germany has a lower limit of three distinguishable types of lamia including the Alp, the Neuntoter, and the Doppelslauger of Germany ‘s northern parts. These sinister animals have permeated virtually every civilization and clip period, dating as far back as the Ekimmu of ancient Babylon and Assyria.

The Italian Stregoni Benefici, although a lamia itself, is believed to be an ally against evil lamias. He is predominately good-natured and sort. A definite alteration in the bloodstained universe of lamia literature. The Brazilian Jaracacas provender on the chests of nursing adult females and seemingly sp does the Lamia of Libya who consumes the full organic structure of its victims. The Bruxsa is a lamia of Portuguese beginning and is believed to be capable of bearing the twenty-four hours. Bruxsa finds an ally in The Polish Upier who besides reportedly rises at noon and returns to rest at midnight.

Vampirism is in entirety a myth. There are no two ways about it. Myth gave birth to the full impression with folklores and legends adding to it. Harmonizing to Roland Barthes, Myth is type of address. Myth is a system of communicating, that it is a message. All myths are non likewise. Even myths about lamias are non consistent and have evolved through clip ; many have been discarded every bit good. Everything is non expressed at the same clip: some objects become the quarry of fabulous address for a piece, so they disappear, others take their topographic point and achieve the position of myth. Vampirism falls in the latter class. It is a human history which converts world into address, and it entirely regulations the life and decease of fabulous linguistic communication. Every history of vampirism has a human angle to it, the narrative can non be told without it. Mythology can merely hold an historical foundation, for myth is a type of address chosen by history. Vampires are centuries old and possibly older. The old constitution has ensured its length of service along with the parts of the writers. Address of this sort is a message. It is hence by no agencies confined to unwritten address. It can dwell of manners of composing or of representations ; non merely written discourse, but besides picture taking, film, coverage, athletics, shows, promotion, all these can function as a support to fabulous address. Mythology is a portion of political orientation in every bit much as it is an historical scientific discipline: it surveies ideas-in-form. Myth has a dual map: It points out and it notifies, it makes us understand something and it imposes it on us. To maintain lamias specifically in this context, myth has made us cognizant of their being now has imposed that image in our heads. Myth transforms history into nature. We now understand why, in the eyes of the myth consumer, the connotation can stay manifest without nevertheless looking to hold an involvement in the affair: what causes fabulous address to be uttered is absolutely expressed, but it is instantly frozen into something natural ; it is non read as a motivation but as a ground. It becomes an intrinsic portion of the normal. Myth is speech justified in surplus. In the earlier chapter, Gothic had been called inordinate. Both indulge in the extravagancy of linguistic communication. A voluntary credence of myth can in fact define the whole of our traditional literature. Harmonizing to our norms, this Literature is an undoubted fabulous system: there is a signifier or authorship ; there is a construct of literature and there is a literary discourse. All three are adhered by in doing a myth successful and a portion of literarture.

Candyman is a celebrated Gothic film which Fred Botting spoke approximately at length. The character says “ I am myth, immortal, vampirically destined ‘to unrecorded in other peoples ‘ dreams but non to be ‘ . His homicidal reappearance in the universe aims to guarantee the saving of his myth.

Increasing plants of fiction have given this faceless animal non merely many celebrated faces to place with but plentifulness of features to look credible. I received, are that s/he provenders on human life force, does non age, is immortal, and drinks human blood. This gives more weight to the suggested cover definition in which the lamia is a being who must feed on the verve of worlds in order to last, with the added qualifiers that, if the demand is met, the lamia is rendered unaging and durable. The term “ durable ” is presently preferred over “ immortal ” because immortality implies that one can non discontinue to be, yet there are a figure of ways that lamias can be destroyed. Of medium importance are that the lamia is a life cadaver, is telepathic, is harmed by the Sun, provenders on human passions, and has Fangs. Of small importance is that s/he casts no contemplation, loves darkness, has a pale skin color, slumbers in a casket, is repelled by a cross, is prone to obsessional love, and wears a black ness.

Literature is rich in its signifier, its form and its parts. ‘Vampire ‘ owes its being to the literary plants that introduced the myth to multitudes and popularized them with their art and superior accomplishments. Be it Dracula which is more than 100 old ages old or P.C Cast ‘s and Kirstin Cast ‘s House of Night Novels. They have founded some beliefs, conformed to many and contradicted excessively. Many constructs associated with lamias such as lamias holding no contemplation in a mirror or eschewing garlic are believe to hold been portion of the myth for centuries. Alternatively, many of them originated in 1897 with the publication of Bram Stoker ‘s Dracula. Dracula is the underlying foundation of all the ulterior plants of lamia. Therefore, one might detect the frequent mentions to the book while discoursing the assorted myths that have originated due to literature.

Some of the popular and normally believed 1s are:

Vampires Can Turn Into Bats

Though lamias and chiropterans were frequently associated with one another in earlier narratives, it was non until Bram Stoker ‘s fresh Dracula that vampires really transformed themselves into chiropterans. In the narrative, Dracula regulations chiropterans. He frequently assumes bat-like features and his presence at dark is frequently signified by a chiropteran vibrating outside a possible victim ‘s window. “ one of those large chiropterans that they call lamias had got at her in the dark, and what with his gorge and the vena left unfastened, there was n’t plenty blood left in her to stand up ” Quincy tells Jack Seward in he book.

Vampires Have No Reflection in Mirrors

Soon after his reaching in Transylvania, guest Jonathan Harker noticed that Dracula ‘s palace was devoid of mirrors. Harker was spooked when Dracula came up behind him and he noticed that his host ‘s contemplation did non look in his shave mirror. Count Dracula, kicking that mirrors were objects of human amour propre, shattered the mirror.

The construct of the lamia non being able to see his contemplation does non look in earlier lamia traditional knowledge, but folklore about mirrors is seen as uncovering the psyche.

Vampires Can non Bear Contact With the Crucifix

The rood besides entered lamia traditional knowledge through Bram Stoker ‘s Dracula as a powerful tool against lamias. This myth is owed to the Catholic Church. It can be read as an illustration of function drama, the church being good and lamias being evil. Therefore, they stay off from evil as good. It was non specifically mentioned in historic lamia narratives as being harmful to lamias, though it was long used as a sacred object for guarding off immorality in general. Following Dracula, the rood became a criterion of lamia fiction. In Dracula, the rood did non fire the flesh of the lamia, but being near one did do him to lose his supernatural strength. A

“ When the Count saw my face, his eyes blazed with a kind of demonaic rage, and he all of a sudden made a grab at my pharynx. I drew off, and his manus touched the twine of beads which held the rood. It made an instant alteration in him, for the rage passed so rapidly that I could barely believe that it was of all time at that place. ”

In Nora Roberts, Circle Trilogy, the lamia Cian gets seared by the roods provided to the group by the goddess.

Vampires Ca n’t Stand Garlic

The lamia ‘s antipathy to Allium sativum besides has its roots in Stoker ‘s Dracula. Van Helsing treated Lucy with garlic by conveying Garlands of it into her room, which kept the lamia from come ining. He does the same subsequently for Mina Harker. But in the True Blood series, garlic is non considered a arm. The logic besides applies to the series Anita Blake, Vampire Hunter where she is armed with many things but non with Allium sativum.

Vampires Sleep in Coffins

Early on literary lamias did non kip in caskets. In the novel, Dracula did non hold to kip in a casket, but he did hold to kip in his native dirt, so he transported crates of it wherever he traveled. The casket was derived specifically from the 1931 Dracula film in which lamia for the first clip rose out of their caskets. After that, boxes of Earth in lamia traditional knowledge were bit by bit were replaced by caskets. But the tendency has changed. In John Polidori ‘s, Vampyre there is no reference of caskets. In Varney, The Vampyre, he specifically mentions that he likes his beds clean and aired.

Vampires Merely Come Out at Night ; Sunlight is Harmful

As nocturnal animals, lamias have an antipathy to sunlight. In Dracula, Jonathan Harker noted in his journal, “ I have non yet seen the Count in the daytime. Can it be that he sleeps when others wake that he may be awake whilst they sleep! ” Dracula ‘s power was strongest at dark. In the daylight had diminished powers, but he was non destroyed or burned by sunshine. Sunlight does non destruct them. From Dracula ‘s clip the literary universe has come a long manner. Varney goes out during the twenty-four hours. Lord Ruthven from Polidori ‘s fresh meets society during the twenty-four hours. Countless novels portray their lamias as regular existences.

Wooden Stake and Decapitation

The method of killing a lamia by transfixing them on a interest and cutting off the caput was portion of European folklore long earlier Dracula. The thought of driving a wooden interest through the bosom to kill a lamia comes from an ancient pattern that predates the usage of caskets when cadavers of suspected lamias were staked to the land to maintain them from rolling. The justification of this determination was if they did non wander they would non catch quarry. In literature, Carmilla was killed by a wooden interest in the novelette of the same name by Sheridan Le Fanu. Anita Blake, the Vampire Hunter does non travel contending without a interest. In the True Blood series bets are stated as Fatal to a lamia ‘s being. In Nora Roberts Circle Trilogy, this fact is strengthened when Cian the lamia declares bets as an effectual tool of killing lamias.

Decapitation is the surest agencies of killing a lamia and guaranting they wo n’t return. Lucy was destroyed by a interest through the bosom and beheading after Van Helsing convinced her fiance that she had joined the undead. This is echoed by Cian in the Circle Trilogy as a deathly method. It is besides used by Anita Blake, lamia huntsman to acquire rid of them.

Vampires reside in palaces or drab looking sign of the zodiacs.

This was true in Dracula. His palace was a figure of fright and apprehension in the small town. This was depicted in the book. But this was non the instance in other literary plants. Lord Ruthven ‘s diggingss were non specified in the book. Cian had a penthouse in New York, USA. A large measure off from a palace.

Vampires need invitations to step foot inside a topographic point.

This was another trait of lamias that can be attributed to Dracula. Varney and Lord Ruthven both entered harmonizing to their will. While Dracula cunningly commanded Jack Seward ‘s patient to ask for him in so he could feed on Mina Harker every bit good. This scheme is non all together absent from other plants of literature. The True Blood series shows a deep sitting belief in lamias entry into the house without an invitation being wholly impossible. Anita Blake falls into the same school as True Blood sing this property.

Literature has ever been a tool of cognition. In the instance of lamia literature, a quotation mark by Andre Maurois seems disposed. “ In literature as in love we are astounded by what is chosen by others. ” Gothic is one such pick and contracting it to Vampires was one such determination. It shocks us and at times deceives us but we don non discontinue on it as the belief that the myth has planted seeds for remains in the head forever.

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